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the existing representations of Christ, the are generally from 1000 to 1200 boys and most ancient is in a basso-relievo of mar- girls at this establishment, receiving inble, on a sarcophagus, of the 22 or 3d struction, board and clothing. The great century, in the Vatican. Christ is there hall at Christ's hospital is remarkable for exhibited as a young man without beard, some very fine pictures. with Roman features, flowing and slight- Christian II, king of Denmark, born ly curled hair, wearing a Roman toga, and at Copenhagen, 1481, was educated with seated upon a curule chair. In the same little care, While yet a youth, his violent place, there is another Christ, of the 4th character led him into great extravacentury, with an oval face, Oriental fea- gances. King John, his father, punished tures, parted hair, and a short, straight him severely, but in vain. In 1507, he beard. This representation was the model was called to Bergen, to suppress some which the Byzantine and Italian painters seditious movements, where he conceived followed until the time of Michael Angelo a violent passion for a young Dutchwoman, and Raphael. Since the 16th century, named Dyveke, whose mother kept an the Italian school has generally taken the inn. Dyveke became the mistress of heads of Jupiter and Apollo as the models Christian, who allowed her, and particufor the pictures of Christ. Different na- larly her mother, an unlimited influence tions have given his image their own over him. He was viceroy in Norway, characteristic features. The head of until the declining health of his father Christ has become the highest point of recalled him to Copenhagen. After he the art of painting among Christian na- had ascended the throne, he married, in tions; and men of the greatest genius 1515, Isabella, sister of Charles V. He have labored to imbody their conceptions afterwards remonstrated with Henry VIII of his divinity, the union of the different of England, on account of the piracies virtues of his character, his meekness and committed by the English ships, renewed firmness, and the full perfection of his the treaties which had been made with Godlike nature. The representations of the grand-duke of Moscow, and endeavthe Savior by Titian, Leonardo da Vinci, ored to deprive the Hanse towns of their Raphael, &c., are among the sublimest commerce. The hopes which this conproductions of modern art. Christ's head duct excited among his subjects were is, for the modern artist, what the head soon annihilated by the horrible scenes of Jupiter or Apollo was for the ancient, caused by the death of Dyveke. The rewith this difference, however, that it has lations of Torbern Oxe, governor of the become more especially the ideal of the castle of Copenhagen, were accused of painter, whilst the others principally fur- having poisoned her. Oxe acknowledged nished subjects for the genius of the a former passion for her, and the king sculptor ; and this circumstance shows ordered him to be beheaded. Several the difference in the character of the two other executions spread horror through the periods of art, which must, of course, be whole kingdom. "Christian hated the nomost apparent in their highest productions. bility, and protected the commons and the Some of the most elevated expressions of peasantry against their oppressions. In the countenance of the Savior, e. g. the 1516, a papal legate arrived in the North, glowing love of his divine soul, cannot be in order to dispose of indulgences. Chriswell represented by the marble. There tian received him, hoping that he might exist, however, excellent statues of Christ. be useful to him in Sweden, in obtaining The two best of modern times are that the crown, at which he was then aiming. of Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, and that The Swedes were divided into several of Dannecker at Stuttgart.

parties. Gustavus Trolle, archbishop of Christ-CHURCH COLLEGE. (See Or- Upsal, a sworn enemy of Stenon Sture, ford.)

administrator of the kingdom, had secretly Christ's Hospital (generally known united himself with Christian; but the by the name of Blue coat school, the title Swedish states protected Sture, dismissed having reference to the costume of the Trolle, and caused his castle to be demolchildren educated there); a school in ished. The nuncio, who arrived during London, founded by Edward VI, for sup- these events in Sweden, was gained over porting poor orphans. At the same time by Sture, discovered to him the plans of St. Bartholomew's hospital was founded, Christian, and justified the Swedes to for the wounded and diseased, and Bride- the pope against the charges of Trolle. well was assigned as a place of confine- Christian finally arrived at Stockholm in ment for vagabonds. Charles II connect- 1518, for the sake of an interview with ed a mathematical school with it. There the administrator, receiving, for his own

security, six hostages from the first fami- obtained possession of it, and formed from lies. When these hostages, among whom it his list of proscriptions. The accused was Gustavus Vasa, arrived at the Danish were declared guilty, and 94 victims were fleet, the faithless monarch treated them executed in the presence of the king. as prisoners, and returned to Denmark. These bloody scenes continued in the He appeared in Sweden, in 1520, in the capital as well as in the provinces. Chrismiddle of winter, at the head of an army. tian justified himself by the public declaThe Swedes were beaten at Bogesund, ration, that they were necessary for the Jan. 19, and Sture was mortally wound- tranquillity of the kingdom. He then reed. The Danes pursued their advantage. turned to Denmark. His way was marked Trolle presided over the assembly of the with blood: he garrisoned all the cities, states-general at Upsal, and proposed to and committed the same cruelties in Denthem to acknowledge Christian for their inark. He soon after went to the Netherking. Although many were disinclined lands, to request the assistance of Charles to the union, they were, nevertheless, V against Frederic, duke of Holstein, his obliged to submit to it. A general am- uncle, and against the inhabitants of Lünesty was proclaimed, and all hastened to beck, who were always ready to assist the profit by it. The capital, to which the Swedes. On his return to Copenhagen, widow of the administrator had repaired, he found all Sweden in arms. Slagoffered some resistance. As soon as the hoek's tyranny had excited a general resea was open, Christian appeared with volt. Christian gave him the archbishhis fleet before Stockholm, which did not opric of Lund, but soon after caused him surrender to him. The summer was to be burnt alive, in order to appease the passing away; his provisions were nearly pope, who had sent a legate to Denmark, exhausted ; his troops murmured. At last, to examine into the murder of the bishops he resolved to send Swedish messengers at Stockholm. In order to reconcile the to the inhabitants. His promises, aided pope, he altered every thing in the laws by famine, effected what his arms had not which favored Lutheranism, for which he been able to accomplish. The gates were had previously shown much inclination. opened to him. He promised to maintain Meanwhile Gustavus Vasa escaped from the liberty of Sweden, and to forget the prison, and raised his standard against the past. He arrived at Stockholm near the Danes. The states-general, assembled at end of October, demanded from the bish- Wadstena, declared that Christian had ops and senators an act acknowledging forfeited the Swedish crown. The garrihim as their hereditary king, and caused son of Stockholm revolted on account of himself to be crowned, two days after, the want of pay. Christian, exasperated by Trolle. He bestowed the honor of by these events, ordered the Danish govknighthood only on foreigners, and de- ernors to execute all the rebels. This clared that he would confer this dignity measure hastened his ruin. Norby still on no Swedish subject, because he had held Stockholm, Calmar and Abo, three conquered the country by force of arms. places which were considered as the keys In spite of the general consternation, he of the kingdom; but he was soon harassed ordered public rejoicings, during which by the inhabitants of Lübeck, who even he knew how to gain the favor of the made an attack upon the coasts of Denmultitude. He determined to strengthen mark. Christian, to revenge himself, the royal authority in Sweden, and to ef- commenced negotiations with the duke fect his purpose by the annihilation of the of Holstein, but they were soon interruptfirst families. His advisers differed only ed by his own violence. Meanwhile, he as to the means. Finally, Slaghoek, the published two codes restricting the priviking's confessor, reminded him of the ex- leges of the clergy, and extending the communication of the enemies of Trolle, rights of the peasantry. They contained and added, that, though, as a prince, he many wise laws, which are still in force, might forget the past, he ought to extir- but mixed with others which caused genpate the heretics, in obedience to the eral discontent. The nation complained commands of the

pope. Accordingly, of the debasement of the currency, and Trolle demanded the punishment of the the insupportable burthen of the taxes. heretics; the king appointed commission. The bishops and senators of Jutland, perers before whom the accused appeared. ceiving the disposition of the people, Christina, the widow of the administrator, formed the plan of revolting against the was among them. To vindicate her hus- king About the end of 1522, they reband's memory, she produced the decree nounced their allegiance, declared Chrisof the senate passed in 1517. Christian tian to have forfeited his rights, and offered the crown to Frederic, duke of Holstein. palatine; and Christina, who married The king, who suspected their designs, Francis Sforza, duke of Milan, and, after summoned the nobility of Jutland to Cal- his death, Francis, duke of Lorraine. It lundborg, in Zealand ; and, as none obeyed ought not to be forgotten, that Christian's the call, he summoned them anew in cruelty was, in some degree, owing to the 1523, to Aarhuus, in Jutland, whither he insolence of the nobility, whose arrorepaired himself. His arrival compelled gance he was determined to repress. the conspirators to hasten the execution Christian VII, king of Denmark, born of their plans. They assembled in Vi- 1749, son of Frederic V and Louisa of borg, and adopted two acts; by one of England, succeeded his father, Jan. 13, which they deposed the king, and by the 1766. In the same year, he married other invited Frederic to take possession Caroline Matilda (q. v.), sister of George of the throne. A civil war was on the III of England. During his travels, in point of breaking out, when Christian 1767—69, through Germany, Holland, abandoned his kingdom. In April, 1523, England and France, he visited the most he left Denmark, and took the queen, his distinguished men of learning, the acadechildren, his treasures, and the archives of mies and literary societies, was made the kingdom, on board the fleet. A storm doctor of laws in Cambridge, and everydispersed his ships, threw him upon the where maintained the character of an coast of Norway, and, after the greatest affable and enlightened prince. At first, dangers, he reached Veere, in Zealand. the count J. H. G. de Bernstorff, who had Charles V contented himself with writing enjoyed the entire confidence of Frederic to forbid Frederic, the nobility of Jutland, V, continued to preside over the affairs and the city of Lübeck, to act against of the state. But, in 1770, Struensee Christian. The latter had, meanwhile, (q. v.), the king's physician, who had raised an army and equipped a fleet, and gained an unlimited influence over him, landed at Opslo, in Norway, in 1531. and had also insinuated himself into the But his troops suffered new losses. Being favor of the imprudent young queen, obattacked in his camp by the Danish and tained this post. The reforms undertaken Hanseatic fleet, he shut himself up in the by this minister excited the hatred of the city, and his vessels became a prey to the nobility and the discontent of the military. flames. Deprived of all resources, he The ambitious queen dowager (Julia Maproposed a treaty to the Danish generals, ria of Brunswick, step-mother of Chriswho finally granted him a safe conduct, tian) had in vain endeavored to disunite permitting him to repair, in the Danish Christian and bis wife, in order to obtain feet, to Copenhagen, for the purpose of the direction of affairs. She now formed a personal interview with Frederic. In a connexion with some malcontents, and July, 1532, he arrived before Copenhagen. succeeded, Jan. 16, 1772, in conjunction But Frederic rejected the treaty, and the with them and her son, the hereditary senate ordered the imprisonment of Chris- prince Frederic (Christian's step-brother), tian. He was accordingly conveyed to in obtaining from the king, atter a long the castle of Sonderburg, in the island of resistance, an order for the imprisonment Alsen. He there passed 12 years in the of his queen and Struensee, on pretence society, at first, of a dwarf, and afterwards that they were conspiring the deposition of an old invalid, in a tower, the door of of the king. From that time the guidance which was walled up. A stone table is of affairs was in the hands of Julia and still shown, around the edge of which is of her son Frederic. The king, whom a line worn by the hand of Christian, disease had deprived of his reason, reigned whose sole exercise consisted in walking only nominally. In 1784, the present king round it, with his hand resting on the sur- was placed, as regent, at the head of the face. He was totally abandoned. When government. (See Frederic VI.) Before Christian III ascended the throne, in 1543, the taking of the capital by the English, his condition was improved, by virtue of in 1807, Christian VII had been carried a treaty with Charles V. He lived, from to Rendsburg, in Holstein, where he died, 1546, at Callundborg, with a fixed in- March 13, 1808. The queen, Caroline come, and died at this place, Jan. 24, Matilda, after having been conducted to 1559. His wife, Christina, a professor of the castle of Cronborg, had been subjected Lutheranism, faithfully shared his mis- to an examination as to her connexion fortunes until her death, in 1526. He had with Struensee. She afterwards repaired three children, John, who died at Ratis- to Celle, where she died in 1775. Chris bon in 1532, at the age of 13 years; Dor- tian had but two children, the present othea, who married Frederic, the elector king, Frederic VI, and the princess Augusta, married to the late duke of Hol- ing the principle that constitutes the bastein-Augustenburg. (For an account of sis of the religion of Christ, which, in Struensee's fate, see the Memoires de M. other respects, has been unanimously de Falckenskiold, major-general of the adopted. (See the articles Religion, Revking of Denmark, published by Secretan, elation, Rationalism, and SupernaturalParis, 1826.)

ism.) This principle appears, by its efCHRISTIANIA ; capital of the kingdom fect upon the numerous nations, differing of Norway, seat of government, and the so greatly in intellectual character and place where the storthing (Norwegian cultivation, which received Christianity parliament) meet; lon. 10° 49 E.; lat. 59° at first, to have been a universal truth, 53' 46' N.' It contains 1500 houses, and adapted to the whole human race, and of 11,040 inhabitants, is situated in the dio- a divine, all-uniting power. The Jews cese of Christiania, or Aggerhuus, on the believed in a living God, the Creator of northern end of the bay of Christians- all things, and, so far, had just views of fiord, in a district where gardening is the source of religion. The Greeks, bemuch pursued. Besides the suburbs, it sides developing the principle of the contains Christiania Proper, built by king beautiful in their works of art, had laid Christian IV, in 1624, on a regular plan, the foundations of valuable sciences apthe Old City, or Opslo, and the citadel, plicable to the business of life. The RoAggerhuus, which was demolished in mans had established the principles of 1815. Among the principal buildings law and political administration, and are the royal palace, the new council- proved their value by experience. These house, and the exchange. Since 1811, a scattered elements of moral and intellectuniversity (Fredericia) has been establish- ual cultivation, insufficient, in their disued here, with a philological seminary, a nited state, to bring about the true happibotanical garden, an observatory, a libra- ness and moral perfection of man, in his ry, collections of various kinds, 18 pro- social and individual capacity, were refinfessors, and 200 students. Christiania also ed, perfected and combined by Christiancontains a military school, a bank, a com- ity, through the law of a pure benevomercial institute, an alum factory, &c. lence, the highest aim of which is that of It has much trade, chiefly in lumber and rendering men good and happy, like God, iron. Its harbor is excellent. The value and which finds, in the idea of a kingdom of the lumber annually exported is esti- of heaven upon earth, announced and remated at 810,000 guilders. În the vicinity alized by Christ, all the means of executare 136 sawing-mills, which furnish, an- ing its design. His religion supplied what nually, 20 millions of planks.

was wanting to these nations--a religious CHRISTIANITY; the religion instituted character to the science of Greece, moral by Jesus Christ. Christianity, as it now elevation to the legislative spirit of Rome, exists in our minds, has received, from the liberty and light to the devotion of the influence of the priesthood, of national Jews-and, by inculcating the precept of character, of the spirit of the time, and universal love of mankind, raised the narthe thousand ways in which it has been row spirit of patriotism to the extended brought into contact with politics and feeling of general philanthropy. Thus science, a quantity of impure additions, the endeavors of ancient times after morwhich we should first separate, in order to al perfection were directed and concenunderstand what it is in reality. There trated by Christianity, which supplied, at could be no better means of attaining a the same time, a motive for diffusing correct understanding of it, than to inves- more widely that light and those advantigate, historically, the religious principles tages which mystery and the spirit of which Jesus himself professed, exhibited castes had formerly withheld from the in his life, and labored to introduce into multitude. It conveyed the highest ideas, the world, if the investigator could avoid the most important truths and principles, giving the coloring of his own views to the purest laws of moral life, to all ranks ; his explanation of the records of the ori- it proved the possibility of perfect virtue, gin of Christianity. But the most honest through the example of its Founder; it inquirers have not entirely succeeded in laid the foundation for the peace of the 80 doing. Even the Christian theologians world, through the doctrine of the reconof the present age—less divided, in some ciliation of men with God and with each countries, for instance, in Germany, by other; and, directing their minds and the spirit of creeds and sects, than by the hearts towards Jesus, the Author and difference of scientific methods and phi- Finisher of their faith, the crucified, arislosophical speculations dispute respect- en and glorified Mediator between heaven and earth, it taught them to discern the tions), to preserve the prerogatives at first benevolent connexion of the future life granted them out of love and gratitude, with the present. The history of Jesus, but afterwards much extended by themand the preparations of God for his mis- selves, and to make themselves, gradually, sion, afforded the materials from which masters of the church. (See Bishops, Christians formed their conceptions of the Patriarchs, Popes, Hierarchy.) Their character and tendency of their religion. views were promoted by the favor of the The first community of the followers of emperors (see Theodosius the Great) (with Jesus was formed at Jerusalem, soon after slight interruptions in the reign of Julian the death of their Master. Another, at and some of his successors), by the inAntioch, in Syria, first assumed (about creased splendor and various ceremonials 65) the name of Christians, which had of divine worship (see Mass, Saints, Reloriginally been given to them by their ad- ics, Iconoclasts), by the decline of classical versaries, as a term of reproach; and the learning, the increasing superstition resulttravels of the apostles spread Christian- ing from this increase of ignorance, and by ity through the provinces of the Roman the establishment of convents and monks. empire. Palestine, Syria, Natolia, Greece, (See Convents.) In this form, appealing the islands of the Mediterranean, Italy, to the senses more than to the understandand the northern coast of Africa, as early ing, Christianity, which had been introas the 1st century, contained societies of duced among the Goths in the 4th centuChristians. Their ecclesiastical discipline ry, was spread among the other Teutonic was simple, and conformable to their nations in the west and north of Europe, humble condition, and they continued to and subjected to its power, during the 7th acquire strength amidst all kinds of op- and 8th centuries, the rude warriors who pressions. (See Persecutions.) At the founded new kingdoms on the ruins of end of the 2d century, Christians were to the Western Empire, while it was losing be found in all the provinces, and, at the ground, in Asia and Africa, before the enend of the 3d century, almost one half of croachments of the Saracens, by whose the inhabitants of the Roman empire, and rigorous measures hundreds of thousands of several neighboring countries, professed of Christians were converted to Mohamthis belief. The endeavor to preserve a medanism, the heretical sects which had unity of faith (see Orthodory) and of been disowned by the orthodox church church discipline, caused numberless dis- (see Jacobites, Copts, Armenians, Maronputes among those of different opinions ites, Nestorians) being almost the only (see Heretics and Sects), and led to the Christians who maintained themselves in establishment of an ecclesiastical tyranny, the East. During this progress of Monotwithstanding the oppressions which hammedanism, which, in Europe, extendthe first Christians had experienced from ed only to Spain and Sicily, the Roman a similar institution—the Jewish priest- popes (see Popes and Gregory VII), who hood. At the beginning of the 4th cen- were advancing systematically to ecclesitury, when the Christians obtained tolera- astical superiority in the west of Europe, tion by means of Constantine the Great, gained more in the north, and, soon after, and, soon after, the superiority in the Ro- in the east of this quarter of the world, by man empire, the bishops exercised the the conversion of the Sclavonic and Scanpower of arbiters of faith, in the first gen- dinavian nations (from the 10th to the eral council (see Nice), 325, by instituting 12th century), than they had lost in other a creed binding on all Christians. Upon regions. For the Mohammedans had this foundation, the later councils (q. v.), chiefly overrun the territory of the Eastassisted by those writers who are honored ern church (see Greek Church), which by the church as its fathers and teachers had been, since the 5th century, no longer (see Fathers of the Church, Jerome, Am- one with the Western (Latin) church, and brose, Augustine, &c.), erected the edifice had, by degrees, become entirely separate of the orthodox system; while the superi- from it. In the 10th century, it received or portion of the ecclesiastics, who were some new adherents, by the conversion of now transformed into priests, and elevated the Russians, who are now its most powabove the laity as a privileged, sacred or- erful support

. But the crusaders, who der (see Clergy and Priests), were ena- were led, partly by religious enthusiasm, bled, partly by their increasing authority partly by the desire of conquest and adin matters of church discipline, partly by ventures (1096—1150), to attempt the rethe belief, which they had encouraged, covery of the holy sepulchre, gained the that certain traditions from the apostles new kingdom of Jerusalem, not for the were inherited by them only (see Tradi- Greek emperor, but for themselves and

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