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tract, by which a part of them has been Church, Latin, or WESTERN. (See conferred upon the sovereign. History Roman Catholic Church.) and reason prove how unfounded these CHURCH, ROMAN CATHOLIC. (See Rotheories are, which are properly to be con- man Catholic Church.) sidered as defences of usurpation. The Church, Fathers OF THE (patres ecUnited States of America are the only clesiæ); teachers and writers of the ancient Christian country in which there is no church, who flourished after the time of established religion; but, notwithstanding the apostles and apostolic fathers (the imall the advantages springing from this mediate disciples of the apostles), from the state of things, it is not entirely free from 2d to the 6th century. This name is also evils.—The revenue of the church is a sometimes given to the teachers and subject of great importance in political writers of the following centuries, down to economy. The following table, showing the schoolmen, who begin with the 12th the annual amount of the income of the century. A large number of their writclergy in all parts of the Christian world, ings have been preserved, and have been is copied from the Catholic Miscellany: published by modern scholars. The It will be perceived, that the revenue of knowledge of their lives and their works the clergy of Great Britain, according to constitutes a particular science, called pathis statement, is greater, by £44,000 ster- tristics. The fathers of the church introling, than that of all the other Christian duced the Greek and Roman learning into clergy in the known world ; while the Christian treatises, and many of them number of hearers attending on their min- were as able as they were learned. Most istry, compared with the aggregate num- of the earlier fathers of the church, beber belonging to the Christian flocks in fore their conversion to Christianity, were other nations, is as 1 to 32.

rhetoricians or advocates, which accounts

for several peculiarities, as well in their Amount. Hearers. method of disputing as in their style. The French Catholic and Prot

object of their writings is to defend the estant churches, £1,050,000 30,000,000 Christian religion and the Christian comUnited States,

776,000 Spain,

1,000,000 11,000,000 munity, refute the Jews, pagans and herePortugal,

300,000 3,000,000 tics, explain the Holy Scriptures, set forth Hungary, Catholics, 220,000 3,000,000

the doctrines of their faith, and the rules Calvinists, 63,000 1,050,000 of their morality, also the history of Chris

Lutherans, 26,000 650,000 tianity and the Christian church, and imItaly,

776,000 19,391,000 part instruction to the people. The conAustria,

950,000 16,918,000 tents of these writings, therefore, are apolSwitzerland,

87,000 1,720,000 ogetic, exegetic, dogmatic, moral, historiPrussia,

527,000 10,563,000 cal, polemical, or ascetic. The fathers of German small states, 765,000 12,765,000 the church are divided into two chief Holland,

160,000 2,000,000 Netherlands,

classes, Latin and Greek. The most cel

105,000 3,000,000 Denmark,

119,000 1,700,000

ebrated among the Greek fathers are, Sweden,

238,000 3,371,000

Clement of Alexandria, the first who phiRussia, Greek church, 510,000 34,000,000 losophized on Christianity; Origen, dis

Cath. and Luth., 480,000 8,000,000 tinguished for his homilies and his apoloChristians in Turkey, 180,000 6,000,000 getic and exegetic writings; Eusebius, dispersed 520,000 21,000,000

who wrote the first history of Christianity; elsewhere,

Athanasius, who had a decided influence

upon the formation of the Christian dog£8,862,000 198,728,000 mas; and Chrysostom, the most admired

of the ancient Christian orators. The England, Wales, and Ireland,

8,896,000 6,400,000 most distinguished among the Latin faIncome of the estab

thers are, Tertullian, a writer of great lished clergy of

originality ; Augustine, a man of a pe: 8,852,000 the whole Chris

culiar and vehement mind, the oracle of tian world beside,

the Western church; Ambrose, distinBalance in favor of ?

guished as a Christian orator; and Jerome, the English clergy, £44,000

a man of much learning, and particularly

happy in explaining the Holy Scriptures, CHURCH, Eastern. (See Greek Church.) whose efforts, however, contributed much

Church of EngLAND. (See England, to awaken in the West an admiration for Church of.)

the renunciation of the world and the CHURCH, GREEK. (See Greek Church.) celibacy of priests. The fathers of the

1

church are now very much studied by popes made under the influence of the the German Protestants, and many parts king of France seldom or never obtained of their works have been translated. "We the assent of the Romans and Germans, do not hesitate to say that they are too antipopes were elected by the latter, and little studied in England, as well as in the the welfare of the church, as well as of the V. States, containing, as they do, great state, suffered by their mutual hostilities. stores of knowledge relating to the early The return of the popes to Rome was fahistory of Christianity, and elucidating its vorable to the aggrandizement of their character. The work of doctor Neander, power, although the German councils ofDenkwürdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des ten expressed themselves in bold and inChristenthums und des Christlichen Lebens dependent language. Julius II added (Berlin, 1825–6), in which great use has Bologna to the papal dominions in 1513, been made of the writings of the fathers, and Ancona in 1532. The Venetians affords abundant evidence of their value. were obliged to cede Ravenna. Ferrara

Church Music. (See Music, Sacred.) was wrested from Modena in 1598, and

CHURCH, STATES OF THE; the pope's Urbino was bequeathed to the papal chair, dominions in Italy. They originated with in 1626, by its last duke, Francis Maria, of the grant of Pepin, king of the Franks, in the house of Rovera. At the same time, 754, who bestowed on Stephen II, bishop the popes lost a great part of their tempoof Rome, some districts, which the Lom- ral and spiritual influence, to the diminubards, against whom Stephen II solicited tion of which the rapid progress of the Pepin's assistance, had taken from the reformation from the year 1517, greatly exarchate. Charlemagne confirmed this contributed. The wise administration of grant in 774, and, in return, received the Sixtus V restored internal order towards title of Roman emperor from Leo III, in the end of the 16th century ; but the ex800. The suspicious charters of Louis-le- travagance and family partialities of his Débonnaire, Otho I and Henry II, the successors created fresh disorder. Clemgenuineness of which the papal chamber- ent XIV was forced to abolish the order lain, Marino Marini, has lately (Rome, of the Jesuits, in 1773. Subsequently, 1822) endeavored to establish, are the only Naples renounced her feudal obligations proofs of these grants of Pepin and Charle- to the papal chair, and even the journey magne to the popes. The temporal pow. of Pius VI to Vienna, in 1782, could not er of the popes over the States of the prevent the great changes which Joseph II Church, or the dominion of St. Peter, is was making in the ecclesiastical affairs of founded on these documents, of which his kingdom. After the successes of the there only exists a copy, received of the French in Italy, the pope was forced, at the papal chamberlain Cancio, towards the peace of Tolentino, Feb. 13, 1797, to cede end of the 12th century. The wise policy Avignon to France, and Romagna, Bologna of the popes, in conferring favors on the and Ferrara to the Cisalpine republic. An Normans in Lower Italy, secured to them, insurrection in Rome against the French, in these vassals, stanch protectors of the Dec. 28, 1797, caused the occupation of holy see. The structure of the papal the city, Feb. 10, 1798, and the annexapower was fully completed in 1075, under tion of the States of the Church to the RoGregory VII. "The crusades contributed man republic. Pius VI died in France. more to promote the views of the popes in The victories of the Russians and Austrithe commencement than in the sequel. ans in Italy favored the election of pope The dominions of Mathilda (q. v.) were Pius VII, March 14, 1800, who, under added to the States of the Church, and the protection of Austrian troops, took the popes maintained possession of them possession of Rome. By the concordat against all the claims of the Gerinan em- concluded, in 1801, with the first consul perors. The papal chair removed a dan- of the French republic, the pope again gerous neighbor belonging to the house lost a great part of his temporal power. of Hohenstaufen, by raising the house of In 1807, the holy father was urged to inAnjou to the throne of Naples, in the troduce the Code Napoléon, and to declare year 1265. The tyranny of the heads of war against England. He refused; and, on the church, added to their corrupt life, at the 3d of April, France was declared to be last provoked the Romans to opposition, at war with the pope, and the provinces and the popes were obliged to transfer of Ancona, Urbino, Macerata and Cametheir residence, from 1305 till 1376, torino wero added to the kingdom of Italy. Aviguion, which Clement VI bought of The possessions of the church beyond the Joanna, queen of Naples and countess of Apennines were all that remained to the Provence, in 1348. As the choice of the pope. (See the correspondence of Pius VII with Napoleon, in Staudlin's Historical the five ports, Rome, Cività Vecchia, Archives of the States of the Church, Ancio, Terracino and Ancona, of which 1 vol., 1815.) Feb. 2, 1808, a French 1052 belonged to the papal, and 2267 to corps of 8000 men entered Rome; the the other Italian states. The fair of Siniremainder of the papal states were added gaglia is much frequented. to France, and a pension of 2,000,000 of CHURCH, Benjamin, who distinguished francs settled on the pope, whose ecclesi- himself in the Indian wars of New Engastical power was to continue. The de- land, was born at Duxbury, Massachusetts, cree of May 17, 1809, at length put an end in 1639. He was one of the most active to the ecclesiastical state. The pope was and indefatigable opponents of the Indian detained in France until the events of king Philip, and was once very near losing 1814 again permitted him to take posses- his life, while in pursuit of him. He comsion of his states. (See Pius VII) The manded the party which killed Philip, in States of the Church (Stato della Chiesa August, 1676. In 1704, the spirit of the 17,185 square miles, with 2,460,000 inhab- old warrior was roused by the burning of itants, occupying 90 towns, 212 market- Deerfield, and he immediately rode 70 miles places, and 3500 villages-are situated in on horseback, to tender his services to goythe centre of Italy, between Lombardy, ernor Dudley. The offer being accepted, he Tuscany, Naples, and the Tuscan and undertook an expedition against the eastAdriatic seas. The Apennines (which ern shore of New England, and inflicted include the Somma, 6800 ft., and Velino, considerable injury upon the French and 7872 ft. high) traverse the country from Indians. The rupture of a blood-vessel, N. W. to S. É. The rivers are small, with occasioned by a fall from his horse, put an the exception of the Po (which touches the end to his life, Jan. 17, 1718, in the 78th northern boundary, and forms the marshes year of his age. He published a narrative of Commachio) and its branches. The of king Philip's war, 1716; and left a most considerable is the Tiber, vavigable character of great integrity and piety. from Perugia. Pope Leo XII (Genga) CHURCHILL, John, duke of Marlborough, reigned from 1823 till Feb. 15, 1829. a distinguished general and statesman, was Pius VIII (cardinal Castiglione) succeed- the son of sir Winston Churchill, and was ed him. The revenue is estimated at born at Ashe, in Devonshire, in 1650. He 12 millions, and the national debt at 200 received his education at home, under a inillions of florins. There is a standing clergyman, from whom he derived little army of 9000 men. The navy consists of instruction, but imbibed a strong attach2 frigates and a few small vessels. The ment for the church of England. At the emperor of Austria has the right to garri- age of 12, he was taken to court, and son the citadel of Ferrara. Internal tran- became page to the duke of York, and, at quillity is not yet restored. In 1816, 16, received from him a pair of colors. the States of the Church, with the excep- The first engagement at which he was tion of Rome, Tivoli and Subiaco, which present was the siege of Tangier, which are under the immediate administration of seems to have decided him in his choice the pope, were divided into 17 delegations, of a profession. On his return, he rewhich, when under the government of mained for some time about the court, cardinals, are called legations. Protes- and, being very handsome, was a great tants, Greeks and Jews are tolerated. The favorite with the ladies there. The religious orders and the Jesuits have been king's mistress, the duchess of Cleveland, reëstablished, as was also, in 1826, the in particular, was much attached to him, university of Urbino. This fertile coun- and presented him with £5,000, with try is not very well govemed. It pro- which he purchased a life annuity. In duces all kinds of corn, the finest fruits, 1672, he accompanied the duke of Monsuch as oranges, lemons, figs, dates, &c.; mouth, as captain of grenadiers, when the a great quantity of oil, good wines, and duke went with a body of auxiliaries to the mulberries, &c. The hills are covered continent, to assist the French against the with thick forests; the finest marble is Dutch. He there fought under the great found here; and there are, likewise, traces Turenne, with whom he went by the of various metals ; but these advantages name of the handsome Englishman. At are not sufficiently estimated. Mining is the siege of Maestricht, he distinguished not known; agriculture is neglected; but himself so highly as to obtain the public the breeding of cattle and sheep is more thanks of the king of France. On his recarefully attended to. Manufactures are turn to England, he was made lieutenantlimited to Rome, Bologna, Ancona and colonel; also gentleman of the bed-chamNorcia. In 1824, 3630 vessels entered ber and master of the robes to the duke of York, whom, in 1679, he accompanied kept away from court; and, aided by his to the Netherlands, and afterwards, in countess, exerted great influence over the 1680, to Scotland, where he was much princess Anne, which circumstance, pernoticed by those who wished to pay their haps, prevented his intrigues from being court to the duke. In 1680, he had a strictly examined. On the death of queen regiment of dragoons presented to him, Mary, he was made a privy counsellor, and and married miss Sarah Jennings, a lady appointed governor to the young duke of of great beauty and good family, an at- Gloucester; and, in 1700, was created by tendant upon the princess, afterwards king William commander-in-chief of the queen, Anne. By this union he materially English forces in Holland, and also ambasstrengthened his interest at court, his lady sador plenipotentiary to the States-Genproving a valuable helpmate in all his eral. Still greater honors awaited him on schemes for advancement. In 1682, he the accession of queen Anne, in 1702, was shipwrecked, with the duke of York, when he was created captain-general of in their passage to Scotland; on which all the forces at home and abroad, and event he received a great proof of the sent plenipotentiary to the Hague, where duke's regard, who used every effort to he was also made captain-general by the save him, while many persons of quality States. In the campaign of the same perished. In the same year, through the year, he took several strong towns, among interest of his master, he obtained the title which was Liege, for which he received of baron of Eyemouth, and a colonelcy in the thanks of both houses, and was created the guards. On the accession of James duke of Marlborough, with a pension II, he was sent ambassador to France, and, granted, by the queen, for his life; and, soon after his 'return, was created baron moreover, carried a motion for the augChurchill of Sundridge, and, the same mentation of the army abroad, by taking year, suppressed the rebellion of the duke 10,000 foreign soldiers into British pay. of Monmouth. During the remainder of The famous battle of Hochstädt, or Blenthis reign, he acted with great prudence heim, was fought on the 2d of August, and a strict attention to his own interest, 1704, between the allied army, coinand, on the arrival of the prince of Orange, manded by the duke of Marlborough and joined him at Axminster, with the duke prince Eugene, and the French and Baof Grafton, and some other officers. His varians, headed by marshal Tallard and. conduct in this affair has been severely the elector of Bavaria. The victory was censured as ungrateful; but his own apol- complete; Tallard was taken prisoner, ogy (and there is no reason to dispute it) and the electorate of Bavaria became the was his attachment to the Protestant prize of the conquerors. The nation tescause, and the dictates of his conscience. tified its gratitude to the duke by the gifts On the accession of William and Mary, of the honor of Woodstock and hundred of in 1689, he was rewarded for his zeal in Wotton, and erected a palace for him, one their cause by the earldom of Marlborough, of the finest seats in the kingdom. Medand appointed commander-in-chief of the als were struck in honor of the event, English army in the Low Countries. The which Addison also celebrated in his following year, he served in Ireland, where poem of the Campaign. After the next he reduced Cork, and other places. In campaign, which was inactive, he visited 1692, he experienced a great reverse in his the courts of Berlin, Hanover and Venice, sudden dismissal from all his employ- and his conciliating manners, great pruments, followed by his commitment to the dence, and perfect command of himself, Tower on the charge of high treason. He contributed to render him as successful in soon obtained his release; but the evi- his negotiations as in the field. The new dence against him was never legally pro- emperor, Joseph, invested him with the duced, and the author of the accusations, title of prince of the empire, which was then a prisoner, being convicted of perju- accompanied by a present of the princiry, he was entirely acquitted. By the pality of Mindelheim. On the victory of publication of Mr. Macpherson's state-pa- Ramillies, a bill was passed to settle his pers, however, it appears that the suspi- honors upon the male and female issue cions were not altogether without founda- of his daughters. He next visited the tion, and that a correspondence probably German courts in the alliance, and waited existed between the earl of Marlborough upon Charles XII of Sweden, then in Saxoand lord Godolphin, having for its object ny. His reception was cold and reserved, the restoration of the banished king. How- yet he had sufficient penetration to perever this may have been, during the life ceive that the king would not interfere of queen Mary, the earl seems to have with the allied powers. In the campaign

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of 1707, his antagonist was the famous rather a man of solid sense than of genius, duke de Vendôme, over whom he gained and was gifted with great coolness and no advantage. He was also disappointed self-possession. He was not even modin his endeavors to rouse the confederacy erately conversant in literature, but so well into more activity. On his return to Eng- versed in all courtly arts, that he always land, he found that the duchess was out of acquitted himself with honor in the delifavor with the queen; and though he was cate negotiations in which he was emreceived with the usual attentions, yet it ployed. His proficiency in the graces is was evident his popularity at court was said by lord Chesterfield to have been the on the decline. In 1708, in conjunction chief cause of these successes. But his with prince Eugene, he gained the battle fame rests chiefly upon his military talents, of Oudenard, and pushed the victory so of which he gave most illustrious proofs. far, that the French king entered into a As regards his morals, he seems to have negotiation for peace, which was of no been much guided by interest; and it does effect. In 1709, he defeated marshal not appear that he ever ceased intriguing Villars at Malplaquet; but this action was with the Stuart family, whose restoration attended with great slaughter on both seemed at one time far from improbable. sides, the allies' losing 18,000 men, which Neither does his connexion with the loss was but ill repaid by the capture of whigs appear to have been sincere, for, Mons. The prevalence of the tories in according to Macpherson, he held a corEngland rendered the French war unpop- respondence with lord Bolingbroke, hopular, and the preaching and prosecution ing to be restored to power through the of Sachevere created a sensation unfa- influence of the tory ministry. His avavorable to its continuance. On the next rice was equally notorious with his ambivisit of the duke to England, he found tion; yet it does not appear that he ever that the duchess, by her great arrogance, made an unjust use of his ascendency. had so disgusted the queen, that a total His political enemy, the celebrated earl of breach had ensued ; and though he was Peterborough, pronounced his eulogy in still received with public honors, he could these words: “He was so great a man by no means boast of his former influence. that I have forgotten his faults”—a senEarly in 1710, he returned to the army, tence which, upon the whole, tolerably and, with prince Eugene, gained another well conveys the judgment of posterity. victory over Villars, and took the towns His duchess has been almost equally celeof Douay, Aire and St. Venant. During brated for her boundless ambition and avahis absence, a new ministry was chosen, rice. She died in 1744, having amassed composed of men hostile to him and his immense riches. She presented Mr. views, and, on his return, he was conse- Hooke with £5,000 to write a book, entitled quently expected to resign; but this he An Account of the Conduct of the Dowager would not do, and, dissembling his indig- Duchess of Marlborough, and bequeathed nation, again repaired to the field, and sig. £500 to Mallet to write the life of the nalized himself by the capture of Bou- duke! In 1788, a selection of curious chain. Finding that he would not resign papers was published by lord Hailes, unhis command, it was taken from him; der the title of The Opinions of Sarah and a prosecution was even commenced Duchess of Marlborough. The duchess against him for applying the public mon- was the Atossa in Pope's Satire on Woey to private purposes. Disgusted by this men. gross ingratitude, he repaired to the Low CHURCHILL, Charles, a poet and satirist Countries, where he was received with of great temporary fame, was the son of the greatest honor. He returned a short the curate of St. John's, Westminster, in time before the queen's death, and, on the which parish he was born, in 1731. He was accession of George I, was restored to educated at Westminster school, but made favor, and reinstated in the supreme mili- so bad a use of his time, that he was tary command. The last public transac- refused admission at the university of tion, in which he took a part, was the de- Oxford, from his want of classical knowlfeat of the rebellion, in 1715, in which his edge. He accordingly returned to school, advice was taken. Retiring from all pub- but soon closed his education by an imlic employments, his mental faculties prudent marriage with a young lady in gradually decayed, and, falling into second the neighborhood. He, however, studchildhood, he died at Windsor Lodge, ied in private, and was at length admitted in 1722, in the 73d, year of his age, into holy orders by the bishop of London, leaving four daughters, who married into and received a Welsh curacy of £30 a families of the first distinction. He was year. In order to increase this scanty in

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