« FöregåendeFortsätt »
to the bishop Urban, who was concealed country the art of ship-building, and thus among the tombs of the martyrs, and who laid the foundation of its commerce. He instructed him in the Christian religion, died after a reign of 50 years. His monand baptized him. When he returned to ument was erected in the temple of Mithe bride, he saw the protecting angel, nerva ; but, to preserve his memory alwho presented them both with crowns of ways fresh in their minds, the people heavenly roses and lilies. Valerian now consecrated to him the constellation of induced his brother Tubirtus to embrace Aquarius. (See Attica.) The researches the Christian faith. The Roman prefect which are making among the records of Almachius caused both brothers to be Egyptian history, since the key to their beheaded, as zealous professors of Chris- mysterious language has been discovered tianity. Life was to be given to Cecilia if by the skilfully directed efforts of Young, she would sacrifice to the heathen gods. De Sacy, Zoega, Champollion, and others, But she remained firm in her belief. will undoubtedly throw great light on the Upon this, the tyrant caused her to be progress of civilization from Egypt to shut up in a bath of boiling water, in Greece, described in the half mythological, which she was found, the day after, un- half historical tales of the latter country. hurt. The executioner was then directed CECROPIA. (See Athens, vol. i. p. 442.) to behead her: he inflicted three blows, CEDAR; a name given to several species but was not able to separate the head from of juniper, to a species of pine, the cedar the body. She lived for three days, ex- of Lebanon, and to the cupressus thuyoides. horting the faithful and giving alms to the It is an evergreen, and of great durability. poor. As early as the 5th century, we The most celebrated kind is the find a church in Rome dedicated to her. Cedar-Larch, or Cedar of Lebanon (pinus Pope Paschalis, who was very anxious to cedrus, L.), distinguished, by its strong, ragather relics, endeavored to discover her mose branches, from all other trees of the body. She appeared to him, as he relates same genus. The general character of the in his letters, while he was sleeping, and shoot, even when the tree is young, is sinpointed out the place of her sepulchre. gularly bold and picturesque, and quite Paschalis caused the body to be disinter- peculiar to the species. The tree is a nared in 821, and placed it in the church tive of the coldest part of
the mountains of which he rebuilt, where her monument is Libanus, Amanus and Taurus; but it is still to be seen. How Cecilia came to be not now to be found in those places in the patron-saint of music is not agreed. great numbers. Maundrell, in his journey The various opinions, however, seem to from Aleppo to Jerusalem, in 1696, could be united in this point, that it was either reckon only 16 large trees, though many through a misunderstanding, or through small ones. The forest of Libanus seems an allegorical interpretation of the words never to have recovered from the havoc above cited from her legend. Her wor- made by Solomon's forty score thousand ship, in this character, is very ancient hewers. Beautiful specimens of this noble Among the poets, Chaucer, Dryden in his tree are to be seen at Witton park, ZionAlexander's Feast, and Pope, have sung her house, &c., in England, where it seems to praises. Raphael, Domenichino, Dolce have been introduced in 1683, and where, and Mignard have represented her in cel- as professor Martyn observes, there are ebrated paintings. In the picture of Ra- probably, at present, more cedars than in phael, she appears as the personification Palestine. of heavenly devotion. This is, indeed, a White-Cedar (cupressus thuyoides) is a heavenly picture.
small or middle-sized evergreen, naturally CECROPS, the founder of Athens, arrived forming an elegant head. Its branches there about 1550 B. C., from Sais, at the are not pendulous. Its leaves are of a mouth of the Nile' (this emigration, how- delicate green color. It is a native of ever, has been questioned by some late North America, China and Cochin China. writers, e. g. Ottfried Müller), taught the In the U. States, it occupies large tracts, savage inhabitants religion and morals, denominated cedar-swamps. The wood is made them acquainted with the advan- soft, smooth, of an aromatic smell, and tages of social life, laid the foundation of internally of a red color. It is permanent the future city of Athens (Cecropia), and in shape, and very durable, and is esteemed built 11 other places, whose inhabitants as a material for fences. Large quantities he instructed in agriculture. He also of shingles are made of it. It is a favorite planted the olive, and consecrated it to material for wooden wares, or the nicer Minerva, the patron goddess of Athens. kinds of coopers' work. He then introduced into his adopted Red or Common Cedar (juniperus Vir
giniana); a native of North America and of Europe. In the forests are large herds
and tree. Unlike the white cedar, it grows in Narbonne, prohibiting the bishops from the driest and most barren soils. For wearing a dress distinguishing them posts of buildings, it is much in request; from the people, and forbidding the but it is difficult to obtain it of large choice of strangers for bishops, to the size.
displeasure of their flocks. The consent Cefalonia. (See Cephalonia.) of the people, of the clergy, and of the CELÆNO. (See Harpies.)
magistrate, he says, is necessary to a choice. CELEBES; an island in the East Indian He died April 6, 432. His letters are presea, of an irregular shape, about 500 miles served in the collection of D. Constant, long, and about 200 broad, called, by the folio, and in the collection of the councils. natives and Malays, Negree Oran Buggess, -Celestine V was also a saint. He was and, sometimes, Tanna Macassar; square chosen pope July 5, 1294, before which miles, about 90,000. It is divided into six time he was called Peter of Murrhone. states or kingdoms, viz., Goa, Bony, Wajoo, He lived as a hermit on Monte di Magella, Sopin, Selindrin and Mandar. Goa extends in continual fasting and penance, and was a considerable way along the west and entirely unfit for the papal chair, on acsouth, and contains, besides Macassar, two count of his utter ignorance of business and Dutch forts, Bontyn and Bulo Cumbo. of the world. He never would have been The government is monarchical, and the chosen, had not the papal chair been king is called karuang, and, sometimes, vacant for 27 months, on account of the rajah Goa.-Bony, or Pony, is E. of Goa, cardinals being divided into two parties entirely under the influence of the Dutch, When Celestine entered Aquila, he rode and is governed by a prince, called pajong, on an ass, led by two kings. He soon who is elected for life by seven orancayos, found the burden of business too heavy, or nobles.-Wajoo, or Warjoo, or Tuadjoo, and abdicated his dignity Dec. 13, 1294. is situated N. of Bony, and is governed by Boniface VIII succeeded him, and kept a prince elected for life by the orancayos. him prisoner till his death, May 19, 1296. Sopin is situated in the centre of the island, The greatest simplicity marks the governtowards the eastern side, to the E. of Bon. ment of this pope. He is the founder of -Selindrin is of small consideration, and the Celestines. (q. v.) is N. W.of Sopin.—Mandar lies on the W. CELESTINES (from their founder, pope and N. W. coast. The inhabitants are Celestine V, q. v.), the hermits of St. DaMohammedans.— The heat of this island mian, a religious order, instituted about the would be excessive if it were not moder- middle of the 13th century, in Italy, folated by abundant rains. The trees are lowed the rule of St. Benedict (q. v.), wore always green; fruit and flowers grow in white garments with black capes and scapall seasons; jasmines, roses, carnations, and ularies, and were devoted entirely to a other beautiful flowers, grow without cul- contemplative life. In the beginning of ture; orange-trees and citrons shade the the 18th century, the order was diminished ground, with mangoes, bananas, and other to the number of 96 monasteries in Italy, fruits. Cotton-trees cover the extensive and 21 in France. This society of gloomy plains. It produces no spice except pep- monks appears recently to have become per. The inhabitants raise a great number still smaller. In France, it no longer exof cattle: the oxen are larger than those ists.
CELIBACY (written by a Catholic). One from their wives, under penalty of excluof the sublime ideas of the Catholic church sion from the clergy. In the Western is its veneration of chastity. This places church, celibacy was rigorously required. Christianity in the most striking opposi - Pope Cyricius, at the end of the 4th cention to the sensual religions of the pagan tury, forbade the clergy to marry, or to world. Whilst the pagans lowered their cohabit with their wives, if already marrigods to the human standard, Christianity ed. At the same time, the monks received directed men's views to heaven, and ideal- consecration, which increased the conized human nature. St. Paul (1 Cor.7) rec- formity between them and the secular clerommends virginity, without condemning gy still further, and indirectly obliged the inatrimony. The Catholic church respects latter to observe celibacy. Several popes matrimonial chastity, but esteems virginity and particular councils repeated this ina higher virtue, as a sacrifice of the pleas- junction. The emperor Justinian declared ures of this life to purity of soul, as the all children of clergymen illegitimate, and victory of the moral nature over the phys- incapable of any hereditary succession or ical. With these sublime views of this inheritance. The council of Tours, in virtue, it is not wonderful that it was re- 566, issued a decree against married monks quired of the priests, who officiate in the and nuns, declaring that they should be high mystery of the eucharist. From the publicly excommunicated, and their martime of the apostles, it became a custom riage formally dissolved. Seculars, deain the church for bishops, priests and dea- cons and subdeacons, who were found to cons to renounce the joys of matrimonial dwell with their wives, were interdicted love at their consecration, and to devote the exercise of spiritual functions for the themselves entirely to the duties of their course of a year. In Spain, the bishops office. One point only was disputed, were ordered to enforce celibacy upon whether clergymen were to be merely their abbots, deacons, &c., once a year, in prohibited from marrying, or whether even their sermons; for, in that country, many those who were married before their con- priests, formerly Arians, and newly-consecration, should be required to separate verted, refused to give up their wives, conthemselves from their wives. At the gen- formably to the requisitions of the Catholic eral council of Nice, several bishops pro- church. As in other points, in this, also, posed that the bishops, priests and deacons, the Greek church dissented from the Rowho had received the holy consecration, man. The (Trullan) council of Constanshould be directed, by an express ordi- tinople, in 692, in its 13th canon, declares, nance, to give up their wives. But Paph- “Having heard that the Roman church nutius, bishop of Upper Thebais, contend- has ordered the priests and deacons to ed that cohabitation with a wife was a state relinquish their lawful wives, we, assemof chastity. It was sufficient, he said, ac- bled in this council, hereby decree, that cording to the ancient traditions of the priests and deacons, according to the anchurch, that clergymen should not be per- cient custom of the church, and the instimitted to marry; but he who had been tution of the holy apostles, may live with married before his consecration ought by their wives like the laity. We hereby forno means to be separated from his lawful bid any one to refuse the consecration of a wife. As it became the general opinion, priest or deacon on account of his being that a clergyman could not marry, it soon married, and cohabiting with his wife, after became the general practice to refuse con- he has requested consecration. We will secration to married men. By this means, by no means be unjust to marriage, nor uniformity was effected. As for the bish- separate what God has united.” These ops, it soon became a matter beyond dis- regulations are still in force in the Greek pute. After the institution of monachism church; and, while celibacy is required of had become firmly established, and the the bishops and monk-; priests and deamonks were regarded with veneration, on cons, if married before consecration, are account of their vow of perpetual chastity, allowed to contir.ue in the state of inatripublic opinion exacted from the secular mony. This is not a reason for saying clergy the same observance of celibacy. that the Roman church introduced celibacy; The holy father Epiphanius assures us she has only retained it, as an old apostolthat, by the ecclesiastical laws, celibacy ical tradition, to which she has added the was commanded, and that, wherever this rule, not to consecrate married men, unless command was neglected, it was a corrup- the wife enter a religious order. As no one tion of the church. The particular council has a right to demand to be consecrated a of Elvira commanded all bishops, presby- priest, the Roman church has, by this adters, deacons and subdeacons to abstain dition, violated no one's right. The Wester church had new reasons for enjoining was authorized, when suspicious women celibacy, when the system of benefices be- were found in the houses of clergymen, gan to be organized. At first, the officers to drive them out with whips, and cut off of the church lived on the voluntary gifts their hair. In the council of Canterbury, of the faithful. When the church acquired king Edgar himself delivered a speech on wealth, lands and tithes, the revenue and the scandalous life of the clergy, whose estates of all the churches belonging to the houses, as he said, might well be considdiocese of a bishop were considered as ered as brothels. Soon afterwards, a great one whole, the administration and distribu- number of canons and priests were dis tion of which depended on the bishop. missed, whose places were given to monks. But, in the seventh, eighth and ninth cen- In the council at Erham, in 1009, the clerturies, a particular sum was taken from the gy were directed anew to dismiss their common stock for each officer, the bishop wives. To those who abstained, it was not excepted. This constitution of the even promised, that they should be treatchurch was similar to that of the state, in ed like nobles by birth. Leo IX ordered which feudatories performed military and that women at Rome, transgressing with other services, in consideration of the usu- priests, should be slaves in the Lateran fruct of certain lands. Even the name was for life. Adalbert, archbishop of Hamburg, the same. The possessions of the feuda- excommunicated the concubines of priests, tories were called beneficcs, as well as those and had them ignominiously turned out of the clergy. If the clerical benefices of the city. Pope Victor II dismissed sevand employments had become hereditary, eral bishops on account of their irregularas was the case with the lay benefices, we ities. Notwithstanding all such prohibishould have seen a hereditary ecclesiasti- tions, it appeared impossible to maintain cal caste, similar to that of the nobility, the law of celibacy in force. In 1061, the which has been transmitted to us from the Lombard bishops, most of whom had middle ages, as a caste of warriors and concubines, themselves elected Nodolaus, civil officers. We should have seen he- bishop of Parma, afterwards Honorius II, reditary priests, hereditary bishops, and a antipope, merely because he did not live hereditary pope. The ruinous conse- in celibacy; and it was, therefore, hoped quences, moral and political, which would that he would not insist on the observance have resulted from such a state of things, of the prohibitory law. Add to this, that are easily conceived. All the feelings and most of these clergymen, living with conprinciples of a pure and divine religion cubines, in violation of canonical laws, would have disappeared in such an empire obtained their places by simony, and you of priests. The most absolute despotism have a true picture of the church in those would have been established over the na- days. The necessity was urgent that a tions, and every attempt of the commons reformer of the church should arise. He to attain a higher stand in political society appeared in Gregory VII, who, like all would have been frustrated. When the men of great genius, has a right to be canons in Wales afterwards abandoned judged in reference to the spirit of his age. celibacy, it was soon observed, that they In order to reform the corrupted discipline had succeeded in making their benefices of the church, he was obliged to encounter hereditary, by intermarriages between the simony and licentiousness of the clergy. their sons and daughters. The fate of The former he checked by opposing the Wales would have been that of all the emperor's right of investiture, and enforced Christian nations of the West, if the mar- the laws of celibacy by new regulations. riage of priests had been allowed. Whilst, In the council of 1074, at Rome, he ordered however, the church persevered in com- that all married clergymen, and all laymen manding celibacy, she had to struggle with who should confess to them, hear mass the opposition of a corrupt clergy. The of them, or be present at any divine sercouncil of Narbonne, in 791, forbade the vice performed by them, should be excomclergy to have any females living with municated. When the bishop of Coire them, even such as former rules had per- began to read this decree to the synod in mitted. The same was ordered by the Mentz, the clergy assailed him with recouncil of Mentz, 888. By the council of proaches and blows, so that he narrowly Augsburg, every clergyman was forbidden, escaped with his life. They declared that under penalty of dismission, either to mar- they did not pretend to be angels, and ry, or to cohabit with his wife, if already would rather give up their priesthood than married, or to retain female companions their wives. Gregory, nevertheless, sucwho had been introduced under the name ceeded, as he was supported by the most of sisters (subintroductas); and the bishop ancient and most undoubted canons. After Gregory's decease, the church continued expected from one who had lived in conin the same course. The prohibitions cubinage, and a change of religion was the were repeated, as well as the rules of cau- necessary consequence of marriage. Some tion concerning domestic life. Yet trans- Catholics wished this weak spot in their gressions of this hard commandment were church to be removed. At the council of very frequent, particularly in the 15th and Salzburg, in 1562, the bishops deliberated 16th centuries. In Petrarca's works are what measures ought to be proposed at many complaints of the licentiousness of the council of Trent, and resolved to vote the clergy at the pope's court in Avignon, for the marriage of the clergy. The duke where Petrarca lived for some time. In of Bavaria likewise insisted upon the marthe accounts of the council of Basle, it riage of the priests. The emperor, the is stated that many cardinals present there electors, and many other princes, directed lived openly with their concubines. In their envoys to demand it. The king of one of the chronicles of the mark of Bran- France also desired the marriage of the denburg, we are informed that, at a feast, clergy, or, at least, a maturer age for cona question arose whether the bishop's con- secration. But the majority at Trent (sess. cubine should precede the other ladies or 24, can. 9) decided for celibacy, observing not.* The reformation followed. It rec- that God would grant the prayers of those ognised no sacrificing priests ; virginity was who prayed earnestly for chastity, and esteerhed no higher than conjugal fidelity; would not suffer them to be tempted berows of chastity were considered no lon- yond their strength. The provisions, in ger obligatory; and, as the Protestant cler- regard to celibacy, are as follows:- The gy were subject either to the state or the clergy of the Greek church, who were religious communities, it was no longer to married before their consecration, are be feared that they would, by their own allowed to continue in a state of matrimoauthority, make the benefices hereditary. ny. The priest, however, must abstain Luther did not at first go the whole length from his wife three days before every celof these changes. He thought the prohi- ebration of the mass. Of the Roman clerbition of matrimony unjust; yet he believ- gy absolute celibacy is required; yet the ed that the monks, who were bound to four lower orders are permitted, on giving celibacy by their vows, ought to observe up their benefices, to quit the clerical prothem. He wrote to Spalatin, Aug. 6, fession, and to marry. But, from the sub1521, “Our Wittenbergians intend, too, to deacons upwards, celibacy is commanded give wives to the monks; but I shall not absolutely; except that the pope may give buffer myself to have one forced upon me.” permission to retire from the clerical office, Bartholomew Bernhardi, a monk, head of and, in consequence, to marry. The penthe religious establishment of Kemberg, alties for transgressing the rules of celibacy was the first of the clergy who married are numerous. The wife must be dis(in 1521), and most of the Lutheran divines missed, and penance undergone for the imitated' him. When the papal legate, car- offence. The offender is forbidden to dinal Campeggio, recommended the pun- perform the ecclesiastical functions belongishment of the married priests, this only ing to his degree, and cannot receive the widened the breach between the old and higher consecration, as he becomes what new church. Luther declared, in 1524, that is called irregular. Yet, after penance, he was not made of wood and stone, and, this irregularity may be removed by disin 1525, married the nun, the consecrated pensation from the bishop. Finally, he virgin, Catharine von Bora. (q. v.) Cel- becomes excommunicated by the very ibacy was the weak side of the Catholic act of his marriage, and must, on this church, as many divines went over to account, also, have recourse to the bishop, the reformed church under pretence of a to be received again into the communion. change in their religious sentiments, but, In Germany, by the terms of the peace of in reality, to be enabled to marry. The Westphalia, a Catholic clergyman who reformed princes offered their clergy the marries loses his benefice and his rank in alternative, either to marry their concu- the church, without loss of reputation, bines, or to put them away. The latter however, if his marriage be only a previsupposed a self-denial, which could not be ous step to his adoption of the Protestant
* In Abbot's Letters from Cuba (Boston, 1829, faith. Persons already married can be p. 15), it is stated, that most of the priests on consecrated as clergymen only on condiibat island have families, and speak of their chil- tion of their taking a vow of chastity, to dren without scruple, and will sometimes even rea- which the wife has given her consent. case is much the same in a great part of South She must also enter some religious order. America.
The rule of celibacy has been more strictVOL. III.