Sidor som bilder
PDF
ePub

er was pardoned on account of his youth; founded, may have been beneficial, but but the estates of the family, to which is wholly inconsistent with our ideas of belonged the villa Borghese, since so individual liberty. In the different govfamed for its treasures of art, were confis- ernments of Europe, censors are persons cated, and presented by the reigning pope, appointed by the government to adminisPaul V, of the house of Borghese, to his ter the censorship of the press. (q. v.) family. In the palace of Colonna, at Rome, CENSORSHIP OF Books. (See Books, travellers are shown an excellent painting, Censorship of:) said to be by Guido Reni, as the portrait Census; with the Romans, one of the of the unfortunate parricide ; and this most important institutions of the state, charming picture of the beautiful girl has and the foundation of its future greatness been the means of spreading over all Eu- It was introduced by king Servius Tullius, rope the tale of horror connected with it. B. C. 577. All Roman citizens, both in

Cenis, Mount; a mountain belonging the city and in the country, were obliged to the Alps, in the county of Maurienne, to report the amount of their property, the in Savoy. Its height is stated to be 8670 number of their children, slaves, &c., unfeet above the level of the sea. It is famous der penalty of losing their property and for the road which leads over it from Sa- their liberty. According to the statement voy to Pied

nt. (See Alps, Roads over.) thus given in, Servius Tullius divided the On the mountain is a plain, called Made- citizens into six classes, and those again leino, and a lake, with an hospital, called into centuries. (9. v.) The first class conLa Ramasse. The lake contains trouts of sisted of those whose fortunes amounted 16 pounds weight. This plain is surround- respectively to at least 100,000 asses or ed by higher peaks covered with snow. pounds of copper. The property of the (See Alps.) Benvenuto Cellini's journey second was at least 75,000; that of the over the Alps, in the 16th century, Eve- third, 50,000; that of the fourth, 25,000; lyn's, in the 17th, lady Mary Wortley's of the fifth, 11,000 asses: all the rest and Horace Walpole's, in the 18th, are all belonged to the sixth class. (See As.) interesting; but the danger has been re- Each class had a particular kind of arms, moved by Napoleon's road.

a particular post in the army, &c. This CENOBITE. (See Anchoret, and Monas- division produced the most important tery.)

consequences for Rome. At an earlier CENOTAPH (from the Greek Kevoráplov, period, the poor citizens were obliged to called also Kevýpuov); a monument erected pay the same taxes, and render the same in honor of a deceased person, but not services in war, as the rich; and the most containing his body, as is implied from important branches of the public administhe terms Kevòs, empty, and tápos, a tomb. tration were in the hands of the ignorant Some of these monuments were erected and passionate moh. The heaviest burin honor of persons buried elsewhere, oth- dens in war and in peace were, by this ers for persons whose bodies were not in- institution, transferred to the rich, and the terred. The ancients believed that, when chief direction of public affairs was placed the body was not buried, the soul could in the hands of the first class, which connot be admitted into the abodes of the tained, according to the rule of division blessed. When a body could not be established by Servius Tullius, as many found, it was supposed that some rest was centuries as all the rest. The citizens of afforded to the sufferer by erecting him the lowest class, who had no property, or a cenotaph, and calling out his name three very little, were hardly counted as a class, times with a loud voice. Such monu- so that the ancient authors often mention ments were distinguished by a particular only five classes. In the course of time, sign, usually a piece of a shipwrecked the original divisions suffered some alteravessel, to denote the death of the deceased tions, but the institution remained essenin a foreign land. The Pythagoreans tially the same. This census was repeated erected cenotaphs to those who had quit- every fifth year, at first by the kings, afterted their sect, as if they were actually dead. wards by the consuls, and, finally, by the

CENSORS were magistrates at Rome, censors. At a later period, however, it who kept a register of the number of the was not always taken at the fixed time, people and of their fortune, and (from and was often entirely omitted. After the 442 B. C.) regulated the taxes. At the termination of the census, an expiatory same time, they watched over the man- sacrifice was offered, called suovetaurilia. ners of the citizens. They were chosen - In the U. States, the census has again every fifth year. This institution, at the become an institution of great political period of simple manners in which it was importance, as it affords the basis of the national representation. The constitution CENTIARE; a French measure, the (art. 1, sect. 2, 3) says, "Representatives hundredth part of an are (q. v.); thus, and direct taxes shall be apportioned also, according to the new French divisamong the several states which may be ion of measures and weights, we have included within this union, according to centigramme, centilitre, centime, centimetre, their respective numbers, which shall be the hundredth part of a gramme, litre, determined by adding to the whole number franc, metre. (See French Decimal System.) of free persons, including those bound to CENTIGRADE. (See Thermometer.) service for a term of years, and excluding CENTIMANI. (See Briareus.) Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other CENTIPED (scolopendra, L.); a genus persons. The actual enumeration shall be of insects belonging to the order myriapomade within three years after the first da, C. They are distinguished by having meeting of the congress of the U. States, antenne of 14 joints and upwards, a and within every subsepuent term of ten mouth composed of two mandibles, a years, in such manner as they shall by quadrifid lip, two palpi, or small feet, unitlaw direct,” &c. Thus we shall have, in ed at their base, and a second lip, formed the year 1830, another census, which will by a second pair of dilated feet, joined at be highly interesting, on account of the their origin, and terminated by a strong rapid increase of several of the new states. hook, having an opening beneath its point, (For the results of this new census, see through which a poisonous fluid is thrown the article United States.)

out. The body is long, depressed and CENTAURS; an ancient barbarous peo- membranous, each ring being covered by ple in Thessaly, on mount Pelion. Ac- a coriaceous or cartilaginous plate, and cording to the fable, they were the chil- mostly having one pair of feet: the last is dren of Centaurus, a son of Apollo, and usually thrown backwards, and elongated the mares of Magnesia, or of Ixion and in form of a tail. These insects are nocthe cloud. (See Irion.) They are said turnal and carnivorous, and uniformly ento have been half horse and half man, and deavor to escape from the light. They the fable is explained in this manner: The conceal themselves under the decayed Centaurs first practised the art of mount- bark of trees, the decayed timbers of ing and managing horses. In the time buildings, among stones, lumber and rubof the Thessalian king Ixion, a herd bish, whence they sally forth at night in wild bulls on mount Pelion committed search of prey. The centiped is one of great devastations in the adjacent country. the greatest pests to be encountered in the Ixion offered a great reward to whoever West India islands, and throughout the should destroy them: in consequence of hot parts of the American continent. The which, the Centaurs trained horses to bear materials of which the houses are conthem on their backs, and slew the bulls. structed, and the rapid decay to which Mythology relates the combats of the Cen- timber is subject in such climates, afford taurs with Hercules, Theseus and Pirith- these noxious insects excellent hidingods. The latter, at the head of the Lapi- places, and they multiply with great thæ, another Thessalian nation, their he- rapidity. The utmost vigilance, even in reditary enemies, entirely defeated them, the most cleanly houses, is necessary to killed many, and drove them from Pelion. prevent these creatures from finding their

The Centaurs Nessus, Chiron and others way into the beds, which they often do are famous in ancient fable. The latter notwithstanding all the care that is taken is often mentioned under the name Cen- to prevent them. They always attempt taurus.

to escape when a light is brought into CENTAURY. There exist two plants of the room. They run with considerable this name, used in medicine: small cen- swiftness, but are quite ready to stand on taury (chironia centaurium of Lamarck), the defensive, and bite with severity. indigenous in Europe, growing abundant- This disposition to bite upon the slightest ly every where ; and American centaury provocation renders them very dangerous (chironia angularis of Willdenow), exten- when once they have entered a bed; the sively distributed throughout the United least movement of the sleeper over whom States. Both are annual plants, and they may be crawling, and who can esteemed as tonics and febrifuges: the scarcely fail to be disturbed by their sharplatter, however, is preferred by the Ameri- pointed feet or claws acting upon his skin, can physicians. It is also much used in will ensure a venomous bite, which will domestic practice as a prophylactic against be frequently repeated if the centiped be autumnal fevers, in strong infusions, in not speedily dislodged. The bite is exlarge and repeated doses.

ceedingly painful at the moment, and is followed by a high degree of local inflam- transition from the crustaceous or crab mation and a fever of great irritation. like animals to insects proper. They are Where the insect is large, and the bite the only insects which, in their perfect severe, life is much endangered, and not state, have more than six feet, and have unfrequently lost, especially if the sufferer the abdomen not distinct from the trunk. be of delicate and irritable habit of body. They live and grow much longer than The immediate application of a cupping- other insects, surviving through several glass, or any convenient substitute, over generations. When first hatched, they ihe wound, removes the pain and danger have but six feet, or, at least, fewer than at once. Spirits of hartshorn (volatile al- they afterwards acquire. The additional kali

, aqua ammoniæ alcoholiz), applied to feet, as well as the rings to which they the part, and doses of the same adminis- are attached, become developed as they tered internally (30 or 40 drops) twice, advance in age-a sort of change peculiar thrice or oftener in a day, will also lessen to this race. the pain, and avert dangerous conse- Cent JOURS (French; signifying hunquences. The mode of treatment first dred days). From the 20th of March, mentioned is the quickest and most cer- 1815, when Napoleon a second time as .tain. A popular remedy, in all places cended the throne of France, to the 28th where the centiped is common, is the ap- of June, when Louis XVIII again resumplication to the wound of brandy or rum ed the government in Cambray, just 100 in which a centiped has been for some days elapsed. Hence that interregnum is time preserved. This truly noxious in- called le gouvernement des cent jours. sect grows to the size of six inches and None of the measures of the administramore in length, and is a formidable inmate tion then existing have been acknowledgof most of the houses in tropical regions. ed by the present government. Therefore Bishop Heber speaks of them as being the 42 numbers of the collection of laws very large and poisonous in different parts (Bulletin des Lois) which appeared during of India. So accustomed are the West this time, containing 313 ordinances, inIndia slaves and residents to their presence, cluding the 12 resolutions of the provisoand regardless of danger from their bite, rial committee of government (from the that no particular pains are taken to lessen 22d to the 30th of June), have only a their numbers, or to banish them effectu- historical interest, and no binding power ally. It is very probable that they might as laws. They form the sixth series (série) be readily destroyed by placing poisoned of this collection, which commences with food within their reach; yet, while resi- the establishment of the famous revoludent in the West Indies, we never heard tionary tribunal (March 11, 1793), and is of any one being at the trouble of the ex- still continued in the seventh series. If periment, though centipeds were almost the facility with which Napoleon advancdaily killed about the house. They are ed from Cannes to Paris, with only 1100 frequently brought to the U. States in car- men, without striking a blow, in 14 days, goes of hides, &c.; and, a few years since, and the readiness with which many, who an individual, employed in unlading a had always opposed the emperor, joined vessel at Boston, lost his life in conse- him, after their short experience of what quence of being bitten by one of these in- France had to expect from the Bourbons sects, brought over in this way. It is pos- and the old aristocracy, show how little sible that the centiped is to be found in attachment existed in France for the old the most southern parts of the U. States, dynasty; the history of the “hundred though it has not as yet been spoken of days,” on the other hand, affords a proof as an annoyance. Species having con- that Napoleon himself had lost the basis siderable resemblance to the centiped of of real power, the support of public opinthe West Indies, and much dreaded onion; or that, knowing the character of the account of their bite, are often seen about French nation, and of his age, so well in extensive collections of timber and lumber many respects, he yet misapprehended at the saw-mills on the head waters of the both in other points of much importance. Susquehanna, &c. A smaller, dark, red- (For an account of his unequalled march dish-brown species, known by the name from Cannes to Paris, see Napoleon.) of thousand legs, is common in most parts His Acte additionnel of the 22d of April, of this country, living under dead bark or 1815, passing over entirely the Charte conamong decaying timbers. The order myri- stitutionnelle of June, 1814, alters and supapoda, to which these insects pertain, from plies the deficiencies of the constitutions their crustaceous covering, the formation of 1799 (year 8), of 1802, which esof the mouth, &c., appears to form the tablished the consulship for life, and of 1804, which established the imperial dig- foot, she was met by Mr. Hammond, fanity. This acte sought to gain the favor ther of the author of the love elegies, then of the people by the grant of more exten- a student at the university of Cambridge, sive privileges to the two chambers, by who persuaded her to assume the habit of conferring greater independence on the a boy, in which disguise she lived with him courts, by a tacit abolition of the special some months at college. At length, fearcourts and of the state prisons (prisons ing a discovery, he induced her to proceed d'état), by granting entire liberty of the to the metropolis, where, being yet only in press, and totally suppressing hereditary her 16th year, she married a nephew of distinctions. A general electoral assem- sir Stephen Fox. Becoming a widow bly (champ de Mai) was convoked to grat- within a year, she took for a second husify the taste of the people for great spec- band an officer of the army, of the name tacles. But the charm, once broken, of Carrol, who was killed in a duel the could not be renewed. With one party, second year of their wedlock. This event Napoleon found no confidence in his in her singular career reduced her to conpromises; the other used its new inde- siderable distress, and led her to attempt pendence to impose further restrictions on dramatic composition. Her first producthe government. The loss of a battle was tion was a tragedy, entitled the Perjured sufficient to overthrow his ill-supported Husband, which was performed in 1700. power; and Napoleon, deserted and press- This was followed by several comedies, ed by his former adherents (Fouché, Cau- chiefly translations from the French, laincourt, Carnot, &c.), was obliged to ab- which exhibited the vivacity that distindicate a second time. The ministers, guishes her literary character, and met during this period, appointed by a decree with some temporary success. She also of the 20th of March, 1815, were Gaudin, tried the stage as an actress on the provinduke of Gaëta, minister of finance; Maret, cial boards, and by that means attracted duke of Bassano, secretary of state ; thé the attention of her third and last husduke Decres, minister of the marine ; band, Mr. Centlivre, yeoman of the mouth Fouché, minister of the police ; Mollien, to queen Anne, whom she married in treasurer; Davoust, prince of Eckmühl, 1706. She still continued writing for the minister of war; Caulaincourt, duke of stage, and produced several more comeVicenza, minister of foreign affairs; Car- dies. Some of these remain stock pieces, not, minister of the interior; Cambacérès, of which number are the Busy Body, the duke of Parma, arch-chancellor and min- Wonder, and a Bold Stroke for a Wife. ister of justice. After the return of the They are diverting from the bustle of the king, by the ordinance of the 24th of July, incident and the liveliness of the charac1815, all members of the chamber of peers ters, but want the accompaniments of adof 1814 (29 in number), who had accepted equate language and forcible delineation. places during the “ hundred days,” were They partook of the license of the age. excluded from the chamber; but they Mrs. Centlivre enjoyed the friendship of have since been restored, with the excep- Steele, Farquhar, Rowe, and other wits of tion of two (Barral, archbishop of Tours, the day. Having, however, offended Pope, and count Canclaux). Of the 117 peers she obtained a place in the Dunciad, but of the “hundred days,” there are at pres- is introduced by no means characteristicalent only 40 in the chamber. The law of ly. She was handsome in person, and the 12th of January, 1816, declared a gen- her conversation was sprightly and agreeeral amnesty, with the exception of those able ; her disposition also appears to have who had voted for the death of Louis XVI, been friendly and benevolent. She died and of those who had accepted office dur- in 1723. Besides her dramatic works, ing the “hundred days.” They were con- published in 3 vols., 12mo., 1763, a voldemned to perpetual banishment, were ume of her poems and letters were coldeclared to have forfeited all public rights, lected and published by Boyer. and to be incapable of possessing estates. Cento (Latin); originally, a cloak (See Chambre Introuvable ; also the arti- made of patches (hence, as Lessing obcles France and Napoleon.)

serves, the dress of Harlequin is called, in CENTLIVRE, Susanna, a dramatic writer, Apuleius, mimi centuculus). The term was born in Ireland, in 1667. Her mind has been transferred to such poems as having early taken a romantic turn, on have been formed out of verses taken being unkindly treated by those who had from other poems. It was a particular the care of her after the death of her art to combine passages of different aumother, she formed the resolution of go- thors, on different subjects, in this maning to London. Travelling by herself on ner, so as to form a regular whole. Thus there were, in early times, Virgilian centos inhabitants of the country. They were (centones Virgiliani), in which most of subdued by Pedro de Alvarado, acting the verses were taken from Virgil; for in- under a commission from Cortez. He stance, the epithalamium of Ausonius; and set out from Mexico on this expedition centos from the verses of Homer (Homero- in 1523, with an army of 300 Spaniards, centones).

commanded by Pedro de Portocarrero CENTRAL AMERICA. The republic of and Hernando de Chaves, with a large Central America comprises the old king- body of auxiliary Indians from Mexico, dom of Guatimala. It is bounded north Cholula and Tlascala. Many desperate by Mexico and the bay of Honduras, east and sanguinary battles were fought before by the Caribbean sea and the province the invaders could effect the subjugation of Veragua (belonging to Colombia), and of the country. Most of these conflicts south-west by the Pacific ocean. It ex- oceurred in the districts of Suchiltepeque tends from 80 46 to 17° 51' north latitude. and Quezaltenango, where numerous traThe population of Guatimala was stated ditions and local memorials of these events by Humboldt, in 1808, at about 1,300,000; still remain among the aborigines. Six by Malte-Brun, in 1820, at 1,200,000; by desperate battles took place near the river the patriots, at 1,800,000. The rivers are Zamala, which thus acquired, in the vinumerous, but small. The largest are the cinity of the fields of carnage, the name Chiapa and St. Juan. The principal of Xiquigel, or River of Blood. A long lakes are those of Nicaragua and Leon. course of warfare ensued before Alvarado The whole country is mountainous, but could break the spirit of the Quiches. the particular ridges are but little known. After the death of their king, Tecum On the western shore, the country is sub- Umam, who fell in battle at the head of ject to the most tremendous convulsions his subjects, they had recourse to a strataof nature, which have involved, at times, gem as bold as it was grand in concepwhole cities in ruins, and exterminated tion. Their chief city, Utatlan, abounded complete tribes of people. No less than in palaces and other suinptuous edifices, 20 volcanoes are known to exist, which being hardly surpassed in splendor by are in constant activity ; some of them Mexico and Cusco. It was encompassed terrific. The soil is described as exceed- by a lofty wall, and was capable of being ingly fertile, and better cultivated than entered only at two points ; on one side by most parts of Spanish America; and, ac- a causeway, and on the other by a flight cording to Humboldt, this country, when of steps. Within, the buildings stood he saw it, was the most populous of the high and compact. In the hope of exterSpanish provinces. It produces, abundant- minating their enemies, the Quiches inly, grain, cochineal, honey, wax, cotton, vited the Spaniards into their capital, presugar-cane, indigo, pimento and choco- tending a willingness to submit

. After late. Cattle and sheep are abundant. their entrance, the Quiches set fire to the The bay of Honduras is celebrated for its city, and, if the Indians of another tribe trade in logwood. The temperature in had not been false to their countrymen, some parts is exceedingly hot and moist. and betrayed the secret, Alvarado and his The rains last from April to September, followers would have perished. Having and violent storms are frequent. The escaped this danger, the Spaniards pursuclimate is more healthy on the western ed their victorious course until all opposicoast than on the eastern. It is now di- tion was crushed, and, in 1524, laid the vided into the states of Guatimala, Salva- foundations of the city of Guatimala. Afdor, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, ter the subjugation of the Quiches, the corresponding to the provinces of which remaining tribes were subdued with comit consisted before the revolution, in which parative facility, and the dominion of the it declared itself independent of Spain, in conquerors was permanently established. September, 1821. This region was peo- The government of this country, as constipled originally by a party of the Toltecas tuted by Spain, was subject to the Mexican; Indians, from Mexico, as sufficiently, ap- but the dependence was far from being pears from their language, and other indi- close. It was denominated the kingdom cations of their origin; and tradition pre- of Guatimala, and governed by a captainserves the name of Nimaquiche, who led general. Owing to the secluded position the colony from Tula to their new abode. of the people, and their peculiar occupaAt the time of the conquest of Mexico by tions and spirit, they were almost the last Cortez, a descendant of Nimaquiche, call- among the Spanish colonies on the contied Tecum Umam, reigned in Utatlan, the nent to embrace the cause of indepenprincipal seat of the Quiches, or primitive dence. While an obstinate struggle was

« FöregåendeFortsätt »