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prince Rupert, he was present at the bat- which was equal to the sum of the weights ile of Marston-moor, after which he left of the two gases. Lavoisier confirmed the kingdom. · He returned, after an ab- this conclusion in later times. The same sence of 18 years, and was rewarded for spirit of accuracy in his experiments led his services and sufferings with the digni- Cavendish to another discovery, which ty of duke. He died in 1676.

had escaped Priestley. The latter had CAVENDISH, William, first duke of Dev- observed that a quantity of atmospheric onshire, was the son of William, third air, confined in a tube, through which the earl of Devonshire. He was born in 1640, electric spark was transmitted, lost in and instructed with great care in classical volume, and formed an acid, which redliterature. On various occasions, he dis- dened the tincture of litmus; but he cartinguished bimself by his spirit and valor, ried this experiment no farther. Cavenand, in 1677, began that opposition to the dish repeated the experiment, by confinarbitrary measures of the ministers of ing in the tube a solution of pure potash, Charles II, which caused him to be re- which absorbed the acid, and thus proved garded as one of the most determined it to be nitric acid. The analysis of the friends of the liberties of his country. In- air, which remained in the tube after the timately connected with lord Russel, he experiment, showed that the weight of the joined him in his efforts for the security oxygen and azote, which had disappeared, of free government and the Protestant re- was equal to the weight of the acid thus ligion. On the trial of lord Russel, he ap- formed. He easily determined the pro peared as a witness in his favor, and of- portion of the azote to the oxygen, which fered to assist him in escaping, after he was 2:1. It was found, also, that, when had been sentenced to death, by changing both gases, sufficiently pure, were mixed clothes with him in prison. In 1684, in that proportion, and exposed to the having succeeded to his father's title, and electric spark, the mixture disappeared being regarded as one of the most formid- entirely, by which his discovery was comable opponents of the arbitrary designs of pletely confirmed. Cavendish distinguishking James II, attempts were made to in- ed himself no less in natural philosophy, timidate him, but without success. Hav- by the accuracy of his experiments. He ing been insulted by a minion of the king, possessed, also, a profound knowledge of he dragged him from the chamber by the the higher geometry, of which he made a nose in the royal presence. He took an very happy use in determining the mean active part in promoting the revolution, density of the earth. He found it to be and was one of the first who declared for 5 times greater than the density of water the prince of Orange. His services were -a conclusion which differs but little rewarded with the dignity of duke of Dev- from that obtained by Maskelyne in anonshire. He still, however, maintained an other way, He was a member of the independent bearing in parliament. He royal society at London, and, in 1803, was died in 1707.

made one of the eight foreign members of Cavendish, Henry, born 1731, the son the national institute of France. Cavenof lord Charles Cavendish, and grandson dish was probably the richest among the of the second duke of Devonshire, devoted learned, and the most learned among the himself exclusively to the sciences, and rich, men of his time. An uncle left him acquired a distinguished rank among those a large fortune in 1773. This increase of learned men who have most contributed wealth made no change in his character to the progress of chemistry. He discov- and habits. Extremely regular and simered the peculiar properties of hydrogen, ple in his manner of living, he was liberal and the qualities by which it is distin- in encouraging science, and in his private guished from atmospheric air. To him charities. His large, well-chosen library we owe the important discovery of the was open for the use of learned men. He composition of water. Scheele had al- died in London, March, 1810, and left ready observed that, when oxygen is mix- £1,200,000 sterling to his relations. His ed with double the quantity of hydrogen, writings consist of treatises in the Philothis mixture burns with an explosion, sophical Transactions, from 1766 to 1792. without any visible residuum. Cavendish They are distinguished by acuteness and repeated this experiment with the accura- accuracy. cy for which he was distinguished. He CAVIARE (ickari) is made in Russia confined both the gases in dry earthen from the roe of sturgeons, belugas, and vessels, to prevent the escape of the prod- many other fish. The roe is separated uct of their combustion, and found that from the skin which encloses it, salted, this residuum was water, the weight of and, after eight days, pepper and finelyminced onions are added. It is then dried, erally admitted to be the first typographand serves as a relisher with toasted bread ical work executed in England. Caxton or bread and butter. The best caviare is continued to exercise his art for nearly 20 that from the Crimea. From Kerch and years, during which time he produced Jenikale, in that province, 1500 barrels between 50 and 60 volumes, most of which are annually exported to Moldavia and the were composed or translated by himself. countries on the Danube.

Caxton died about 1492, and was buried, CAXAMARCA, or QUAXAMARKA ; a prov- according to some accounts, at Campden, ince of Peru, bounded N. by Jaen, E. by in Gloucestershire; though others state his Chacapoyas, S. E. by Caxamarquilla, Š. interment as having taken place at St by Huamachuco, W. by Sana and Trux- Margaret's, Westminster. illo; population, 46,000. The country is CAYENNE, or FRENCH GUIANA; a provgenerally mountainous. It abounds in fruits ince or colony in South America, belongand cattle. The inhabitants are, for the ing to France; bounded N. and N. E. by most part, Indians, and chiefly weavers. the Atlantic ocean, E. and S. by Brazil,

Catamarca; a town of Peru, capital and W. by Dutch Guiana; between lat. of a province of the same name ; about 70 1° 50 and 6° N.; population, 17,331, of miles from the Pacific ocean, 280 N. Lima; which only about 1000 are whites. This lat. 7° 3' S.; lon. 780 35 W.; population, country was first colonized by the French 12,000. It was, at one time, a royal city, in 1635; in 1654, it was taken by the Engwhere the emperor Atahualpa was put to lish, and, in 1676, by the Dutch ; but, in death, after having been defeated and im- 1677, it was restored to the French. The prisoned by Pizarro.

coast of the country is generally low, Caxton, William; an Englishman, marshy, and subject to inundation. The memorable for having first introduced the soil

, in many parts, is very fertile, though art of printing into his native country. He in others dry, sandy, and soon exhausted. was born in Kent, about 1410, and served The climate resembles that of the West an apprenticeship to Robert Large, a Lon- Indies, though it is more salubrious. The don mercer. On the death of his master, most noted article of produce is Cayenne Caxton went to the Netherlands, as agent pepper, the fruit of the capsicum baccatum. for the mercers' company, in which situa- Other productions are coffee, sugar, cotton, tion he continued about 23 years. His rep- cocoa, indigo, maize, cassia and vanilla. utation for probity and abilities occasion- Cayenne ; an island of South America, ed his being employed, in conjunction with belonging to France, on the coast of the Richard Whitchill, to conclude a treaty of above province, separated from the main commerce between Edward IV and Philip land by the river Cayenne, which is about duke of Burgundy. He appears subse- 300 miles in length. "The island is 18 miles quently to have held some office in the long and 10 broad, and has a fertile soil. household of duke Charles, the son of Cayenne ; a town of South America, Philip, whose wife, the lady Margaret of on the north point of the above island, at York, distinguished herself as the patron- the mouth of the river Cayenne. It is the ess of Caxton. Whilst abroad, he became capital of the French colony of Cayenne, acquainted with the then newly discovered has a large and convenient port, and coninvention of printing. (See Faust, John.) tains about 200 houses. Lat. 4° 56' N.; At the request of the duchess, bis mistress, lon. 52° 16' W. he translated from the French a work, CAYENNE PEPPER, or CAPSICUM. Capwhich he entitled the Recuyell of the His- sicum is the name of several species of toryes of Troye, by Raoul le Feure, which South American and Indian plants, easily he printed at Cologne, 1471, in folio. This known by their hollow pods, of a shining book, considered as the earliest specimen red or yellow color, which contain many of typography in the English language, is small, flat and kidney-shaped seeds. The esteemed very valuable. At the famous principal species are, heart or bell pepper sale of the duke of Roxburgh's library, in (capsicum grossum), Guinea pepper (cap1812, a copy was purchased by the duke sicum annuum) and bird-pepper (capsiof Devonshire, for £1060 10s. After this, sicum baccatum). All the species of caphe printed other works abroad, chiefly sicum possess the same general qualities. translations from the French; and, at In hot climates, but particularly in the length, having provided himself with the East and West Indies, and some parts means of practising the art in England, he of Spanish America, the fruit of these returned thither, and, in 1474, had a press plants is much used for culinary purposes. at Westminster abbey, where he printed It is eaten in large quantities, both with the Game and Playe of the Chesse, gen- animal and vegetable food, and is mixed,

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in greater or less proportion, with almost ing on wax, and many other subjects. If all kinds of sauces. The Cayenne pepper he has sometimes misunderstood the anused in cookery is made from the fruit cient authors, and committed some errors of different species of capsicum. This with respect to ancient monuments, he has, fruit, when ripe, is gathered, dried in the nevertheless, treated with great success of sun, and then pounded; and the powder the processes and materials employed in is mixed with a ce portion of salt, and the arts by the ancients. He died in 1765. kept for use in closely-stopped bottles. It Integrity, simplicity and disinterestedness is very generally used as a poignant ingre- were united in his character with occadient in soups and highly-seasoned dishes. sional traits of doginatism. He has left Its taste is extremely acrid, and it leaves a numerous works, tales as well as antiquadurable sensation of heat on the palate, rian researches. Among the latter is his which is best removed by butter or oil. Recueil d'Antiquités Egyptiennes, &c. When taken in small quantities, Cayenne (Paris, 1752–67, 7 vols.). Caylus was is a grateful stimulant; and, in medicine, also an industrious and skilful engraver, it is used both externally and internally, to and has furnished a collection of more promote the action of the bodily organs, than 200 engravings, after drawings in the when languid and torpid; and it is said to royal cabinet, and a great number of heads, have been found efficacious in many gouty after the first masters. His mother, niece and paralytic cases. The Guinea pepper, of Mad. de Maintenon, made herself known or annual capsicum, is considered the most by a spirited little work—Mes Souvenirs. hardy of this whole tribe of plants; and, in

CAYMAN. (See Alligator.) many parts of the south of Europe, its fruit Cazotte, Jacques, an author, distinis eaten green by the peasants at their guished by facility and liveliness of style, breakfasts, and is preferred by them to on- born in 1720, at Dijon, studied with the ions or garlic. The fruit of all the species Jesuits, and went, in 1747, to Martinico. may be used in domestic economy, either On his return to France, he lost $50,000 as a pickle, or when dried before a fire, and in letters of exchange upon the order of ground to powder in a common pepper- the Jesuits, to whose superior, Lavalette, mill

, as Cayenne pepper. (See Capsicin.) he had sold his possessions in Martinico. Cayes, Les, or Aux CAYES; a seaport The lawsuit which he commenced, on town on the south coast of Hayti; 30 miles this occasion, may be considered as the S. S. E. Port-au-Prince; lat. 18° 13' N.; beginning of all the proceedings against lon. 74° 31' W. This town, a few years the Jesuits in France. Cazotte shone in since, contained 12 or 15,000 inhabitants. society among the beaux esprits. His ro It is now very much reduced. The harbor mance of chivalry, Olivier, published in is inferior, but the surrounding country is 1763, and, subsequently, his Diable amour fertile.

reux, the Lord Impromptu, and Euvres Caylus (Anne Claude Philippe de Tu- morales et badines, are proofs of his rich bières, &c.), count of, an archæologist, imagination, and his talent for writing with born Oct. 31, 1692, at Paris, received an ease and precision. Being received into education equally solid and splendid. Af- the order of Martines de Pasqualis, Cazotte ter having served in the army during the lost himself in cabalistic dreams. With war of the Spanish succession, he left the the assistance of Dom Chavis, an Arabian service in 1715, accompanied Bonac on monk, he translated four volumes of Arahis embassy to Constantinople the follow- bian Tales—a continuation of the Arabian ing year, and visited Greece, Troy, Ephe- Nights, forming the 37th and 40th volumes sus, Byzantium and Adrianople. In 1717, of the Cabinet des Fées. Though at the he returned to Paris, according to the wish age of 70 years, he wrote them at midnight, of his mother, and began here to arrange after his return from the circles in which his extensive collections. He commenced he had been visiting. Chavis dictated the a great work on Egyptian, Grecian, Etrus- outlines, and Cazotte wrought up the stocan, Roman and Gallic antiquities, with ries. He completed the task in two winnumerous plates. He was a member of ters. The coinic opera Les Sabots he the acadeiny of painting and of the acad- composed in one night. In the revolution, emy of inscriptions, and divided his labors which he opposed with all his power, between them. He made a chemical ex- he was thrown into the prisons of tho amination of the ancient method of en- Abbaye, with his daughter Elizabeth, in caustic painting, investigated the mode of 1792. When the massacre of the prisoners painting on marble, the art of hardening took place, Sept. 2 and 3, Cazotte being copper, the mode by which the Egyptians delivered into the hands of the assassins, raised great weights, the mummies, paint- his daughter cast herself between him

and the murderers, and prevented the ex- tice of the king; and, being presented ecution of their purpose ; but he was again with the reversion of the office of custos condemned to death, and executed Sept. brevium, was encouraged to push his for25. From the scaffold he cried with a tune at court. Having married the sister firm voice to the multitude, “I die, as I of sir John Cheke, he was, by his brotherhave lived, faithful to God and to my king.” in-law, recommended to the earl of Hert

Cazwini, Zacharia Ben Mohammed, ford, afterwards the protector Somerset. an Arabian naturalist, descended from a Having lost his first wife, he took for a family of lawyers, who derived their ori- second the daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, gin from Anas Ben Malek, a companion of director of the studies of Edward VI ; and, Mohammed, and had settled in Caswin, a by his alliance with this lady, herself emicity in Persia. From that place this au- nent for learning, still further increased thor received the surname under which his influence. He rose, in 1547, to the he has become celebrated. Of the cir- post of master of requests, and, soon after, cumstances of his life, we know only that to that of secretary. He endured, in this he was cadi of Wazith and Hillah, and reign, some of the vicissitudes which befell died in the year of the hegira 682 (A. D. his patron Somerset, but always recovered 1283). His most important work is on his standing, and, in 1551, was knighted, natural history-The Wonders of Nature and sworn a member of the privy council. and the Peculiarities of Creation of which His declining to aid the proclamation of Ideler, professor in the university of Ber- lady Jane Grey, secured him a gracious lin, has published the chapter on the Con- reception from queen Mary, although he stellations of the Arabians, and of which forfeited his office because he would not there are fragments in Bochart's Hiero- change his religion. In 1555, he attended zoikon, in Ouseley's Oriental Collections, cardinal Pole and the other commissionand in Wahl's, Jahn's and De Sacy's Arab. ers appointed to treat for peace with Chrestomathias. It was the object of Caz- France; and, on his return, being chosen wini, like Pliny, to describe the wonders knight of the shire for the county of Linof all nature. His work contains a com- coln, distinguished himself by opposing a prehensive view of all that had been writ- bill brought in for the confiscation of esten before him, but in so grand and orig- tates on account of religious principles inal a manner, that it is of higher value His foresight led him into a timely correthan most of the original works which spondence with the princess Elizabeth, treat of the same subjects. There is an previously to her accession ; to whom, in abridged translation of it in the Persian. her critical situation, his advice was ex

CEBES of Thebes was a disciple of ceedingly serviceable. On her accession, Socrates. He is said to have saved Phæ- in 1558, he was appointed privy counseldon, a young slave, from moral ruin. Noth- lor and secretary of state. One of the ing more is known of his life. Three dia- first acts of her reign was the settlement logues-Hebdome, Phrynichus, and Pinux, of religion, which Cecil conducted with or the Pictureare ascribed to him; but great skill and prudence, considering the most critics regard the latter as the work difficulties to be encountered. In foreign of a later Cebes, or of a Stoic philosopher affairs, he showed much tact in guarding under this assumed name. Since the re- against the danger arising from the Cathvival of learning, this interesting dialogue olic powers, and very judiciously lent suphas been often reprinted by itself, or in port to the reformation in Scotland. The connexion with the writings of Epictetus, general tenor of Cecil's policy was cauTheognis, Pythagoras, &c. Among the tious, and rested upon an avoidance of larger editions is that of Schweighäuser open hostilities, and a reliance on secret (Strasburg, 1806). There are many school negotiation and intrigues with opposing editions.

parties in the neighboring countries, with Cecil, William (lord Burleigh). This a view to avert the dangers which threateminent English statesman was son to ened his own. This, upon the whole, was Richard Cecil, master of the robes to a course almost necessary, considering the Henry VIII, and was born at Bourne, in situation of England, with a powerful, disLincolnshire, in 1520. He studied at St. satisfied party at home, much dangerous John's college, Cambridge, whence he enmity on the part of Catholic Europe, removed to Gray's Inn, with a view to and an alliance existing between Scotland prepare himself for the practice of the law. and France. On the suppression of the Having carried on a successful controver- northern rebellion, in 1571, Elizabeth sy with two Irish priests on the subject of raised him to the peerage by the title of the pope's supremacy, he obtained the no- baron Burleigh, and, the following year,

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made him a knight of the garter. He is he went to France as assistant to the
charged with being deeply engaged in fo- English ambassador, the earl of Derby,
menting the troubles which caused the and, in 1596, was appointed one of the
flight of the imprudent and unhappy Mary secretaries of state. On the death of sir
Stuart into England ; and, after the dis- Francis Walsingham, he succeeded him
covery of Babington's conspiracy, he never as principal secretary, and continued to
ceased urging her trial and condemnation. be a confidential minister of queen Eliza-
He endured, for a short time, the hypo- beth to the end of her reign. Having se-
critical resentment of Elizabeth at the ex- cretly supported the interests of James I,
ecution of the queen of Scots, but, after a previous to his accession to the crown,
while, recovered his former credit. At and taken measures to facilitate that event,
the time of the threatened Spanish inva- he was continued in office under the new
sion, he drew up the plan for the defence sovereign, and raised to the peerage. In
of the country with his usual care and 1603, he was created a baron ; in 1604,
ability. But, soon after, losing his wife, viscount Cranbourn; and in 1605, earl of
to whom he was warmly attached, he be- Salisbury. The same year he was chosen
came desirous of retiring from public chancellor of the university of Cambridge,
business, and of leaving the field open to and made a knight of the garter. He was
his son Robert, afterwards so celebrated as the political rather than the personal fa-
earl of Salisbury. He was persuaded, vorite of the king, whom he served with
however, to keep his employment, and zeal and fidelity; and, as he was certainly
one of his latest efforts was to effectuate a the ablest, so he was, perhaps, the most hon-
peace with Spain, in opposition to the est, minister who presided over the affairs
more heated councils of the earl of Essex. of state during that reign. In 1608, on
This great minister died in the bosom of the decease of the lord high treasurer the
his family, and in the possession of all his earl of Dorset, that office was bestowed on
honors, in 1598, being then in his 77th lord Salisbury, who held it till his death,
year. He left behind him the character in 1612. This event took place at Marl-
of the ablest minister of an able reign. borough, as he was returning to London
How far the emergencies of the period from Bath, whither he had gone in a very
ought to excuse a portion of his dark and debilitated state of health, to use the min-
crooked policy, it may be difficult to deter- eral waters. An interesting account of
mine. But it is esy to decide, that al- this journey, and of the last hours of this
most every school of politicians, under eminent statesman, drawn up by one of
similar circumstances, have countenanced his domestics, may be found in Peck's
similar laxity under the plea of expedien- Desiderata Curiosa. Lord Salisbury was
cy. The private character of Burleigh the author of a Treatise against the Pa-
was highly regarded; for, although he pists ; and of Notes on Dee's Discourse
failed not to improve his opportunities as on the Reformation of the Calendar; and
a courtier, he always exhibited a probity some of his letters, despatches and speech-
which conciliated esteem. He possessed, es in parliament have been published.
in a high degree, the solid learning, grav- CECILIA. There are several saints of
ity and decorum, which, in that age, usu- this name in the Catholic church. The
ally accompanied elevated station. In his most celebrated, who has been falsely re-
mode of living, he was noble and splendid, garded as the inventress of the organ, and
but, at the same time, economical, and who is the patron saint of music, is said to
attentive to the formation of a competent have suffered martyrdom A. D. 220. Her
fortune for his family. His early occu- pagan parents, says the legend, betrothed
pation as a statesman precluded much her, contrary to her wishes, to Valerian, a
attention to literature; but he is mentioned young pagan. But she had internally
as the author of a few Latin verses, and vowed to the Lord a perpetual virginity;
of some historical tracts. A great number and, whilst the instruments sounded, she
of his letters on business are still extant. sang in her heart only to the Lord (can-

Cecil, Robert, earl of Salisbury, second tantibus organis, illa in corile suo soli son of lord Burleigh, was born, according Domino cantabat, dicens, &c.); that is, she to some accounts, about the year 1550; but prayed–O Lord, allow my heart and my his birth may, with more probability, be body to remain unpolluted. As soon as placed 13 years later. He was deformed, the bridegroom appeared, she forbade his and of a weak constitution; on which ac- approach, assuring him that an angel of count he was educated at home, till his the Lord protected her innocence. The removal to the university of Cambridge. unbelieving Valerian wished to convince Having received the honor of knighthood, himself of this assertion; she referred him

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