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Ad Atticum, which give a more exact and from the natural jealousy of the Italian, lively idea of the state of the republic than who seems to change his character comany of his other works, and display most pletely after marriage. Father Barri has strongly the characteristic traits of the au- made the Cicisbeatura the subject of a thor. They are translated, in a masterly moral work, and divides it into larga and style, by Wieland. The life of Cicero stretta ; the first kind he thinks pardonawas written, of old, by Plutarch, and ble, but the latter he regards with repughas been also, in modern times, by Mid- nance. This custom is much on the dedleton and Morabin. In the publication cline in Italy. and explanation of his works, Paulus and Cicognara, Leopold, count of, born at Aldus Manutius, Lambinus, the two Gru- Ferrara, about 1780. He early showed a ters, the two Gronovii, &c., have distin- great taste for the fine arts. His first work guished themselves. We possess late edi- was Memorie Storiche dei Letterati ed Artions of his entire works, by J. A. Ernesti, tisti Ferraresi (Ferrara, 1811). Napoleon Beck and Schütz. Cicero's life, interest- made him president of the academy of ing on many accounts, is particularly so fine arts at Venice, where his house beto the historical politician, as showing the came a central point for the lovers of the consequences of the deplorable state of fine arts. The French emperor also as the Roman republic, in the case of so dis- sisted him in his enterprises, and made tinguished an individual, as well as the him knight of the iron crown. After the impossibility of preserving its liberty. Ca- emperor's fall, the Austrian government to, Cicero, and some others, were worthy allowed Cicognara to retain his place as of having lived in a better age of the re- president of the academy of fine arts. In public, to the corruption of which they 1818, he accompanied the works of art fell martyrs.-In 1828 appeared a highly sent by the government of Venice to Viimportant work, edited by Maio (9. v.) enna as a present for the empress CaroClassicorum Auctorum e Vaticanis Codici- line of Austria. At the same time, he bus Editorum : Tomus I et II, curante presented her 100 copies of his Omaggio Angelo Majo, Vaticane Bibliothecæ Præ- delle Provincie Venete alla Maestà di Carfecto. Rome, Typis Vaticanis, 1828, 8vo. olina Augusta (Venice, 1818, fol.), with 18 The second volume contains all the frag- engravings. The work is splendidly exements of Cicero's orations which have cuted. Besides the 100 copies presented been discovered by Maio, Niebuhr and to the empress, only 500 were struck off, Peyron.

which never came into the book trade. CICERONE; the title of the person who, This Omaggio, therefore, belongs to the in Italy, and particularly in Rome, shows great bibliographical rarities. (See the and explains to strangers curiosities and count's Lettera sulla Statua rappresentante antiquities. The talkativeness of such Polimnia di Canova, Venice, 1817, p. 101.) persons has procured them the name of Cicognara, having long entertained the idea cicerone, in jocular allusion to Cicero. A of continuing Winckelmann's History of good cicerone must possess extensive and Art to the latest times, and having colaccurate information; and several distin- lected copious materials for this purpose, guished archæologists have pursued this at length produced a work which has been business, as it gives them an opportunity, violently attacked, both on account of its while serving others, to make repeated prolixity and its deficiencies. It is, howexaminations of the works of art, and thus ever, one which cannot be dispensed with. to become continually more familiar with Its title is, Storia della Scultura dal suo them. Signore Nibbi is the most distin- Risorgimento in Italia sino al Secolo di guished cicerone. He explains antiqui- Canova, of which vol. 1, fol., with 43 copties on the spot, in Rome, in a very inter- perplates, was published in Venice, at the esting manner.

expense of the author. It was followed, Cicisbeo; a name given, since the 17th in 1816, by vol. 2, containing 90 engravcentury, in Italy, to the professed gal- ings. This volume had on its title, Sino lant of a married lady. It is the fash- al Secolo XIX. Vol. 3 was published in ion, among the higher ranks in Italy, for 1818, with 48 plates. Of the 2d edition, the husband, from the day of marriage, to the 5th vol. appeared at Prato in 1824. associate with his wife in his own house When the first volume was completed, only. In society, or places of public Cicognara presented it himself to Napoamusement, she is accompanied by the leon, to whom it is dedicated. On his visit cicisbeo, who even attends at her toilet, to Paris for this purpose, he was elected a to receive her commands for the day. member of the institute. He had received This custom is the more extraordinary, assistance from the French government

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in the execution of his work; but this rate or lard, a capital ointment for irritawas withdrawn on the restoration of the ble sores, with which a poultice does not Bourbons, and the author became much agree. embarrassed, as he had spent a great part Cid. Don Rodrigo (Ruy) Diaz, count of his private fortune in the undertaking. of Bivar, surnamed the Cid, born in 1026, In consequence of having been confound- the model of the heroic virtues of his age, ed with another Cicognara, who was im- and the flower of Spanish chivalry, styled prisoned in Italy as a member of the by his enemies (the ambassadors of the Carbonari, he published a letter, while at Moorish kings) el mio Cid (my lord), and Paris, on the subject of the political per- by his king and countrymen Campeador secutions in his country, and expressed (hero without an equal), continues to live his opinion very freely. On his return in the poetry of his country. We were from Paris, he was received at Venice made acquainted with the history of his very coolly, and, in consequence, went to life by the play of the great Corneille. Rome. Having spent his fortune in his Rodrigo loved and was beloved by Ximeliterary enterprises, he was obliged to sell ne, daughter of Lozano, count of Gormaz, his library, which he had been 30 years in who, with Diego, the father of Rodrigo, collecting. For this purpose he published excelled all the knights at the court of a Catalogo ragionato dei Libri d'Arti Ferdinand I of Castile. The envy of e d’Antichità posseduti dal Conte Cicog- Gormaz at Diego's superior estimation at nara (Pisa, 2 vols.). This catalogue is a court produced a dispute between the work of value, as the titles are accompa- two, which led to a duel. Gormaz vannied with bibliographical notices. Among quished the old Diego, and, insult being the smaller works of the count, of which added to this disgrace, Diego demanded there are many, is Le Fabbriche più cospi- from his son the blood of the offender. cue di Venezia, misurate, illustrate ed in- In the contest between honor and love, tagliate dei Membri della Veneta R. Acca- the former prevailed in the breast of the demia delle belle Arti (Venice, 1820, 2 vols. youth, and Gormaz fell. Ximene, unforfol.) The work contains 250 engravings, tunate as a daughter and a mistress, could and the greater part of the critical obser- no longer listen to the voice of love: it vations are by Cicognara himself. became necessary for her to demand

Cicuta. The cicuta, or common Amer- vengeance on the object of her affections, ican hemlock (conium maculatum), is one and Rodrigo would willingly have rushed of the most valuable and important of to the combat, if by so doing he could medicinal vegetables. It is a plant indig- have alleviated the torments of a lacerated enous in most temperate climates, and is heart. But no champion was found to found commonly along walls and fences, meet the young hero; and nothing but the and about old ruins and buildings. It is discharge of the important duties which an annual plant, of four or five feet in devolved upon him could preserve him height, having very fine double pinnate from sinking under his despair. Five leaves, of a pale-green color, and bearing Moorish kings appeared in Castile: deflowers of a greenish-white, in large, flat vastation and death accompanied their heads. It was first introduced to general progress. Rodrigo, who was not yet 20 notice, together with other vegetables of years of age, threw himself upon his noble the same kind, by baron Storck of Vienna. horse Babieca, and, at the head of his The most common form in which it is vassals, went to meet the enemy, who administered, is the extract, which is given soon ceased to be the terror of the country. in pills. Of this, from 12 to 60 grains per The young hero sent the five captive kings day may be taken for a long time. It is to Ferdinand, who, as a reward for his invaluable in all chronic inflammations, bravery, gave him Ximene, and united and enlargements of glandular parts, as those whom the decrees of fate seemed to the liver, the womb, &c., tumors of which have separated forever. They were marit will sometimes remove in a space of ried in Valencia. Ferdinand afterwards time surprisingly short. Its use may be added Galicia, Leon and Oviedo to Cascontinued, if necessary, for a long time, tile, and posterity calls him the Great ; and it is not found to debilitate or injure but it was Rodrigo who gained him the the system in the manner that mercury name. A quarrel having arisen between always does when long used. Its green Ferdinand and king Ramiro of Arragon leaves, stirred into a soft poultice, form an concerning the possession of Calahorra, excellent application for painful sores and the latter challenged him to a single comulcers; and the same leaves, dried and bat, and appointed for bis substitute the rubbed fine, make, when mixed with ce- knight Martin Gonzalez. Ferdinand



chose the Cid for his champion, and, by lencia. In the midst of his career of conhis means, obtained Calahorra. Ferdi- quest, he hastened to the assistance of his nand, in his will, divided his dominions king, who was hard pressed by Joseph, among his sons: to Sancho he gave Cas- the founder of Morocco ; but the only retile, to Alfonso he gave Leon and Oviedo, turn for this generosity was new ingratand to Garcia, Galicia, together with the itude. He therefore departed by night, conquered part of Portugal. This divis- with his most trusty followers, and, forion caused a war between the brothers, in saken and ill provided, fed from the king. which Sancho was victorious: this suc- He, however, remained true to himselt, cess was owing to the Cid, to whom he and fortune to him. His magnanimity had given the command of his forces. Al- again overcame the king. Permission was fonso was taken prisoner, Garcia brought given to all to join the forces of the Cid, ruin upon himself by his own imprudence, who still maintained the cause of Spain, and it remained only to overcome the ob- and always with distinguished success. stinate resistance of Zamora, where San- Alfonso declared aloud, in the presence cho's sister Urraca ruled. Before the walls of the envious courtiers, “This Cid serves of this city Sancho was assassinated, and me much better than you," and could no Alfonso, who, eight months before, was longer be prevented from visiting him. vanquished by the Cid, was called to the From this time, he was never estranged throne. It is related, in the ballads, that from him, although he unintentionally the Cid read the oath of purification, in promoted the machinations of his enethe name of the states of Castile, before mies. Two brothers, counts of Carrion, the new king, on account of the murder had resolved, by a marriage with the of Sancho, with such impressive solem- daughters of the Cid, to obtain possession nity, that Alfonso shuddered, but was also of his wealth. The king himself prooffended. It is certain that he spared moted their suit, and the Cid yielded to nothing to gain over the Cid. The story his wishes. With donna Elvira and donof this warrior requires a critical examina- na Sol, they received likewise the great tion, especially what relates to his mar- treasures which the arms of the Cid had riage. According to history, Alfonso mar

But scarcely had they dismissed ried him to donna Ximene, his niece (in their attendants, when, in a wild, moun1074); and consequently it seems we must tainous desert, they stripped the garments consider him twice married. John von from the persons of the ladies, bound and Müller, the German historian, supposes beat them till pain choked their cries, and that the daughter of the proud Gormaz departed with the money. A trusty sermay have been his first Ximene. How- vant, whom the Cid had sent after them, ever that may be, it is certain that the Cid, delivered the ladies from their wretched notwithstanding the important services situation, and the vile deed was brought which he rendered to his king, often ex- to light. The Cid demanded justice. Alperienced the inconstancy of royal favor. fonso summoned all the vassals of Leon A man like him, of strict integrity and and Castile to a high court of justice at virtue, of an inflexible and lofty spirit, the city of Toledo. The Cid demanded who despised an effeminate life, was not the restoration of his treasures, and opporfitted for courts. His true friend and tunity to take vengeance for the insult, by brother in arms, Alvaro Hanez Mipaya, a combat between the counts of Carrion his wife and child, were his world. The and the champions whom he should gravity of his countenance excited respect name. They sought to avoid the combat, and reverence; his retired life afforded but the king insisted on it. With ill-conroom for the slanders of the courtiers; and cealed fear, they rode to the lists; the he was exposed to frequent reproaches. knights of the Cid overcame both them But, in times of necessity, his assistance and their uncle ; their dishonored lives was again sought, and he was too gener- were spared. The last exploit of the Cid ous to remember past offences. The king was the capture of Saguntum (Murviedro), finally took from him all that he had after which he died at Valencia, in the given him, wife and treasures; but, from 74th year of his age (1099). What this shame or fear, he afterwards restored Xi- hero won, and for many years defended, mene. Disgraced, plundered, forced to the united power of Leon and Castile was depend on himself alone, Rodrigo was now scarcely able to preserve against the enhappier and greater than before. Ever croachments of the infidels. His widow, true to his country and his religion, he therefore, went with the dead body of the raised an army by the reputation of his hero to Castile. He was buried at the name alone, to subdue the Moors in Va- convent of St. Peter of Cardena, in a tomb which was honored by emperors ed by Crocker, in his tract on The Art of and kings. There rests the noble Xime- making and managing Cider, that the ne, and under the trees before the convent most certain indications of the ripeness of lies the faithful horse Babieca. The ad- apples are the fragrance of their smell, ventures of the Cid, particularly his ban- and their spontaneously dropping from the ishment and return, are the subjects of the trees. When they are in this state of maoldest Castilian poem, probably composed turity, in a dry day, the limbs may, he at the end of the 12th century, Poema del says, be slightly shaken, and partly disCid el Campeador, which was published burthened of their golden store; thus in the Coleccion de Poesias Castellanas taking such apples only as are ripe, and anteriores al Siglo XV, of Sanchez, in leaving the unripe longer on the trees, 1775, and has been reprinted in Schubert's that they may also acquire a due degree Biblioteca Castellana Portugues y Proven- of maturity. Mr. Buel observes, that “ the zal. The later ballads, which commemo- only artificial criterion employed to ascerrate the hero, were, at the beginning of tain the quality of an apple for cider, is the 16th century, collected by Fernando the specific gravity of its must, or unferdel Castillo, and, in 1614, again published mented juice; or the weight compared by Pedro de Florez in the Romancero with that of water. This, says Knight, General. There has also been published indicates, with very considerable accuraa collection by Escobar-Historia del muy cy, the strength of the future cider. Its noble y valeroso Caballero el Cid Ruy Diaz, weight and consequent value are supposed en Romances (Lisbon, 1615; Seville, 1632). to be increased in the ratio of the increase A great number have been published in of saccharine matter." Mr. Knight says the Collection of the best Ancient Span- that the strongest and most highly-flavorish Historical, Chivalrous and Moorish ed cider which has been obtained from Poems, by Depping (Altenburg and Leip- the apple, was produced from fruit growsic, 1817). There are, in all, above a ing on a shallow loam, on a limestone hundred of these ballads extant. Herder, basis. All the writers on the subject seem in his beautiful Cid (Tübingen, 1806), has to agree that calcareous earth should form translated into German 70 of these ballads a component part of the soil of a cider(probably some of the collection of Esco- orchard. Coxe says the soil which yields bar). John von Müller has written the good wheat and clover is best for a ciderlife of the Cid (in the 8th volume of his orchard. Mr. Buel states, “My own obworks) from Spanish sources, mostly from servation would induce me also to prefer an old chronicle printed in Risco's Histo- a dry and somewhat loose soil, in which ria del Cid (Madrid, 1792). Whatever the roots destined to furnish food for the chronicles and songs have conveyed to us tree and fruit may penetrate freely, and of the history of the Cid, is collected in range extensively in search of nutriment.” the Chronicle of the Cid, from the Span- —2. Condition of the fruit. Fruit should ish, by Robert Southey (London, 1808, 4to.). be used when it has attained full maturity,

CIDER; a liquor made from the juice and before it begins to decay. The indiof apples. The quality of this popular cations of ripeness we have above stated. beverage depends principally on the fol- Each kind of apple should be manufaclowing particulars, viz.-1. kind of fruit; tured separately, or, at least, those kinds 2. condition of the fruit when ground; only should be mixed which ripen about 3. manner of grinding and pressing ; 4. the same time. Mr. Buel says, “ The apmethod of conducting the requisite fer- ples should ripen on the tree, be gathered mentation, and precautions to be taken when dry, in a cleanly manner, spread in against its excess. — 1. The characteristics an airy, covered situation, if practicable, of a good cider-apple (according to Mr. for a time, to induce an evaporation of Buel of Albany) are, a red skin, yellow aqueous matter, which will increase the and often tough and fibrous pulp, astrin- strength and flavor of the liquor, and be gency, dryness, and ripeness at the cider- separated from rotten fruit, and every kind making season. Mr. Knight, a famous of filth, before they are ground."-3. GrindEnglish horticulturist, asserts, that

, “ when ing, &c. The apples should be reduced, the rind and pulp are green, the cider by the mill, as nearly as possible to a uniwill always be thin, weak and colorless; form mass, in which the rind and seeds and when these are deeply tinged with are scarcely discoverable, and the pomace yellow, it will, however manufactured, or should be exposed to the air. Knight asin whatever soil the fruit may have certained, by experiments, that, by exposgrown, almost always possess color and ing the reduced pulp to the operation of either strength or richness.” It is obsery- the atmosphere for a few hours, the spe

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cific gravity of the juice increased from gas. A bottle of French brandy, or half
1,064 to 1,078; and, from the experiment a gallon of cider-brandy, added to a bar-
being repeated in a closed vessel with at- rel, is likewise recommended, to be add-
mospheric air, he ascertained the acces- ed as soon as the vinous fermentation is
sion to be oxygen, which, according to completed. The best rider manufactured
Lavoisier, constitutes 64 per cent. of su- in the U. States is said to be that of New-
gar. For fine cider, he recommends that ark, New Jersey, and that produced from
the fruit be ground and pressed imper- an apple mostly cultivated in Virginia,
fectly, and that the pulp be then exposed called the Virginia crab-apple.
24 hours to the air, being spread and once CIGAR. (See Tobacco, and Cuba.)
or twice turned, to facilitate the absorp- CIGNANI, Carlo; a celebrated painter,
tion of oxygen; that it be then ground born at Bologna in 1628; a pupil of Al-
again, and the expressed juice be added bano. He frequently commenced new
to it before it is again pressed. A grater works, but was seldom sufficiently satis-
cider-mill was presented by J. R. Newell, fied with his productions to consider them
of Boston, at an exhibition of the Massa- as finished. His Flight to Egypt was the
chusetts agricultural society, in the au- work of six months. He knew how to
tumn of 1828, for which he received a compose, like the Caracci, and to distrib-
premium of 12 dollars. It is thus de- ute his figures in such a way that his
scribed by the committee who awarded paintings appear larger than they really
the premium: “It has a wooden cylinder, are. His finest fresco paintings are at St.
upon the surface of which nails are fixed: Michael in Bosco, at Bologna, in ovals
the heads are sharp upon the edges, and supported by angels, and in the saloon of
project above the cylinder about one the Farnese palace, where he represented
eighth of an inch. The apples are filled Francis I of France touching for the
into a hopper placed over the cylinder, king's-evil. At Parına, in the ducal gar-
and led into a narrow cavity at the upper den, he painted several pieces expressive
side of it. The cylinder is mounted on a of the power of love, which lose nothing
high frame, its axes being placed in com- at the side of the paintings of Augustino
position boxes. A rapid revolution is Caracci. In his painting of the Assump-
produced by connecting it with a horse- tion, at Forli, he has imitated the beautiful
mill by belts or bands. The apples are Michael of Guido in the cupola at Ra-
reduced to a fine pomace, grated, not venna, and other fine conceptions of this
pressed. It performed well in the pres- painter; but in his other pieces he made
ence of the committee, and grated a bar. Correggio his model. He does not so
rel of russet apples in 1 minute 34 sec- often introduce fore-shortenings as the
onds."-4. Fermentation. The vinous fer- Lombards; and, in his outlines and dra-
mentation commences and terminates at pery, he possesses a finish peculiar to
different periods, according to the condi- himself. His pencil is powerful, and his
tion and quality of the fruit, ard the state coloring lively. Clement XI conferred
of the weather. According to Knight, on him several marks of distinction. Be-
the best criterion to judge of the proper ing commissioned to paint the cupola of
moment to rack off (or draw the liquor the church of Madonna del Fuoco, at For-
from the scum and sediment), will be the li, he repaired to Forli with his numerous
brightness of the liquor which takes place pupils, where he died in 1719. His paint-
after the discharge of fixed air has ceased, ings have been engraved by various art-
and a thick crust is collected on the sur- ists. Of bis pupils, the most distinguish-
face. The clear liquor should then be ed were Crespi, Franceschini, Quaini,
drawn off into another cask. If it re- count Felix Cignani, his son, and count
mains bright and quiet, nothing more need Paul Cignani, his nephew.
be done to it till the succeeding spring; Cilicia, in ancient geography; the re-
but if a scum collects on the surface, it gion between Pamphylia and Syria, lying
must immediately be racked off again, as S. of mount Taurus. The inhabitants of
this would produce bad effects if suffered the coasts were formidable as pirates, and
to sink.-Among the precautions used to even disturbed the Ægæan and Ionian
prevent excessive fermentation is stum- seas. The inhabitants of the northern
ming, which is fuming the cask with portion lived in part a nomadic life;
burning sulphur. This is done by burn- those in the east were devoted to agricul-
ing a rag impregnated with sulphur in the ture. Alexander made Cilicia a Macedo-
cask in which the liquor is to be decanted, nian province; it then passed to the
after it has been partly filled, and rolling Syrians. Pompey subdued its piratical
it, so as to incorporate the liquor with the inhabitants. It was governed by kings

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