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POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

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Philadelphia:

CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK

BY G & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY

CARTER & HENDEE.

1830.

EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit: BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, * An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

HE E55

3

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES; a name given to to his connexion with the old soldiers of seven epistles of the New Testament, be- Sylla, by means of whom he kept in awe cause written to Christians in general, and the towns near Rome, and even Rome not to believers of some particular place. itself. At the same time, he numbered They are, one of James, two of Peter, among his adherents not only the worst three of John, and one of Jude.

and lowest of the riotous populace, but CATHOLICISM. (See Roman Catholic also many of the patricians, and men of Church)

consular rank. Every thing favored his CatiLiNE, Lucius Sergius, was just audacious scheme. Pompey was pursuentering on the age of manhood when ing the victories which Lucullus had preRome became a prey to the rage of Ma- pared for him; and the latter was but a rius and Sylla. Of patrician birth, he feeble supporter of the patriots in the attached himself to the cause of the senate, who wished him, but in vain, to latter, had some share in his success, and put himself at their head. Crassus, who still more in his proscriptions. Murder, had delivered Italy from the gladiators, rapine and conflagration were the first was now striving, with mad eagerness, deeds and pleasures of his youth. His after power and riches, and, instead of influence on the fortunes of the disorder- opposing, countenanced the growing ined republic became important. He ap- fluence of Catiline, as a means of his pears to have served in the army with own aggrandizement. Cæsar, who was reputation. He was peculiarly danger- laboring to revive the party of Marius, ous and formidable, as his power of spared Catiline, and, perhaps, even endissimulation enabled him to throw a couraged him. Only two Romans reveil over his vices. Such was his art, mained determined to uphold their falling that, while he was poisoning the minds country-Cato and Cicero; the latter of of the Roman youth, he gained the whom alone possessed the qualifications friendship and esteem of the severe Cat- necessary for the task. The conspirators ulus. Equally well qualified to deceive were now planning the elevation of Catithe good, to intimidate the weak, and to line and one of his accomplices to the inspire his own boldness into his deprav- consulship. When this was effected, they ed associates, he evaded two accusations hoped to obtain possession of the public brought against him by Clodius, for crim-' treasures and the property of the citizens, inal intercourse with a vestal, and for under various pretexts, and especially monstrous extortions, of which he had by means of proscription. It is not probbeen guilty while procónsul in Africa. able, however, that "Catiline had promisHe was suspected, also, of having mur- ed them the liberty of burning and plundered his first wife and his son. A con- dering Rome. Cicero had the courage federacy of many young men of high birth to stand candidate for the consulship, in and daring character, who saw no other spite of the impending danger, of the means of extricating themselves from extent of which he was perfectly aware. their enormous debts, than by obtaining Neither insults, nor threats, nor even rithe highest offices of the state, having ots and attempts to assassinate him, debeen formed, Catiline was placed at their terred him from his purpose; and, being head. This eminence he owed chiefly supported by the rich citizens, he gained

same.

his election, B. C. 65. All that the party as soon as Catiline appeared at the gates. of Catiline could accomplish was the According to Cicero and Sallust, it was election of Caius Antony, one of their the intention of the conspirators to set accomplices, as colleague of Cicero. This the city on fire, and massacre the inhabfailure, however, did not deprive Catiline itants. At any rate, these horrid conseof the hope of gaining the consulship the quences might have easily followed from following year. For this purpose, he re- the circumstances of the case, without doubled the measures of terror, by which any previous resolution. Lentulus, Cehe had laid the foundation of his power. thegus, and the other conspirators, in the Meanwhile, he had lost some of the most meanwhile, were carrying on their crimiimportant members of his conspiracy. nal plots. They applied to the ambassaAntony had been prevailed upon or com- dors of the Allobroges to transfer the pelled by Cicero to remain neutral. Cæ- war to the frontiers of Italy itself. Thiese, sar and Crassus had resolved to do the bowever, revealed the plot, and their dis

Piso had been killed in Spain. closures led to others still more imporItaly, however, was destitute of troops. tant. The correspondence of the conThe veterans of Sylla only waited the spirators with their leader was intercepted. signal to take up arms. This signal was The senate had now a notorious crime to now given by Catiline. The centuri- punish. As the circumstances of the on Manlius appeared among them, and case did not allow of a minute obseryformed a camp in Etruria. Cicero was ance of forms in the proceedings against on the watch: a fortunate accident dis- the conspirators, the laws relating thereto closed to him the counsels of the conspir- were disregarded, as had been done in ators. One of them, Curius, was on inti- former instances of less pressing danger. mate terms with a woman of doubtful Cæsar spoke against immediate execureputation, Fulvia by name, and had ac- tion, but Cicero and Cato prevailed. Five this woman, Cicero learnt that two Caius Antonius was then appointed to

, knights had undertaken to assassinate march against Catiline, but, on the prehim at his house. On the day which text of ill health, gave the command to they had fixed for the execution of their his lieutenant 'Petreius. He succeeded plan, they found the doors barred and in enclosing Catiline, who, seeing no way guarded. Still Cicero delayed to make of escape, resolved to die sword in hand. public the circumstances of a conspiracy, His followers imitated his example. The the progress and resources of which he battle was fought with bitter desperation. wished first to ascertain. He contented The insurgents all fell on the spot which himself with warning his fellow-citizens, their leader had assigned them, and Catiin general terms, of the impending dan- line at their head, at Pistoia, in Etruria, 5th ger. But when the insurrection of Man- Jan., B. C. 62. The history of Catiline's lius was made known, he procured the conspiracy has been written by Sallust. passage of the celebrated decree, that "the Catinat, Nicholas, marshal of France, consuls should take care that the republic born at Paris, 1637, quitted the profesreceived no detriment.” It was exceed- sion of the law for that of arms, after losingly difficult to seize the person of one ing a cause by a decision which appeared who had soldiers at his command, both to him evidently unjust. He entered the in and out of Rome; still more difficult cavalry, attracted the notice of Louis would it be to prove his guilt before those XIV, at the storming of Lille (1667), and who were accomplices with him, or, at was promoted. By a number of splendid least, were willing to make use of his deeds, he gained the esteem and friendplans to serve their own interest. He ship of the great Condé, particularly by had to choose between two evils—a revo- his conduct at the battle of Senef. He lution within the city, or a civil war: he was sent as lieutenant-general against the preferred the latter. Catiline had the duke of Savoy, gained the battles of Stafboldness to take his seat in the senate, fardo (Aug. 18, 1690) and of Marsaglia known as he was to be the enemy of the (Oct. 4, 1693), occupied Savoy and part Roman state. Cicero then rose and of Piedmont, and was made marshal in delivered that bold oration against him, 1693. In the conquered countries, his which was the means of saving Rome, by humanity and inildness often led him to driving Catiline from the city. The con- spare the vanquished, contrary to the spirators who remained, Lentulus Sura, express commands of Louvois. "In FlanCethegus, and other infamous senators, ders, he displayed the same activity, and engaged to head the insurrection in Rome took Ath, in 1697. In 1701, he received

the command of the army of Italy against him. In court, and in the popular as prince Eugene ; but he was straitened by semblies, he answered to the fine definithe orders of his court, and was destitute tion which he himself gave of an orator, of money and provisions, while Eugene and which Quinctilian has preserved to was allowed to act with full liberty. July `us; "a virtuous man skilled in the art of 6th, he was defeated at Carpi. Equally speaking well.” At the age of 30, he unfortunate was the battle of Chiari, went as military tribune to Sicily. In the where Villeroi had the chief command. following year, he was questor, at which It was here, while rallying his troops, period there commenced, between him after an unsuccessful charge, that he and Scipio, a rivalry and hatred, which replied to an officer who represented to lasted till death. Cato, who had returned biin that death was inevitable in such an to Rome, accused Scipio of extravagance; encounter, " True, death is before us, but and, though his rival was acquitted of the shame behind.” In spite of his repre- charge, this zeal in the cause of the pubsentations, the French court would not lic gained Cato a great influence over the believe the disasters in Savoy to be owing people. Five years after, having been to the perfidy of the duke of Savoy, and already edile, he was chosen pretor, and Catinat was disgraced. He bore his misfor- obtained the province of Sardinia. His tune with calmness, and died at St. Gra- strict moderation, integrity and love of tien, in 1712. He was a true philosopher, justice were here still more strongly disreligious without austerity,' a courtier played than in Rome. On this island, he without intrigue, disinterested and gener- formed an acquaintance with the poet ous when in favor, and cheerful in dis- Ennius, of whom he learnt Greek, and grace. From his unalterable calmness whom he took with him to Rome on his and consideration, his soldiers called him return. He was finally made consul, 193 ke Père de la Pensée.

B. C., with his friend Valerius Flaccus Cato the Censor (Marcus Porcius), sur- for his colleague. He opposed, with all his named Priscus, also Sapiens and Major power, the abolition of the Oppian law, (the Wise and the Elder), born 232 B. C., passed in the pressing times of the second at Tusculum, inherited from his father, a Punic war, forbidding the Roman women plebeian, a small estate, in the territory of to wear more than half an ounce of gold, the Sabines, which he cultivated with his to dress in garments of various colors, or own hands. He was a youth at the time to wear other ornaments; but he was of Hannibal's invasion of Italy. He obliged to yield to the eloquence of the served his first campaign, at the age of 17, tribune Valerius, and the urgent importuunder Fabius Maximus, when he besieged nities of the women. Soon after, he set Capua. Five years after, he fought under out for Spain, which was in a state of the same commander at the siege of Ta- rebellion. His first act was to send back rentum. After the capture of this city, to Rome the supplies which had been he became acquainted with the Pythago- provided for the army, declaring that the rean Nearchus, who initiated him into the war ought to support the soldiers. He sublime doctrines of his philosophy, with gained several victories with a newlywhich, in practice, he was already con- raised army, reduced the province to subversant. After the war was ended, Cato mission, and returned to Italy, where the returned to his farm. As he was versed honor of a triumph was granted to him. in the laws, and a fluent speaker, he went, Scarcely had he descended from his triat day-break, to the neighboring towns, umphal car, when he put off the toga of where he acted as counsellor and advo- the consul, arrayed himself in the soleate to those who applied to him. Vale. dier's habit, and followed Sempronius to rius Flaccus, a noble and powerful Ro- Thrace. He afterwards put himself unman, who had an estate in the vicinity, der the command of the consul Manius observed the talents and virtues of the Acilius, to fight against Antiochus, and to youth, conceived an affection for him, and carry on the war in Thessaly. By a bold persuaded him to remove to Rome, where march, he made himself master of the he promised to assist him with his in- Callidromus, one of the bighest peaks of fluence and patronage. A few rich and the mountain pass of Thermopylæ, and high-born families then stood at the head thus decided the issue of the battle. He of the republic. Cato was poor and un- brought the intelligence of this victory to known, but bis eloquence, which some Rome, 189 B. C. Seven years after, he compared to that of Demosthenes, and obtained, in spite of a powerful faction the integrity and strength of his charac- opposed to him, the most honorable, and ter, soon drew the public attention to at the same time the most feared, of all

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