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going on around them, they remained for and San Salvador. No colony cost Spain a long time in perfect tranquillity. At less blood than the vice-kingdom of Gualength, in September, 1821, they declared timala; but no other had so noble a govtheir independence of Spain; and al- ernor as Las Casas. The soil is volcanic, though, for a time, Iturbide obtained the and luxuriantly fertile. A large quantity control of a large part of the country, yet, of indigo is annually exported. The lake on his downfall, they recurred to their of Nicaragua, 121 iniles in length and 41 original purpose of forming a separate re- in breadth, may become highly important public. A constituent congress was con- in a commercial respect, as the navigable voked, which completed the organiza- river S. Juan unites it to the Atlantic ocean, tion of the general government, Nov. 22, and a canal has been proposed for connect1824, by the adoption of a federal consti- ing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, to retution analogous to that of the U. States. ceive its water from this lake. There are Under the constitution, Manuel Jose Arce several volcanoes on its shores. The abwas elected first president of the republic. original population of the country has very Various differences, however, of a polit- much decreased. The ruins of Huehuical nature, have prevented his adminis- etlapallan (9. v.) are remarkable. The tration from being a tranquil or happy converted Indians are called Ladiños ; the

Violent factions have plunged the others, Barbaros, or Bravos. Two pieces country into a civil war, which has con- of land (Tagurgalpa and Tolagalpa), betinued since the beginning of 1827. It longing to the United Provinces, have was conmenced hy the inhabitants of the never been subjected by the European state of Salvador, who, on account of settlers, or their descendants, and are some jealousy of the people of Guatimala, inhabited by the independent Moscos, or proceeded from one degree of opposition Mosquitos, and other tribes. That part of to another, until they actually levied troops, the coast called the Mosquito coast, and and marched into the territory of the extending to cape Gracias-a-Dios, the conGuatimaltecans. They were beaten by gress at Colombia, in 1824, declared to the troops of the general government un- belong to the territory of Colombia. A der the command of Arce, and driven part of that coast called Poyais (q. v.), back into Salvador ; but still the war has containing a town of the same name, was been protracted with various success. erected into a separate state by the Scotch Besides this, disturbances of a serious adventurer, Mac Gregor.–Central Americharacter have existed in others of the ca contains antiquities of a very interesting states; all tending to show that the people nature, which have been but imperfectly are far from being well fitted for the deli- examined and described hitherto, and cate task of self-government. The gov- which indicate that the aboriginal inhabiternment consists of a president, a senate, ants of the country had even attained a very and a chamber of representatives. The respectable proficiency in the knowledge Catholic is the established religion. No of the arts of life. Near the village of other is tolerated. Slavery is abolished. Palenque are the ruins of what was once a

The commercial regulations are on a city of several leagues in circumference. much more liberal footing than in the oth- Remains of temples, altars, and ornamener new republics. Foreigners have the tal stones, statues of deities, and other same rights with the natives. Englishmen works of sculpture, are permanent proofs and adventurers from the V. States wan- of its former importance. Like remains are der over this rich republic, and carry on found near Ocosingo, in the same part of a lucrative commerce with the natives, the Central America. A circus, and several treasures which the country offers in gold stone pyramids, in the valley of Copan, in and silver being in the hands of the labor. Honduras, are better known than the ruins ing class. The flag of the United Prov- of Palenque and Ocosingo. Vestiges of inces of Central America consists of three the city of Utatlan, before mentioned, of stripes of different colors, with three vol- Patinamit and Mixco, and of many forcanoes (signifying the three principal prov- tresses and castles in the province of Queinces—Guatimala, Nicaragua and Coma- zaltenango, are mentioned by Juarros and yagua), under a rainbow, with the inscrip- other authors. This country has attracted tion, “God, concord, liberty.". The prin- attention incidentally of late, owing to its cipal town, Guatimala, and the province geographical position, and the hope enterof the same name, are so called from the tained by many of seeing a canal cut Indian word guanhtemali (rotten wood), across the isthmus in some part of Central the Indian term for Campeachy wood. America, so as to unite the Pacific and Cortez founded the towns of Guatimala Atlantic oceans by a navigable channel.

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It has been well described by a native, sult of the inertia of the body, or rather Domingo Juarros, whose account has been of the motion which, having been once translated into English by Mr. Baily— given to the body, is continued by means Statistical and Commercial History of of this inertia. (See Circular Motion.) Guatimala. (See also don Francia de CENTRAL Motion. (See Circular Mo- Fuente's History of Gualimala, before and tion.) after the Spanish Conquest.)

CENTRE, LE (French; signifying the CENTRAL FIRE. Many natural philoso- centre). In the French chamber of depuphers have supposed a perpetual fire to ties, the seats are ranged in a semicircle in exist in the centre of the earth, which front of the president, and leave only a they call central fire. In ancient times, narrow passage in the centre. The minvolcanoes and other similar phenomena isters themselves do not sit

, as in England, were explained by it. At a later period, among the deputies, but in the front seat, when it was understood that such a fire on the left side of the centre. In Engin the interior of the earth was impossible, land, the ministry is the centre of the the phrase was used to express the interior majority, and all who do not vote with it, warmth of the earth. To this central however different their views, unite in the warmth Mairan ascribes a great part of opposition. In France, the two chief the warmth on the surface of the earth. parties, one of which is attached to the To a certain depth, there appears to be a old, the other to the new system of things, fixed temperature in the interior of the are opposed to each other independently of earth, which probably arises from the the ministers, and thus enable the ministry penetrating heat of the sun. At least ex- to maintain itself, as has been the case till periments show that in hot climates the very lately, without belonging decidedly interior of the earth is warmer than in to either party. The ministry bestows cold ones. In Siberia, for instance, some many offices on the condition that the workmen, having penetrated 80 feet in officers shall always vote with it. In the digging a well, found the earth frozen French chamber of deputies, the adherents even at that depth. Interesting informa- of the ministry chiefly sit near their leadtion on this subject may be found in Biot's ers, on the seats in the centre (le centre). Astronomie Physique (Žd ed., Paris, 1810), Here are to be found, therefore, the prein the 2d vol. 15th chap. De la Tempéra- fects, state-attorneys, and other officers of ture de la Terre.

the government, who, for the sake of CENTRAL FORCES; those forces by office, support all the propositions of the the cooperation of which circular motion ministers. They are joined by those who, is produced ; that is, the centripetal and like the Doctrinaires (q. v.), under the centrifugal forces. Many natural philoso- ministry of Decazes, keep the centre, inphers deny the existence of the latter, and dependently of the two chief parties, and assert it to be a mere mathematical idea. support the ministers from conviction. They say, a body, once put in motion, (During the ministry of Villèle, the Doccontinues its motion in the same direction, trinaires went over almost wholly to the and with the same velocity, without the side of the opposition.) But private opininterposition of a new power, on account ion, and the circumstances by which it is of its inertia. Now the heavenly bodies influenced, often operate so powerfully, were impelled, in the beginning, by the that parties even appear in the centre. · It Creator, with an almighty power, and is itself divided into a right and left side. would be obliged, by their inertia, to go The members of the late ministry, preon eternally in one direction, and with the ceding that of prince Polignac, belonged same velocity, if they were not attracted, chiefly to the moderate party.-In Engin all points of their motion, towards a land, the members of the parliament also point out of this direction, by which a cir- sit on different sides, according to their cular motion is produced. Of the first party:-In the U. States of North Amermoving force, there is now no longer any ica, the seats are decided by lot, in both question. That power by which the houses, and thus the members of all parheavenly bodies are drawn towards points ties are distributed all over the house. out of their rectilinear path, is called the CENTRIFUGAL Force, in astronomy, is centripetal force. This power would put the force by reason of which the heavenly the heavenly body in motion if it were at bodies, in their revolutions, tend to fly off rest; as it finds it already in motion, it from the centre. The circular motion changes its direction at every point. The is said to be caused by the perpetual case is quite different with the centrifugal conflict of the centrifugal and centripetal force. This appears to be merely the re- forces.

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VOL. III.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE. (See Central miles in length, and from 10 to 20 in Forces.)

breadth ; lon. 20° 40' to 21° 18' E.; lat. CENTURIES OF MAGDEBURG. The first 38° to 38° 28 N.; square miles 340, with comprehensive work of the Protestants 63,200 inhabitants

, who own 400 vessels on the history of the Christian church of different kinds. The island has 203 was so called, because it was divided into towns and villages, three ports, and excelcenturies, each volume containing a hun- lent anchoring places and bays. The clidred years, and was first written at Mag- mate is warm and delightful, the landscape deburg. Matthias Flacius (q. v.) formed is adorned with flowers during the whole the plan of it in 1552, in order to prove year, and the trees yield two crops of fruit the agreement of the Lutheran doctrine annually. A great part of the soil is dewith that of the primitive Christians, and voted to the production of raisins, curthe difference between the latter and that rants, wine, oil

, citrons, melons, pomeof the Catholics. Joh. Wigand, Matth. granates and cotton. The raisins are Judex, Basilius Faber, Andreas Corvinus, preferred to those of any other of the and Thomas Holzhuter, were, after Fla- Grecian islands, and even to those of the cius, the chief writers and editors. Some Morea. About 2500 tons are produced Lutheran princes and nobles patronised annually. Between 25 and 30,000 casks it, and many learned men assisted in the of oil, and 50,000 of wine, 5 or 6,000,000 work, which was drawn, with great care pounds of currants, and 100,000 pounds and fidelity, from the original sources, of cotton, are likewise obtained yearly. compiled with sound judgment, and writ- Silks, medicinal herbs, oranges and lemons ten in Latin. It was continued by the are also raised. The system of agriculture centuriatores (as the editors were called) adopted by the great land owners requires only to 1300. It was published at Båle, that a large proportion of the grain and from 1559 to 1574, in 13 vols. fol., at great meat consumed in the island should be expense. A good modern edition, by imported from the Morea. The island is Baumgarten and Semler, which reaches, subject to frequent earthquakes. Cephahowever, only to the year 500, appeared lonia belonged to the Venetians until 1797, at Nuremburg, from 1757 to 1765, in 6 when the French took possession of it. vols. 4to. A good abridgment was pre- Since 1815, it has belonged to the repubpared by Lucas Osiander (Tübingen, lic of the united Ionian islands. (q. v.) (See 1592—1604, 9 vols. 4to.), of which the Napier's Statistical Account of the Island Tübingen edition, 1607 and 1608 (usually of Cefalonia, London, 1824.)— The ancient in four thick vols. 4to.), comprehends also name of the island was Cephallenia, from the period from the 14th to the 16th cen- the mythological Cephalus, husband of tury. The Catholics finding themselves Procris. It was tributary to Thebes, the attacked in this alarming way, and con- Macedonians and the Ætolians, till the futed by matters of fact, Baronius (9. v.) Romans took it. In the time of Thucydiwrote his Annals, in opposition to the des, it had four cities ; Same, Prone, CraCenturiæ.

nii and Pale. Strabo only knew of two. CENTURY (Latin centuria); a division CEPHALUS ; the son of Creusa ; accordof 100 men.

This kind of division was ing to some, the son of Deioneus, king of very common with the Romans, and was Phocis, and of Diomede. . He was the used, in general, to denote a particular husband of Procris. Shortly after his body, although this might not contain ex- marriage, Aurora carried off the beautiful actly 100 men. Thus centuries, in the youth while he was hunting on mount army, were the companies into which the Hymettus. He refused the love of the Roman legions were divided. This name goddess, who induced him to put the virwas also given to the divisions of the six tue of his wife to a trial which it could classes of the people, introduced by Ser- not withstand. Procris, in return, tempted vius Tullius. The first class contained him likewise, and he yielded also. Learn80, to which were added the 18 centuries ing their mutual weakness, they became of the knights; the three following classes reconciled. But Procris subsequently behad each 20 centuries, the fifth 30, and came jealous of her husband, and conthe sixth only 1 century. The people cealed herself in a wood to watch him. voted in the public elections by centuries. He mistook her, among the leaves, for a (See Census.)

wild animal, and killed her. On this, he Cephalonia, or CEFALONIA; the largest was banished from Greece by the court of the islands in the Ionian sea, west of of Areopagus, or, as some relate, killed the Morea, at the entrance of the golfo di himself with the same dart which had Patrasso, or gulf of Lepanto, about 40 destroyed Procris.

CERACCHI, Joseph, born at Rome, was ductions of agriculture, also the festivals an eminent statuary, when the revolution of Ceres. in his native city induced him to give up CEREMONIAL OF THE EUROPEAN Powthe practice of his art, and engage in poli- ERS. One of the many ridiculous usages tics. In 1799, he was among the warmest and pompous nullities, of which such a partisans of the new republic. On the number have arisen in Europe, principally reěstablishment of the papal authority, he from confounding the interests and honor was obliged to leave Rome, and went to of the person of the monarch with the Paris, where he was employed in making interests and honor of the nation, is the a bust of the first consul. Nevertheless, subject of this article; which has given he joined the young French artists whom rise to much war and confusion, and he had known at Rome, and whose ar- thrown many obstacles in the way of dent republican opinions coincided with peace. After the thirty years' war, a war his own, in a conspiracy against Bona- of wits, of equal length, was carried on parte, in whom he saw only the oppressor among the ambassadors, on the subject of of his country. In October, 1800, he was etiquette. It is evident that no indepenarrested at the opera, with Arena, Damer- dent state can actually have precedence of ville and Topino Lebrun. Before the tri- another; but, as the weaker seek the probunal, he answered only in monosyllables tection and friendship of the more powerto the questions put to him. He was ful, there arises a priority of rank. This sentenced to death, together with his ac- has occasioned the gradual establishment complices, and ascended the scaffold, Feb. of dignities, rank, and acts of respect to 1801, with great firmness. The death of states, their rulers and representatives, by this disciple, and almost rival, of Canova, which means (in contradistinction to the was a great loss to sculpture.

internal etiquette of a state) an internaCERBERUS ; a three-headed dog, with tional ceremonial has been formed, to the snakes for hair, the offspring of Echidna observance of which far more consideraby Typhon, the most terrible of the giants tion is often paid than to the fulfilment that attempted to storm heaven. Åt his of the most sacred contracts. Louis XIV bark, hell trembled, and, when he got carried this folly further, perhaps, than loose from his hundred chains, even the any one before or after him. To this inFuries could not tame him. He watched ternational ceremonial belong, 1. Titles of the entrance of Tartarus, or the regions rulers. Accident made the imperial and of the dead, and fawned on those who regal titles the highest, and thus conferred entered, but seized and devoured those advantages apart from the power of the who attempted to return. Hercules only princes. After Charlemagne, the Roman subdued him. Thus says the Greek my- emperors were considered as the sovethology. In the article Cemetery, the reigns of Christendom, maintained the reader will find that it was customary, highest rank, and even asserted the deamong the Egyptians, after a corpse had pendence of the kings on themselves. been solemnly buried, to bid farewell to For this reason, several kings, in the the deceased three times, with a loud middle ages, to demonstrate their indepenvoice. To express the circumstance that dence, likewise gave their crowns the title the deceased had been honored with the of imperial. England, for example, in all rites of burial and the lamentations of its public acts, is still styled the imperial his friends, they represented, in the le- crown. The kings of France received gend imprinted on the mummy, or en- from the Turks and Africans the title graved on the tomb, the figure of the empereur de France. In progress of time, horse of the Nile, which the Greeks mis- the kings were less willing to concede to took for a dog, and represented it with the imperial title, of itself, superiority to three heads, in order to express the three the royal. 2. Acknowledgment of the cries or farewells. The Egyptians called titles and rank of rulers. Formerly, the this hieroglyphic oms, and the Greeks popes and emperor arrogated the right of cerber, from the Egyptian ceriber, a word granting these dignities; but the principle that means the cry of the tomb. It is natu- was afterwards established, that every ral, therefore, to suppose the Egyptian people could grant to its rulers, at pleasure, oms the basis of the Greek mythos of a title, the recognition of which rests on Cerberus. (See page 148 in Lectures on the pleasure of other powers, and on Hieroglyphics and Egyptian Antiquities, by treaties. Some titles were, therefore, never the marquis Spineto, London, 1829, 8vo.) recognised, or not till after the lapse of

CEREALIA (from Ceres, the goddess of considerable time. This was the case the fields and of fruits) signified the pro- with the royal title of Prussia, the imperial title of Russia, the new titles of Ger- of Vienna, a discussion took place reman princes, &c. 3. Marks of respect specting the settling of the rank of the conformable to the rank and titles of European powers, and its inseparable consovereigns. To the royal prerogatives, so sequences; and the commission appointed called (which, however, were conceded to for the purpose by the eight powers, who various states which were neither king- signed the peace of Paris, made in their doms nor empires, such as Venice, the scheme a division of the powers into three Netherlands, Switzerland, the electorates), classes. But, as opinions were by no pertained the right of sending ambassa- means unanimous on the subject, most dors of the first class, &c. In connexion of the plenipotentiaries voting for three with this, there is a much contested point, classes, Portugal and Spain for two, and viz. that of precedence or priority of rank, lord Castlereagh entirely rejecting the i. e. of the right of assuming the more principle of classification, as the source of honorable station on any occasion, either constant difficulties, the question respectpersonally, at meetings of the princes ing the rank of the powers was suffered themselves, or of their ambassadors, at to rest, and the ambassadors of the crownformal assemblies, &c., or by writing, as ed heads were merely divided into three in the form and signature of state papers. classes. (See Ministers, Foreign.) Rulers There is never a want of grounds for of equal dignity, when they make visits, supporting a claim to precedence. As the concede to each other the precedence at councils, in the middle ages, afforded the home: in other cases, where the precemost frequent occasion of such controver- dence is not settled, they or their ambassies, the popes often interfered. Of the sadors take turns, till a compromise is efseveral arrangements of the rank of the fected in some way.—Many states claim European powers, which emanated from not a precedence, but merely an equality. the popes, the principal is the one promul- But, if neither can be obtained, there are gated in 1504, by Julius II, through his several means of avoiding the scandalous master of ceremonies, Paris de Crassis, in scenes that formerly so often occurred. which the European nations followed The ruler either comes incognito, or sends each other in this order:- 1. the Roman an ambassador of different rank from his emperor (emperor of Germany); 2. the with whom he contests the precedence ; king of Rome; 3. the king of France; 4. or the rulers or their ambassadors do not the king of Spain ; 5. of Arragon; 6. of appear on public occasions; or, if they do, Portugal ; 7. of England ; 8. of Sicily; 9. it is with a reservation respecting their of Scotland ; 10. of Hungary; 11. of Na- dignity. In treaties between two powers, varre ; 12. of Cyprus; 13. of Bohemia; two copies are made, and each is signed 14. of Poland ; 15. of Denmark; 16. re- by only one party; or, if both sign, each public of Venice ; 17. duke of Bretagne; party receives the copy in which it holds 18. duke of Burgundy ; 19. elector of Ba- the place of honor. According to the varia ; 20. of Saxony; 21. of Branden- above-mentioned resolution respecting the burg ; 22. archduke of Austria ; 23. duke relative rank of ambassadors, which forms of Savoy; 2. grand-duke of Florence; the 17th affix to the final act of the con25. duke of Milan ; 26. duke of Bavaria ; gress of Vienna, the order to be observed 27. of Lorraine. This order of rank was by the ambassadors in signing public panot, indeed, universally received; but it pers or treaties between powers, in recontained a fruitful germ of future quar- spect to which the rule of alternate prerels; some states, which were benefited cedence exists, shall be determined by lot. by the arrangement, insisting upon its In England and France, far less ceremoadoption, and others, from opposite rea- nial is observed, in the official style, than sons, refusing to acknowledge it. To sup- in Germany,* where forms and titles are port their claims for precedence, the can- carried to an absurd extent, and the ceredidates sometimes relied on the length of

* The following is an instance of the degree of time which had elapsed since their fami- folly to which the love of titles has been carried in lies became independent, or since the Germany. We do not say that it was often carintroduction of Christianity into their do- ried to this extent, but the instance is too good to be minions; sometimes on the form of gov- the 17th century, had his likeness taken, and, ac

omitted. A certain man of the name of Seeger, in ernment, the number of crowns, the titles, cording to the fashion of the period, was repreachievements, extent of possessions, &c., sented standing under a crucifix. From his mouth pertaining to each. But no definite rules proceeded the words Domine Jesu Christe, amus me ? have been established, by which states are

and from the mouth of the Savior the following an

swer :-Curissime, nobilissime atque doctissime designated as being of the first, second, domine mag. Seeger, rector schole Wittenbergensis third, fourth, &c. rank. At the congress meritissime atque dignissime, omnino amo te !

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