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come, he engaged in the sale of cider, but, profession, he cultivated an acquaintance being little adapted for trade, soon became with Mr. Wilkes, and employed his pen insolvent. Returning to London, on the assiduously in the cause of opposition, and death of his father, he obtained his curacy; for his own emolument. Besides the but, owing to the smallness of his income, works already mentioned, be published, and, most likely, to his fondness for theat- within three or four years, an Epistle to rical amusements and the company of the Hogarth, the Conference, the Duellist, the wits of the day, he was soon overwhelmed Author, Gotham, the Candidate, the Times, with debt. A composition with his credi- Independence, and the Journey. Most of tors being effected by the humane media- these pieces contain detached pictures, tion of doctor Lloyd, the second master of which display a vigorous fancy and forciWestininster school, he began to think of ble sentimenis, expressed with great occaseriously exerting the talents which he sional energy. In versification, Churchill was conscious that he possessed. Under avowedly imitated Dryden; and when he the title of the Rosciad, a poem, published writes with care, he well exemplifies his first in March, 1761, without a name, he appreciation of his model; but he wrote examined the excellences and defects of too hastily not to injure his composition the actors in the two houses in London, by prosaic lines, and he frequently passed with equal spirit, judgment and vivacity. off his carelessness for design. Towards The language and versification too, al- the end of the year 1764, he was seized though sometimes careless and unequal, with a fever, and died on the 4th of Novemwere far superior to the ordinary strain of ber, the same year, at the age of 34. current poetry in strength and energy, CHURCH-YARD. (See Burying-Places and the entire production bore the stamp and Cemetery.) of no common talents. The celebrity of CHYLE. (See Chyme.) this poem was very great, and the players Chyme, in animal economy. In the very weakly increased it by the impatience process of digestion, the food is subjected with which they resented its censures, to a temperature usually above 90° of Pamphlets abounded on both sides of the Fahrenheit. It is mixed with the gastric question; and the author justified himself juice, a liquor secreted by the glands of in a new satire, entitled the Apology, in the stomach, and is made to undergo a which the profession of a player was

oderate and alternate pressure, by the treated with humorous contempt. These contraction of the stomach itself. It is works made him many enemies, for which thus converted into a soft, uniform mass, he cared very little, as they brought him the of a grayish color, in which the previous far more dangerous intimacy and applause texture or nature of the aliment can be no of the men of wit and pleasure about longer distinguished. The chyme, as this the town. A course of dissipation and pulpy mass into which the food in the intemperance followed, which excited stomach is resolved is termed, passes by much animadversion, and elicited from the pylorus into the intestinal canal, where him his next satire, entitled Night. The it is mixed with the pancreatic juice and Cock-lane imposture, also, formed a topic the bile, and is still exposed to the same for his muse, and he hesitated not to sati- temperature and alternating pressure. The rize doctor Johnson, in the piece entitled thinner parts of it are absorbed by the the Ghost. He next fell in with the na- slender tubes termed the lacteals. "The tional ill humor against the Scotch, which liquor thus absorbed is of a white color: originated in the political occurrences of it passes through the glands of the mesenthe commencement of the reign of George tery, and is at length conveyed by the thoIII, by his Prophecy of Famine, a Scotch racic duct into the blood. This part of the pastoral, being a most acrimonious, yet process is termed chylification, and the strongly-drawn caricature of Scottish dis- white liquor thus formed, chyle. It is an advantages. This poem was received with opaque, milky fluid, mild to the taste. By great avidity, and he immediately took that standing for some time, one part of it corank as a political satirist, which he long agulates; another portion is coagulated maintained, at the expense of candor and by heat.' The chyle, after mixing with the decorum, and to the deterioration of both lymph conveyed by the absorbent vessels, his poetical and moral character. Of the is received into the blood, which has relatter, indeed, he now became utterly care-, turned from the extreme vessels, before less; and, dropping the clerical habit, he' this passes to the heart. All traces of it parted from his wife, and even distin- are very soon lost in the blood, as it mixes guished himself in the fashionable art of perfectly with that fluid. It is probable, seduction. Being now a party writer by however, that its nature is not immediately completely altered. The blood passing ture had not been more favorable to him from the heart is conveyed to the lungs, than to his father; but his intelligence and where it circulates over a very extensive vivacity in his performances compensated surface presented to the atmospheric air, for his deficiencies, and he would have with the intervention of a very thin mem- been successful on the stage if his extravbrane, which does not prevent their mu- agance had not continually involved him tual action. During this circulation, the in difficulties. He was engaged, in 1757, blood loses a considerable quantity of to play at a Dublin theatre, but was shipcarbon, part of which, it is probable, is wrecked on his passage, and drowned. derived from the imperfectly assimilated The Biography of English and Irish Pochyle, as this, originating in part from ets, which appeared under his name, was vegetable matter, must contain carbon in from the pen of Robert Shiels, a Scotchlarger proportion than even the blood man, who purchased, for 10 guineas, the itself.

right of prefixing to the work the name CIBBER, Colley, a piramatic writer and of Cibber, then in prison for debt.—Cibactor, born in London, 1671, served under ber's wife, Susanna Maria, born 1716, was the duke of Devonshire, in the revolution one of the best actresses on the English which placed the prince of Orange on the stage. She was sister of the celebrated throne, and then made his appearance at doctor Arne (composer of Rule Britannia), Drury-lane theatre. He was not at first who taught her music, and introduced her, very successful; but, at length, the talent in one of his operas, at the Haymarket which he displayed in the character of theatre. In 1734, she married TheophiFondlewife, in the Old Bachelor of lus Cibber, but was soon after separated Congreve, brought him into notice. In from him. She subsequently made her 1695, appeared his first comedy, Love's appearance in tragedy. Her beauty and last Shift

, which met with great success. her talents gained her universal admiraIn this piece, he played the part of tion. She died in 1766. Novelty, a fashionable fop. This charac- CIBORIUM ; originally, a drinking-vessel ter is found in most of his pieces, and in made from an Egyptian plant. In the the representation of it he was likewise Roman church, it is the vessel in which distinguished. His dramatic celebrity is the consecrated host (the venerabile) is founded chiefly on the Careless Hus- preserved. band, which even obtained the approba- Cicada. (See Grasshopper.) tion of his declared enemy, Pope. This Cicero, Marcus Tullius. This cele piece is, indeed, without novelty in the brated Roman was born in the year of characters, and without invention in the Rome 647 (106 B. C.), at Arpinum. His plot, but it is a good picture of the man- family belonged to the order of equites, ners and follies of the time. His comedy but had always kept themselves aloof the Nonjuror, an imitation of Tartuffe, from public business and office. His faadapted to English manners, appeared in ther, who lived in retirement, devoted to 1717, and was directed against the Jacob- science, was the friend of the first citizens ites. It was very successful, and procur- of the republic. Amongst this number ed him a pension from the court, but was the celebrated orator Crassus, who drew upon him many enemies, whose himself attended to the education of the number he increased by his conduct as young Cicero and his brother Quintus, director of Drury-lane theatre, from 1711. selected teachers for them, and directed His appointment as poet-laureate, 1730, their studies. The perusal of the Greek gave full play to the raillery of his ene- authors, together with poetry, oratory and mies. Cibber had the good sense to join philosophy, occupied the first years of in the laugh against his own verses, and Cicero's youth. He wrote a great deal in thus to disarm them. Pope, however, Greek. His versification was good, but his did not cease to ridicule him on every op- poetical merits, on the whole, only modeportunity. In 1750, he quitted the theatre, rate. His destination was, to be the first and published the Apology for the Life of orator of Rome. In his youth, he made Colley Cibber, &c., written with spirit and one campaign under Sylla, in the Marsic candor, and containing many entertaining war. After his return, he availed himself anecdotes and judicious remarks. He of the instruction of the academician Phidied in 1757.

lo, and of the celebrated orator Molo, CIBBER, Theophilus, son of the subject and employed several years in acquiring of the preceding article, was born in 1703, the knowledge requisite for an orator. and embraced the profession of an actor. He witnessed the barbarities of Marius With respect to personal appearance, na- and Cinna, and the proscriptions of Sylla,

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after which the exhausted, blood-stained exile. After this suit, Cicero was elected republic remained undisturbed under the to the office of edile. Though possessed yoke of its dictator. Cicero, at that time of only a moderate fortune, he managed, 26 years old, endowed with knowledge by well-timed liberality, to gain the afand genius, appeared before the tribunals, fections of the people whilst he held this at first in civil suits, afterwards in a crim- office. But, for the execution of his plans, inal process, in which he defended Ros- he was likewise in need of the friendship cius Amerinus, who was accused of par- of the great, to obtain which he joined the ricide by Chrysogonus, a freedman of party of Pompey, the head of the nobility Sylla. He conducted this defence with and the first citizens of Rome. He becourage, confuted the accusers, and came his panegyrist and most zealous obliged the judges to acquit the accused. adherent. Catiline at that time began to After this brilliant display, he remained a plan his conspiracy against the republic. year in Rome, and undertook another suit. He was accused of extortion in his govHis conduct, in both instances, must have ernment of Africa, and Cicero was on the displeased the dictator. But his debilitat- point of undertaking his defence, when ed health obliged him to travel ; and he they became rivals, being both candidates went to Athens, which was still the centre for the consulship. Cicero's merit preof science, Here he resided in the house vailed over Catiline's intrigues and the of an academician, was visited by the envy of his enemies. He was chosen philosophers of all the schools, and profit- consul unanimously; and now commences ed by the instruction of the masters of the most splendid period of his political oratory. Thus he passed six months with life. He succeeded in defeating the conhis friend Atticus, in the enjoyment of spiracy of Catiline. (q.v.) At the same time, literary pursuits. His initiation into the he conducted a private suit, in a masterly mysteries of Eleusis is supposed to have speech defending Murena, consul elect for taken place about this time. He also the ensuing year, against the accusations undertook a journey to Asia, and remain- of the Stoic Cato. After Catiline's fall, ed some time at Rhodes, where he like- the Romans greeted Cicero as the father wise visited the most distinguished ora- of his country. But a factious tribune tors, and partook in their exercises. On would not consent to his rendering an achis return to Rome, his displays of el- count of his administration; and, on retiroquence proved the value of his Grecian ing from the consulate, Cicero was only instruction. Among others, he defended able to pronounce the celebrated oath, “I the celebrated actor Roscius, his friend, swear that I have saved the republic.” and master in the art of elocution. At Cæsar was always his opponent, and last, at the age of 30, he engaged in public Pompey feared a citizen who loved liberbusiness. He became questor of Sicily, ty too much to be favorable to the triumduring the prevalence of a great scarcity virs. Cicero saw his credit gradually deat Rome, and managed to convey a large creasing, and even his safety threatened. quantity of corn from thence to the capi. He therefore occupied himself more than tal, though it was difficult for him so to ever with science, wrote the history of his do without exciting the displeasure of consulate, in Greek, and composed a the Sicilians. He afterwards returned to Latin poem on the same subject, in three Rome, and appeared as an orator, defend- books. At last the storm broke out. Cloing the causes of private individuals, mere- dius, Cicero's enemy, caused a law to be ly for the sake of fame. It was an honor- renewed, declaring every one guilty of able day for Cicero, when the ambassadors treason, who commanded the execution of from Sicily appeared before him, with a Roman citizen before the people had the request that he would conduct their condemned him. The illustrious ex-consuit against their governor Verres. He sul put on mourning, and appeared, acshowed himself worthy of the confidence companied by the equites and many young of an oppressed people, and appeared patricians, demanding the protection of against this powerful robber, after having the people. Clodius, at the head of armed himself collected proofs of his crimes in adherents, insulted them repeatedly, and Sicily. He was opposed by the celebrat- ventured even to besiege the senate. Cied Hortensius. The crimes of Verres are cero, upon this, went into voluntary exile, painted in the liveliest colors in his im- travelled through Italy, and ultimately mortal speeches. Seven are preserved, took refuge in Thessalonica, with Plancus. but only two of them were delivered. Clodius, in the mean time, procured new Hortensius was struck dumb by the force decrees, in consequence of which Cicero's of truth, and Verres went into voluntary country-seats were torn down, and a tem. ple of freedom built on the site of his in vain to reconcile the rivals. Cæsar adhouse at Rome. Cicero's wife and chil- vanced towards Rome, and Pompey was dren were exposed to ill treatment.- forced to fly with the consuls and the Whilst the accounts of these occurrences senate. Cicero, not anticipating this suddrove the unhappy man almost to despair, den approach of Cæsar, was still in Italy. a change favorable to him was preparing Cæsar saw him at Formiæ, but was not in Rome. The audacity of Clodius be- able to gain him over; for, although concame equally insupportable to all. Pom- vinced that the party of Cæsar was likely pey encouraged Cicero's friends to get to prevail

, and although his son-in-law, hiin recalled to Rome. The senate de- Dolabella, was one of Cæsar's confidants, clared that it would not attend to any he was prompted by his sense of honor business until the decree which ordered to return to Pompey. After the battle of his banishment was revoked. Through Pharsalia and the flight of Pompey, he the zeal of the consul Lentulus, and at the refused to take the command of some proposition of several tribunes, the decree troops who had remained at Dyrrhachium, of recall passed the assembly of the peo- but returned to Italy, which was governed ple, in the following year, in spite of a by Cæsar's representative, Antony. This bloody tumult, in which Cicero's brother return was attended with several unpleasQuintus was dangerously wounded. In ant circumstances, until the conqueror this honorable manner Cicero returned, wrote to him, and soon after received him after an absence of ten months. The as graciously. Cicero now devoted himself sembled senate received him at the gates entirely to literature and philosophy. He of the city, and his entry resembled a was divorced from his wife Terentia, to triumph. The republic undertook the enable him to marry a beautiful and rich chiarge of rebuilding his houses. From heiress, whose guardian he was. But the this period, a new epoch commences in pecuniary considerations which induced Cicero's life. His republican zeal dimin- him to take this step could never prevail ished in proportion as his attachment to on him to flatter power: on the contrary, Pompey increased, whom he declared his he purposely kept aloof, and ridiculed the benetactor. Clodius opposed with arms flatterers of Cæsar, priding himself on his the rebuilding of Cicero's houses, and panegyric of Cato. But his disaffection often attacked him personally. Milo re- was overcome by the liberality of Cæsar, pelled his attacks, and accused him, at when he pardoned Marcellus. Enrapturihe same time, before the tribunal. Rome ed by this act of favor, which restored his became frequently a field of battle. Cice- friend to him, Cicero broke silence, and ro, meanwhile, passed several years with delivered a famous oration, which conlittle public employment, occupied with tained as much instruction as panegyric his rhetorical works. To oblige Pompey, for the dictator. Soon after, he spoke in he defended Vatinius and Gabinius, two defence of Ligarius, and Cæsar, relenting, citizens of bad character, who had shown gave up his purpose of condemning the themselves his implacable enemies. At accused to death. Cicero now regained a the age of 54, he entered the college of part of his former consideration, when the the augurs. The death of the turbulent death of his daughter Tullia occurred, Clodius, who was slain by Milo, delivered and affected him very painfully. The ashim from his most dangerous opponent. sassination of Cæsar opened a new career He defended the perpetrator of this act, to the orator. He hoped to regain great who was his friend and avenger, in a political influence. The conspirators sharbeautiful speech; but the presence of ed with him the honor of an enterprise in Pompey's soldiers, and the tumult of the which no part had been assigned him; friends of Clodius, confused him whilst and the less he had contributed to it himdelivering it. At this period, the senate self, the more anxious was he to justify appointed him governor of Cilicia. Cice- the deed, and pursue the advantages ro conducted a war, while in this office, which it offered. But Antony took Cæwith good success, repulsed the Parthians, sar's place. Even in this turbulent year, and was greeted by the soldiers with the Cicero found leisure for literary occupatitle of imperator. But he was not allow- tions, and, among other labors, completed ed the honor of a triumph. As soon as his work De Gloria, which was lost as late his term of office had expired, he returned as in the 14th century. He determined to Rome, which was threatened with seri- on going to Greece, where he could live ous disturbances, owing to the rupture in safety; but he soon returned to Rome, between Cæsar and Pompey. Dreading and composed those admirable orations the horrors of a civil war, he endeavored against Antony, which are known to us by the name of Philippics, and which are always remained a model. After the reequally distinguished for eloquence and vival of learning, he was the most admirpatriotism. His implacable enmity to- ed of the ancient writers; and the purity wards Antony induced him to favor and elegance of his style will always place young Octavius, although the pretended him in the first rank of Roman classics. moderation of the latter did not deceive The style of his philosophical writings, him. With him originated all the ener- without oratorical ostentation, breathes getic resolutions of the senate in favor of that pure Attic elegance which some of the war which the consuls and the young his contemporaries wished also to see in Cæsar were conducting, in the name of his orations. The orator is seen, howevthe republic, against Antony. Octavius er, in his prolix and comparatively unanihaving possessed himself of the consulate, mated dialogues. His philosophical works, and formed an alliance with Antony and the principal part of the contents of which Lepidus, after the death of the two con- is taken from the Greek, and which suls, the power of the senate and of the combine academic and Stoic doctrines orator yielded to the arms of the trium- and principles, possess very unequal invirs. Cicero, who had always spared Oc- terest for us. Thus, for example, his tavius, and even proposed to Brutus to be work De Natura Deorum is, for us, only reconciled with him, was at last con- a collection of errors: the Tusculanc vinced that liberty was at an end. At Quæstiones are full of the subtilties of Tusculum, whither he had retired with the Athenian school: his work De Finihis brother and nephew, he learnt that his bus Bonorum et Malorum likewise bename, at Antony's demand, had been longs to this somewhat dry, dogmatic phiadded to the list of the proscribed. He Josophy. On the other hand, his works repaired, in a state of indecision, to the on practical morals have maintained their sea-coast, and embarked. Contrary winds full value. The book De Officiis is to this drove him back to the shore. At the request day the finest treatise on virtue, inspired of his slaves, he embarked a second time, by pure human wisdom. The pleasures of but soon returned again to await his fate friendship and old age have likewise been at his country-seat near Formiæ. “I will excellently set forth in Cicero's De Amicidie," exclaimed he,“ in my country, which tia and De Senectute. Of his political I have more than once saved.” His slaves, work De Republica, a considerable part seeing the neighborhood already disturbed was brought to light by Maio, and pubby the soldiers of the triumvirs, endeavored lished in Rome in 1822. Cicero wrote the to convey him away in a litter, but soon six books De Rep. in his 54th year. In discovered the murderers at their heels. these he endeavored to show by what They prepared for combat; but Cicero, policy, what resources and what morals who felt that death was unavoidable, or Rome had obtained the dominion of the dered them to make no resistance, bent world. Steinacker published these fraghis head before Popilius, the commander ments at Leipsic, in 1823. Villemain of the murderers, who had once been translated and explained them (Paris, 1823). saved by his eloquence, and suffered death The work has also been translated in the more courageously than he had borne United States (New York, 1829). Promisfortune. He died in his 64th year, fessor Gust. Münnich, in Cracow, gives A. U. C. 711 (B. C. 43). His head and an account of the Sarmatian copy of Cihands were, by the orders of Antony, af- cero De Rep., which, in 1581, was in the fixed to the same rostrum from which the possession of a Volhynian nobleman, and orator, as Livy says, had poured forth elo- has since disappeared, in his work, M. quence unequalled by any human voice. Tull. Ciceronis Libri De Republica notit

. Cicero merited the character which Au- Codicis Sarmat. (Göttingen, 1825). Acgustus gave him in these words: “He cording to him, Goslicki used this copy in was a good citizen, who loved his country his work De perfecto Senatore. Cicero's sincerely.” He was (particularly consider- works De Divinatione and De Legibus ing the spirit of his times) a virtuous man, are instructive monuments of antiquity. for his faults were only weaknesses of The same philosophical spirit is evident character, not vices, and he always pur- in all his oratorical treatises, particularly sued good for its own sake, or (what, if a in the most important of them, De Orafault, is easily forgiven) for the sake of tore, although this contains as little of utilfame. His heart was open to all noble ity for us as the Claris Oratoribus, Topiimpressions, to all great and fine feelings, cis, De Partitione Oratoria, &c. The to patriotism, friendship, gratitude, and most interesting of all Cicero's works, for love of science. Cicero's eloquence has posterity, are his Epistolæ familiares and VOL. III.


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