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Syrians, Persians, Egyptians; the creation an account of a graduated pendulum for of the world, among the Jews; the birth of this purpose, proposed by doctor RobinChrist, among Christians; the Olympiads, son; and others have since been sold at among the Greeks; the building of Rome the principal music-shops in London. and the consular era, among the Romans; The second is used by tuners of instruthe Hegira, or flight of Mohammed, among ments, to measure the velocity of beats. the Mohammedans, &c. As so many dif- On this point, the reader may consult docferent eras render the reckoning of time tor Smith’s Harmonics, p. 210. difficult, it, 3dly, selects a form of the year CHRYSALIS. (See Papilio.) and an era to which it refers those of other Chryseis. (See Achilles.) nations, and by which it arranges the his- CHRYSIPPUS, a Stoic philosopher of Citory of all nations and times. The Euro- licia, distinguished for his skill in dispean chronologist and historian must refer puting. He was the principal opposer of the eras and years of all people to those the Epicureans, and is said to have writused in modern Europe. Mathematical ten 700 different works, mostly of a diaand astronomical chronology is taught in lectical character; but of these no comthe manuals of astronomy. Among these plete work is extant. He died, at a great may be mentioned the Astronomie of La- age, about 206 years B. C. lande (2d vol. p. 270, 2d ed.) The Man- CHRYSOBERYL (sometimes called cymoual of Astronomical and Technical Chro- phane, and, by the jewellers, Oriental nology (from the sources) of D. L. Ideler chrysolite) was, for a long time, only (vol. 1, Berlin, 1825, vol. 2, 1826) is an known as occurring in semi-transparent, excellent work. This savant has done rounded pieces, in the alluvial deposits of much for the advancement of this sci- rivers, along with other species of gems. ence by his extensive researches into Asi- Thus, in Brazil, it was found along with atic as well as European literature. the diamond and topaz, and with rubies

CHRONOMETER; a time-piece of a pe- and sapphires in Ceylon. Distinct crysculiar construction, at present much em- tals were afterwards brought from Siberia, ployed by navigators in determining the but their original situation still remains longitude at sea. In general, chronom- unknown. It is now known to exist, in eters are much larger than common beautifully distinct crystals, at two places watches, and are hung in gimbals, in in the U. States—at Haddam (Conn.) and boxes six or eight inches square; but Saratoga (N. Y.). They are found, at both there are also many pocket chronometers, these localities, in a granitic rock. The which, externally, have all the appearance form of the crystal is, for the most part, a of the better sort of pocket watches, and right rectangular prism, and a low, sixinternally differ from these only in the sided table (with reëntering angles), formconstruction of the balance. The balance ed by the crossing of three prismatic crysand hair-spring are the principal agents tals. Chrysoberyl scratches quartz; is of in regulating the rate of going in a com- an olive-green color, and vitreous lustre, mon watch, being to this what the pen- and is often possessed of a bluish opalesdulum is to a common clock; and this cence. Specific gravity, 3.754. It is spring, in the former, like the pendulum composed of alumine 68.66, glucine 16.00, in the latter, is subject to expansions and silex 5.99, protoxide of iron 4.73, and oxcontractions, under different degrees of ide of titanium 2.66. heat and cold, which, of course, affect the CHRYSOLITE ; a greenish, yellowish or speed or rate of the machine; and the brownish stone, sometimes transparent, methods of correcting this inaccuracy sometimes only translucent, which posmark the difference between the watch sesses the power of double refraction in a and chronometer. These are very nu- high degree. It is composed of silex and merous. (See Horology.) With Ameri- magnesia. The chrysolite employed in can navigators, chronometers are more the arts comes chiefly from the Levant, common than with those of any other na- and is sometimes used in jewellery, but is tion. All the lines of packets between not highly esteemed. Werner thinks that the U. States and Europe have them.- the yellow chrysolite of the ancients is An instrument under the name of chro- the modern topaz. nometer is also used by musicians for the CHRYSOLORAS, Emanuel; a distinguishaccurate measurement of time. Two sorts ed Greek of Constantinople, born about have been invented for different purposes. the middle of the 14th century, the The first supplies the motion of a con- first who, in modern times, transplanted ductor, and regularly beats time. In the Greek literature into Italy. The emperor British Magazine (ü. 283) may be found John Palæologus sent him, in 1391, to Italy and England, to ask for assistance the following manner :-“ They rise with against the Turks.

Having thus become the first crowing of the cock, or at midknown in Italy, he returned there, about night. After having read psalms and the year 1395, and was appointed profes- hymns in common, each, in his separate sor of Greek literature at Florence. He cell, is occupied in reading the Holy Scripremained about three years in Florence, tures, or in copying books. Then they where he collected around him a great proceed to church, and, after mass, return number of scholars, of all ages and ranks, quietly to their habitations. They never and excited universal enthusiasm as much speak to each other; their nourishment is by his dignity, and the grace of his elocu- bread and salt ; some add oil to it, and the tion, as by the extent of his learning. invalids vegetables. After meals, they rest From his school proceeded Leonardo a few moments, and then return to their Bruno, Poggius, Francis Philelphus, and usual occupations. They till the ground, other distinguished revivers of classical fell wood, make baskets and clothes, and studies. He afterwards taught with equal wash the feet of travellers. Their bed is success in Milan, whence the Greek em- a mat spread on the ground; their dress peror Manuel, who, in 1400, had come to consists of skins, or cloths made of the Italy, sent for him to Pavia, Venice, and hair of goats and camels. They go barelastly to Rome. Pope Gregory XII em-footed, have no property, and never proployed him in public affairs, and sent him, nounce the words mine and thine. Undiswith others, to the council of Constance, turbed peace dwells in their habitations, where he died in 1415. He should not and a cheerfulness scarcely known in the be confounded with his nephew and com- world.” After four years, Chrysostom panion in Italy, John Chrysoloras. quitted these hermits to seek a still greater

Chrysostom, John, St.; a celebrated seclusion. He dwelt in a cavern, where father of the church, born in Antioch, in he remained two years without lying the year 344. Secundus, his father, had down. His penance and wakefulness, tothe command of the imperial troops in gether with the dampness of his abode, Syria. In those times, eloquence was still threw him into a severe illness, which the means of obtaining the highest honors forced him to return to Antioch (381). In in Greece. Chrysostom studied this art, the same year, he was appointed deacon with Libanius, the most famous orator of by the bishop of Antioch, and, in 386, his time, and soon excelled his master. consecrated priest. He was chosen vicar After having studied philosophy with An- by the same dignitary, and commissioned dragathius, he devoted himself to the Holy to preach the word of God to the people. Scriptures, and determined upon quitting Till then, the bishops only had instructed the world, and on consecrating his life to the people in the gospel. Ilis eloquence God in the deserts of Syria. At the age attracted Jews, heathens and heretics. of 20, he conducted a legal case with ex- He was, says Sozomenes, the ornament traordinary success; but he soon retired of his church, and of the whole East, from public business, and, by fasting and when the emperor Arcadius determined, penance, endeavored to obtain the mastery in 397, to place him in the episcopal see of his passions. He remained three years of Constantinople. To prevent the inhabin Antioch. He was united, by the ties itants of Antioch from opposing his intenof an intimate friendship, with Basil, The- tions, the emperor caused him to be seodore, afterwards bishop of Mopsuesta, cretly conveyed to Constantinople, where and with Maximus, subsequently bishop Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, orof Seleucia. Theodore having quitted dained him. He commenced his official for a time his holy vocation, Chrysostom labors by limiting the expenses of his wrote two beautiful exhortations, in order to house, founded and supported many hosrecall him to his duty. The bishops of the pitals, improved the morals of the clergy, provinces had determined on electing him and converted a number of heathens and or Basil as bishop; but Chrysostom fled, heretics. He gave so generously to the and concealed himself; consequently Ba- poor, that he was universally called John sil was elected, who complained, however, the almsgiver. He devoted himself to atmuch of his friend's withdrawal. Chrys- tendance on the sick. He sent bishops as ostom defended himself in his beautiful missionaries to the Goths, to the Scythians, work on the office of priests. He was and to Persia and Palestine. His elothen only 26 years old. In 374, he retired quence twice prevented an insurrection. to the anchorites who dwelt on the moun- In 399, Chrysostom held a council in tains in the vicinity of Antioch. He de- Constantinople, at which several Asiatic scribed the life which he led with them in bishops were deposed as guilty of simony.

Severin, bishop of Gabala, in Syria, dared his journey, he arrived there, and continto attack Chrysostom from the pulpit, and ued to exert his pious zeal. He sent misto stir up the people against him; but sionaries to Persia and Phænicia, and his charges were rejected as calumnies. wrote 17 letters to Olympias, all of which Chrysostom had two dangerous enemies are moral dissertations. He likewise adthe empress Eudoxia, whose injustice and dressed to her his work entitled, “None extortions gave cause to many complaints; can injure him who does not injure himand Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, self." All Christendom beheld the pious who was jealous of his influence. The sufferer with love and admiration; at latter assembled several bishops at Chal- which the emperor, exasperated, comcedon, who were to investigate the com- manded him to be conveyed to the shores plaints made against Chrysostom. But he of the Pontus Euxinus, to the town of refused to appear, alleging that they had Pityont, situated on its most distant boracted against the laws of the church; and, ders. The officers who had him in charge on his part, assembled 40 bishops at Con- obliged the old man to perform this jourstantinople. His enemies, however, pre- ney on foot, with his head uncovered, in vailed. His removal was determined upon, the burning heat of the sun; but he fell a and sanctioned by Arcadius, who banished prey to exhaustion. In Comana, in Ponhim from the country, Chrysostom quit- tus, he was brought to the oratory of the ted the city secretly, that he might not be martyr St. Basil. He put on white garprevented by his adherents, and purposed ments

, received the eucharist, uttered a retiring to Bithynia ; but the people fervent prayer, which he closed, as usual, threatened a revolt. In the following with the words "Praise be to God for all night, an earthquake gave general alarm. things,” crossed himself, and expired (407), In this dilemma, Arcadius recalled his or- 63 years old. His body was interred at ders, and Eudoxia herself invited Chrys- the side of that of St. Basil; but, in 438, it ostom to return. The people accompa- was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople, nied him triumphantly to the city, his and there interred in the church of the enemies fled, and peace was restored, but apostles, in the sepulchre of the emperor. only for a short time. A feast, attended At a later period, his remains were placed with many heathen ceremonies, for the in the Vatican at Rome. The Greek consecration of a statue, given by the em- church celebrates his feast on the 13th of press, roused the zeal of the archbishop, November, the Roman on the 27th of who publicly exclaimed against it; and January. The name of Chrysostom (goldEudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the en-mouthed) was assigned to him, after prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysos- his death, to express the eloquence which tom was condemned, although 40 bishops he possessed in so much greater a degree declared themselves in his favor. Arca- than the other fathers of the church. dius ordered the soldiers to force him He never repeats himself, and is always from the church, which was profaned and original. The vivacity and power of his stained with blood. Pope Innocent I imagination, the force of his logic, his and the emperor Honorius declared them- power of arousing the passions, the beauty selves in favor of Chrysostom, but Arca- and accuracy of his comparisons, the neatdius refused to assemble the council, on ness and purity of his style, his clearness which the others insisted, and commanded and sublimity, place him on a level with Chrysostom peremptorily to retire to the the most celebrated Greek authors: the place of his banishment. He obeyed, and Christian church has not a more accomwas conveyed to Nice, in Bithynia (404). plished orator.—The most accurate Greek Soon after his departure, the church and edition of his works is that of Henry Sathe palace where the senate used to as ville (1612, 9 vols. fol.); the most comsemble became a prey to the flames. plete Greek and Latin, is that of MontfauMany works of art were lost in this con- çon (Paris, 1618, 13 vols. fol.) Professor flagration, which the emperor attributed Neander, at Berlin, has written a biograto the friends of Chrysostom. The Isau- phy of this father of the church, or rather rians and Huns laid waste the empire. a history of bim and his time, entitled St. Chrysostom's return was universally de- Chrysostom, a highly esteemed work, full sired; Arcadius remained inflexible. Eu- of the important results of the deep redoxia died soon after Chrysostom's ban- searches of its learned author. ishment, after having fixed upon the little CHURB, Thomas; a writer in humble Armenian town Cucusus, in the wilds of life, who obtained great temporary disTaurus, for his abode. Exhausted by tinction as a controversialist. sickness, deprivations, and the fatigues of born at East Hadbam, near Salisbury, and


He was


was instructed only in reading, writing probably only fortifications to secure the and accounts. He was apprenticed to a conquests of Quito and Chile. glover, but, at length, became journeyman CHUQUISACA, or La Plata; a city of to a tallow-chandler, and employed his South America, and capital of Bolivia; leisure in the acquisition of knowledge, lat. 19° 40 S.; lon. 66° 46 W.; population, from the best English books which he 18,000. The inhabitants consist of Incould procure.

In 1715, he published dians and Spaniards. It stands on a plain, The Supremacy of the Father asserted, environed by eminences, which defend it &c., the perspicuity and argumentative from all winds. The temperature of the skill of which obtained for it much notice. air, in summer, is very mild; nor is there Of course, a production, assailing a part any considerable difference throughout the of the orthodox faith, did not pass without year. The houses have one story besides reply, and a controversial warfare com- the ground floor. They are covered with menced, which lasted as long as his life. tiles, and are very roomy and convenient, In 1736, he offered to the world his with delightful gardens, planted with Euthoughts on a variety of topics, moral and ropean fruit-trees; but water is so scarce as theological, in 34 tracts, collected in a 4to. hardly to supply the necessary purposes of volume, of which book Pope, in a letter life, and is brought from the several public to Gay, speaks with great respect. Vari-fountains dispersed in the different parts ous publications followed, e. g., A Dis- of the city. The town had the name of course concerning Reason, The true Gos- La Plata from its being built near silver pel of Jesus Christ asserted, Inquiry into mines. It was erected into a bishopric in the Ground and Foundation of Religion, 1551, the place having then the title of &c., which manifest his disposition to city, and, in 1608, was raised to an archquestion many points of orthodoxy. He, bishopric. The cathedral is large, of good however, adhered to the general con- architecture, and finely adorned with clusion, that Jesus was sent from God paintings and gildings. The city has also as an instructer to mankind, and reg- a university, dedicated to St. Francis Xaularly attended public worship at his par- vier, the chairs of which are filled indifish church until his death. Chubb seems ferently with secular clergy or laymen; never to have sought to emerge from the but the rector was formerly always a humble condition in which fortune had Jesuit. placed him, although he met with some Chur. (See Coire.) powerful patrons. He died suddenly in Church is, in the widest sense of the February, 1747, aged 68.

word, the collective body of those who CHULUCANAS; the name of an ancient declare themselves to be followers of ruined city of Peru, on the ridge of the Christ. In this sense, the founder of the Cordilleras, at the height of 8943 feet above church is Jesus Christ himself; for, the level of the sea, and on the Paramo of though his followers did not separate Chulucanas, between the Indian villages themselves from the community of the of Ayavaca and Guancabamba. Hum- synagogue until after his death, yet he boldt says, that the great causey of the had, by preaching a doctrine essentially Incas, lined with freestone-one of the different from Judaism, and by collecting most useful and stupendous works ever disciples and friends around him, laid the executed by man, and which may be foundation of a new religious body, compared with the finest Roman roads—is Moreover, he ordered his disciples, at the still in good preservation, between Chulu- time of his departure from the world, to go canas, Guamani and Sagique; and Fran- forth and preach the gospel through the cisco Coreal found it perfect in two other earth, and established two religious cereplaces, and states that it yields in nothing monies, by which his followers were to be to the most magnificent European road. distinguished. These circumstances, maIt runs from Quito, through Cuzco, to La ny have thought, must be taken as indiPlata, or from the equator to 20° of S. lat- cating his intention to found a church. itude. On the summit of the Andes, Judaism, too, may be considered as having wherever this .road passes, ruins of great paved the way for the establishment of a buildings are every where seen. Hum- Christian church or organized religious boldt counted nine in less than half a de- cominunity.—But the word church is not gree of latitude; and Pedro de Cieca de so often taken in the sense just described Leon, who wrote in 1541, describes sev- as in a much narrower one, in which it eral which he saw in the province of Los signifies a body of Christians, which difCanares. They are now called, by the fers in doctrines, constitution and usages Peruvians, palaces of the Incas, but were from the remainder. From the 11th cen

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tury, the Greek or Oriental Christians tion of their places of Worship, seem to were separated from the Latin Christians, have had almost exclusively in view the or Christians of the West ; and thus orig- accommodation of the hearers, particularinated the difference between the Greek ly in England and America. This fact is Catholic church, whose chief is the patri- easily explained from the circumstance that arch of Constantinople, and the Roman they do not celebrate, in their churches, Catholic church, whose chief is the Roman divine service, in the sense in which the bishop, or the pope. In the 16th cen- Catholics use the phrase, but chiefly meet tury, the reformation caused another di- to hear the Bible explained to them, and vision in the Western church, one part of to be instructed in their duties ; on acits members seceding from the govern- count of which the churches of a large ment of the Roman see, and adopting dif- portion of Protestants are often, or even ferent doctrines from those professed by the usually, called meeting-houses, and their rest. Thus arose the difference between sermons discourses.-In New England, the Catholic and Protestant churches. It the word church is used to denote the might reasonably be asked, whether some members of a religious society, who have Protestant sects do not differ from each made a public profession of the Christian other as much as from the Catholic religion, in contradistinction to the other church; for instance, the Quakers from individuals belonging to the same relithe English Episcopal church. But, for gious society, who have not made such a the purpose of this article, it is sufficient profession. There are various derivathat, in the common use of language, tions of the word church, which, of course, they are all called Protestants. There has the same origin with the German is, moreover, one point which distin- Kirche, and the Scottish kirk. Some deguishes all Protestant sects, or the whole rive it from the Greek kuprakòv, from kupios, Protestant chureh, from the two Catholic lord, a house appropriated for the

service ones, namely, that the Protestants declare of the Lord. Others think the German the Bible their only ground of belief, and word is a translation of the Latin ecclesia, permit it to be freely read and examined in which case it would be derived from into.-In a third sense, the word church küren, to elect, and imply the idea of the is sometimes used for the whole Christian elect people of God. community of a country, e. g., the French As it is the natural course of things that church, Italian church, &c.—In a fourth the different branches, powers, or, in gensense, this word signifies the building in eral, the component parts of every establishwhich Christians assemble for the worshipment, are at first confounded, and separated of God. The Christians of the 1st centu- only by degrees, with the progress of imry worshipped in private houses, or in the provement, and after long struggles, so it open air, in remote places, because they has been with the church and the state. were not acknowledged by the state, and The violent contentions which took place were often persecuted. It was not till the at first between the emperor of Germany, 3d century, that they could venture to give who considered himself emperor of Chrismore publicity to their service, and to tendom, and the pope, were repeated in build churches. Since the 4th century, many countries, and still continue in some. the churches have become large and mag- It would far exceed our limits to give even nificent edifices. Such were erected by a sketch of these disputes, and of the theoConstantine and, more particularly, by ries which have been advanced on the Theodosius and Justinian. Many heathen different sides respecting this question : temples, also, were changed into Christian we will only mention, that

, in all Proteschurches. In the middle ages, many tant countries, the monarchs have usurped splendid edifices were erected for the per- the highest ecclesiastical power, without formance of divine service, which, in any support from history or Scripture. loftiness and grandeur, were never sur- Three equally untenable theories have passed. Some of the most famous been advanced to justify this assumption:churches at present are St. Peter's, at 1. the episcopal system, so called, according Rome; Notre Dame, at Paris; St. Ste- to which the episcopal rights are said to phen's, at Vienna; the church of Isaac, at have been transferred to the sovereign by St. Petersburg; the minsters at Strasburg the reformation ; 2: the territorial system, and Cologne; and St. Paul's church, in which maintains that the worldly ruler is, London. (See Cathedrals.) Excepting ipso facto, spiritual chief of the church the last mentioned edifice, Protestantism of his country; 3. the collegial system, has produced no very splendid church. which considers the members of a church In fact, the Protestants, in the construc- as a society, whose rights rest upon a con

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