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the magistracies of Rome, the censorship. of the Roman people, which is frequently He had not canvassed for the office, but quoted by the old historians. had only expressed his willingness to fill Cato, Marcus Porcius (called, to disit. In compliance with his wishes, Vale- tinguish him from the censor, his great rius Flaccus was chosen bis colleague, grandfather, Cato of Utica, the place as the only person qualified to assist him of his death), was born 93 B. C., and, afin correcting the public disorders, and re- ter the death of his parents, was brought storing the ancient purity of morals. He up in the house of his uncle, Livius Drufulfilled this trust with inflexible rigor; sus. He early discovered great maturity and, though his measures caused him of judgment and firmness of character. some obloquy and opposition, they met, It is related of him, that, in his 14th year, in the end, with the highest applause; when he saw the heads of several proand, when he resigned his office, it was scribed persons in the house of Sylla, by resolved to erect a statue to him with an whose orders they had been murdered, honorable inscription. He appears to he demanded a sword of his teacher, to have been quite indifferent to the honor; stab the tyrant, and free his country from and when, before this, some one express- servitude. With his brother by the ed his wonder that no statue had been mother's side, Cæpio, he lived in the tenerected to him, he answered, “I would derest friendship. Cato was chosen priest rather have it asked why no image has of Apollo. He formed an intimacy with been erected to Cato than why one has.” the Stoic Antipater of Tyre, and ever Still he was not void of self-coinplacency. remained true to the principles of the " Is he a Cato, then ?" he was accustom- Stoic philosophy. His first appearance ed to say, when he would excuse the er- in public was against the tribunes of the rors of another. Cato's political life was people, who wished to pull down a basila continued warfare. He was continually ica erected by the censor Cato, which was accusing, and was himself accused with in their way. On this occasion, he disanimosity, but was always acquitted. His played that powerful eloquence, which last public commission was an embassy afterwards rendered him so formidable, to Carthage, to settle the dispute between and won the cause. He served his first the Carthaginians and king Massinissa. campaign as a volunteer in the war It is said that this journey was the origin- against Spartacus, and distinguished himal cause of the destruction of Carthage; self so bighly, that the pretor Gellius for Cato was so astonished at the rapid awarded him a prize, which he refused. recovery of this city from its losses, that He was sent as military tribune to Macehe ever after ended every speech of his donia. When the term of his office had with the well-known words, “ Præterea expired, he travelled into Asia, and carcenseo, Carthaginem esse delendam” (I am ried the Stoic Athenodorus with him to also of opinion that Carthage must be de- Rome. He was next made questor, and stroyed). He died a year after his return executed his difficult trust with the strict(147 B. C.), 85 years old. Cato, who was est integrity, while he had the spirit to so frugal of the public revenues, was not prosecute the public officers for their acts indifferent to riches. He was rigorously of extortion and violence. His conduct severe towards his slaves, and considered gained him the admiration and love of them quite in the light of property. He the Romans, so that, on the last day of his made every exertion to promote and im- questorship, he was escorted to his house prove agriculture. In his old age, he gave by the whole assembly of the people. himself up to the company of his friends The fame of his virtue spread far and and the pleasures of the table. To this wide. In the games of Flora, the dancers the verses of Horace allude
were not allowed to lay aside their garNarratur et prisci Catonis
ments as long as Cato was present. The Sæpe mero caluisse virtus.
troubles of the state did not permit him
to remain in seclusion. The example of He was twice married, and had a son by Sylla, in usurping supreme power, was each of his wives. His conduct as a hus- followed by many ambitious men, whose hand and a father was equally exemplary. mutual dissensions were all that saved He composed a multitude of works, of the tottering constitution from immediate which the only one extant is that De Re ruin. Crassus hoped to purchase the Rustica. Those of which the loss is most sovereignty with his gold ; Pompey exto be regretted are his orations, which pected that it would be voluntarily conCicero mentions in terms of the highest ferred upon him; and Cæsar, superior to encomium, and his history of the origin both in talent, united himself to both, and
made use of the wealth of the one, and death of Crassus, the civil commotions the reputation of the other, to attain his increased, and Cato, as the only means of own objects. At the head of the senate, preventing greater evils, proposed that the sole prop of the republic, stood Catu- Pompey should be made sole consul, conlus, Cicero and Cato. Lucullus, who trary to the constitution, and the proposistood very high in the favor of the army, tion was adopted. The year following, which he had so victoriously commanded, Cato lost the consulship by refusing to might alone have upheld the senate, had take the steps necessary for obtaining it. be not been more desirous to enjoy his At this time the civil war broke out. wealth than to devote himself to the care Cato, then propretor in Sicily, on the arof the commonwealth. Cato, keeping rival of Curio with three of Cæsar's lealoof from all parties, served the common- gions, departed for the camp of Pompey, wealth with sagacity and courage ; but he at Dyrrachium. He had still been in often injured the cause, which he was hopes to prevent the war by negotiation ; trying to benefit, by the inflexibility of his and when it broke out, he put on mourncharacter. He was on the way to his ing in token of his grief. Pompey, havestate, when he met Metellus Nepos, who® ing been victorious at Dyrrachium, left was travelling to Rome to canvass for the Cato behind to guard the military chest tribuneship. Knowing him to be a dan- and magazine, while he pushed after his gerous man, Cato returned immediately, rival. For this reason, Cato was not stood candidate for the office himself, present at the battle of Pharsalia, after and was chosen, together with Metellus. which he sailed over with his troops to About this time, the conspiracy of Cati- Cyrene, in Africa. Here he learned that
line broke out. Cato supported, with all Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, had gone * his power, the consul Cicero, first gave to Juba, king of Mauritania, where Varus him publicly the name of father of his had collected a considerable force. Cato country, and urged, in a fine speech pre- immediately set off to join him, and, afserved by Sallust, the rigorous punish- ter undergoing hunger, thirst and every ment of the traitors. He opposed the hardship, reached Utica, where the two proposition of Metellus Nepos to recall armies effected a junction. The soldiers Pompey from Asia, and give him the wished him to be their general, but he command against Catiline, and came near gave this office to Scipio, and took the losing his life in a riot excited against him command in Utica, while Scipio and Laon this account by his colleague and bienus sallied out against Cæsar. Cato Cæsar. After the return of Pompey, he had advised them to protract the war, frustrated many of his ambitious plans, but they ventured an engagement, in and first predicted the consequences of which they were entirely defeated, and his union with Crassus and Cæsar. He Africa submitted to the victor. Cato had afterwards opposed, but in vain, the di- at first determined to defend himself to vision of lands in Campania. Cæsar at the last, with the senators in the place; that time abused his power so much as but he afterwards abandoned this plan, to send Cato to prison, but was constrain- and dismissed all who wished to leave ed, by the murmurs of the people, to set him. His resolution was taken. On the him at liberty. The triumvirate, in order evening before the day which he had fixto remove him to a distance, had him ed upon for executing it, he took a transent to Cyprus, to depose king Ptolemy, quil meal, and discussed various philounder some frivolous pretext. He was sophical subjects. He then retired to his compelled to obey, and executed his com- chamber, and read the Phædo of Plato. mission with so much address that he en- Anticipating his intentions, his friends riched the treasury with a larger sum had taken away his sword. On finding than had ever been deposited in it by any that it was gone, he called his slaves, and private man. In the mean time, he con- demanded it with apparent equanimity; tinued his opposition to the triumvirate. but when they still delayed to bring it, he Endeavoring to prevent the passage of struck one of the slaves, who was enthe Tribonian law, which invested Cras- deavoring to pacify him. His son and sus with an extraordinary power, he was his friends came with tears, and besought a second time arrested; but the people him to refrain from his purpose. At first followed him in a body to the prison, and he reproached his son for disobedience, his enemies were compelled to release then calmly advised those present to subhim. Being afterwards made pretor, he mit to Cæsar, and dismissed all but the carried into execution a law against brib- philosophers Demetrius and Apollonius, ery, that displeased all parties. After the whom he asked if they knew any way by
which he could continue to live without above the level of tide water, a large and
the gulf of Cattaro (bocche di Cattaro), on
the E. side of the Adriatic ; 25 miles W. Catoptrics (from káronepov, a mirror); N. W. Scutari, 30 S. S. E. Ragusa ; lon. the science which treats of reflected light. 18° 58. E.; Jat. 42° 17' N.; population, (See Optics.)
2500. It is a bishop's see. It contains a Cats, James; born in 1577, at Brou. cathedral, 17 Catholic churches and chapwershaven, in Zealand ; one of the fathers els, 1 Greek church, and an hospital. It of the Dutch language and poetry. He has a remarkable harbor, one of the most studied at Leyden and Orleans. In 1627 secure in Europe, being defended by a and 1631, he was ambassador to England, castle and strong battlements, and enand afterwards grand pensioner of Hol- closed with rocks of such height, that the land. His poetry is distinguished for sun is seen in winter only a few hours in simplicity, naiveté, richness of imagina- the day. Population of the circle, 31,570; tion, and winning though unpretending square miles, 296. morality. His works consist of allegories, CATTEGAT; a large gulf of the North according to the taste of his times, poems sea, between North Jutland to the W., on the different ages and situations of Norway to the E., and the Danish islands life, idyls, &c. He died in 1660.
of Zealand, Funen, &c. to the S.; about Cat's-eye. (See Asteria and Quartz.) 120 miles from N. to S., and between 60
CatskilL MOUNTAINS ; a range of and 70 from E. to W. The adverse mountains in New York, much the high- winds which often prevail here render est in the state. They extend along to the navigation dangerous. The Cattegat the west of the Hudson, from which is noted for its herring fishery. It contheir base is, at the nearest point, eight tains the islands Samsoe, Anholt, Lessoe miles distant. The principal summits and Hertzholm. are in Greene county.
The two most CATTI; one of the most renowned and elevated peaks are Round Top and High valiant German tribes. They inhabited Peak. The former, according to the what is vow Hesse, also part of Franconia measurement of captain Partridge, is and Westphalia. They carried on bloody 3804 feet above the level of tide water; wars with the Hermunduri and Cherusci. and the latter, 3718 feet. The Catskill In the time of Cæsar, they dwelt on the mountains present scenery of singular Lahn, and opposed him with effect. Drubeauty and grandeur, and have become a sus defeated without reducing them. In noted resort of travellers during the sum- the reign of Marcus Aurelius, they made mer. On a level tract of about 7 acres, incursions into Germany and Thrace, but called Pine Orchard, elevated 2214 feet were afterwards defeated by Didius Juli
anus. In 392, they made their last ap- Western Asia, extending from south-east pearance in history in union with the to north-west, and occupying the isthmus Franks. According to Cæsar, their terri- (containing 127,140 square miles) between tory was divided into 100 districts, each the Black and Caspian seas. The length of which was obliged to send annually is computed at 644 miles; the breadth is 1000 men into the field, whose place was various; from Mosdok to Tiflis it may supplied the following year by those who be estimated at 184 miles. Torrents, had before remained at home to cultivate precipices and avalanches render the the ground. Their food was milk, cheese mountains almost impassable. The Cauand game; their dress, the skins of ani- casus is divided into two parallel chains. mals. Their limited princes, who gov- The central ridge, from which the mounemed in connexion with a diet, annually tains fall off on each side, consists of varidistributed the lands among the families. ous sorts of granite. The summits are (See Germania.)
covered with snow and ice, and are mostly CATULLUS, Cajus Valerius, a famous barren; the lower parts are clothed with Roman poet, born, B. C. 86, at Verona thick forests. On the western declivity is (according to some, at Sirmium, a small the Elburs, which a Russian measuretown on a peninsula of lake Benacus, ment makes 16,700 feet high. The Casinow lago di Garda), of rich and respect- beg is 17,388 feet high. The most eleable parents, went, in his youth, to Rome, vated summit (the Snowy mountain) is where his accomplishments soon on the eastern side, west of the Cuban. him the favor of those who adorned that It was first ascended by a European splendid era. He was the friend of Cicero, traveller in 1810. It is also called Schahof Plancus, Cinna, and Cornelius Nepos; dagh (King's mountain) and Schah-Elburs; to the last he subsequently dedicated the Elburs being the common name of all the collection of his poems. This collection high, conical summits rising from the is not of great extent, but shows what he chain of the Caucasus. The limit of was capable of doing in several kinds of perpetual snow on these mountains is poetry, had he preferred a steady course 1890 feet higher than on the Alpine reof study to pleasure and travelling. Prob- gions of Savoy and Switzerland. Two ably a part of his poems have not come of the passes, or gates, as they are often down to us. Of the merit of his produc- called, are remarkable—the Caucasian tions, there has been but one opinion pass and the Albanian or Caspian pass. among the ancients as well as moderns. Most of the rivers, which take their rise Tibullus and Ovid eulogize him; and in the Caucasus, flow in an easterly diMartial, in one of his epigrams, grants to rection to the Caspian sea, or in a westerhim alone a superiority over himself. In ly course to the Black sea. On the northsportive composition and in epigrams, em declivity, the Terek flows easterly when he keeps within the proper limits into the Caspian, and the Cuban westerly of that species of poetry, he is a model. into the Black sea : beyond these rivers, He succeeded, also, in heroic verse, as in the mountainous chain sinks down, by his beautiful episode of Ariadne, which degrees, to the sandy plains in the south appears to have inspired the poet who of Russia. On the southern declivity, afterwards sung of Dido. He was the the Kur flows easterly into the Caspian, first of the Romans who successfully im- and the Rioni (called by the ancients the itated the Greek lyric poetry. The four Phasis) westerly into the Black sea : beodes of his that remain to us make us yond these rivers rise the mountains of feel a lively regret for the loss of the Turkish and Persian Armenia, which others. A 'weighty objection, however, connect the Caucasus with the other against most of his writings, is their li- chains of Western Asia. The highest centiousness and indelicacy. The com- ridge of the Caucasian chain is rugged mon opinion is, that he died 57 B. C., in and barren, but the southern declivity is the 30th year of his age. Scaliger main- extremely fruitful. The whole surface of tains, but without sufficient proof, that he the country abounds in forests and foundied in his 71st year. The edition of his tains, orchards and vineyards, cornfields works by Volpius (Padua, 1737), and that and pastures, in rich alternation. Grapes of Döring (Leipsic, 1788–90, 2 vols.), and various kinds of fleshy fruits, chestdeserve honorable mention. His poems nuts and figs, grow spontaneously. Grain are usually published with those of Ti- of every description, rice, cotton and hemp bullus and Propertius.
flourish abundantly. But agriculture is Caubol, or CABUL. (See Afghanistan.) much neglected; partly owing to the inCaucasus; a chain of mountains in dolence of the inhabitants, and partly to
their want of numbers and of security, as 12 rubles of silver apiece. They underthe people of the mountains, particularly take private expeditions, lull their enethe Lesghians, in their plundering expe- mies into security, and then attack them ditions, rob the cultivators of the fruits of unawares. They show the greatest fortitheir industry, and carry off the men for tude in enduring hardships and reverses slaves. There are multitudes of wild
an- of fortune. Among them, and, in fact, imals of every description here. The throughout the Caucasus, hospitality and pheasant is a native. The mineral king- an implacable spirit of revenge prevail. dom is full of the richest treasures, which No stranger can travel in their country are nearly untouched. Mineral waters without having a friendly native or Kunak abound, and there are fountains of petro- to accompany him, by whom he is every leum and naphtha in many districts. Some where introduced, and kindly received fountains throw up a slime with the pe- and entertained. All the regions on and troleum, which, being deposited, forms about the Caucasus are comprehended hills, styled by the natives growing moun- under the name of Caucasian countries tains. The medicinal baths of Caucasia (containing 116,078 square miles and are called by the general name of the 1,673,500 inhabitants). Since the peace baths of Alexander. The inhabitants con- concluded between Russia and Persia, in sist of small tribes of various origin and 1813, they have belonged to the Russian language-Georgians, Abassians, Lesghi- empire, though without being completely ans, Ossetes, Circassians, Taschkents, subject to it; for only a small portion, the Khists, Ingooshes, Charabulaks, Tshet- Georgian territories, have a well
ordered shenzes, Tartars, Armenians, Jews, and, government, mostly military. The Cauin some regions, wandering Arabs. Some casian provinces are, at present, six in of them are Greek and Armenian Chris- number – 1. The province of Tiflis or tians; others are Mohammedans; others, Grusia, also called Georgia (17,630 square Jews; and others worship stars, moun- miles, and 390,000 inhabitants; the capitains, rocks and trees. Many of the tribes tal, Tiflis, q. v.).—2. Imiretta, called by the are distinguished for the beauty, symme- Russians Melitenia (13,667 square miles, try and strength of their frames, particu- and 270,000 inhabitants; capital, Cotatis). larly the Circassians and Georgians, who —3. The province of Circassia, (32,526 are the handsomest people in the world; square miles, and 550,000 inhabitants). hence the charming Circassian and Geor- Here are Russian military posts (to guard gian females are sought for by the Eastern against the attacks of the independent monarchs for their harams. The Cau- princes of the mountains), the Great and casians (about 900,000 in all) are partly Little Kabarda, Besghistan, &c.-4. Daunder petty sovereigns, who often rule ghestan, i. e., the mountain land on the over a few villages, and partly under Caspian sea (9196 square miles, and elders. The most famous are the Les- 184,000 inhabitants; Derbent is its capghians, who inhabit the Eastern regions, ital).-5. Schirvan (9429 square miles, and are the terror of the Armenians, Per- 133,000 inhabitants), with Bakou, the best sians, Turks and Georgians. Freedom harbor in the Caspian. This region, trom makes them courageous and formidable its abundance of beautiful flowers, is to all their neighbors. They are forced, called the Paradise of Roses. In the by the want of the most common neces- neighborhood are the fountains of naphsaries of life, to resort to plunder. Hence tha, to which the Parsees perform piltheir weaker neighbors seek to appease grimages from India. Here, too, is the them with presents. The rocks and crags, temple of fire, where a fire is kept peron the other hand, protect the Lesghians petually burning.-Beyond Terek, on the effectually from all external assaults. northern side of Caucasus, lies, 6. the This tribe entirely neglects the arts; and province of Caucasia (previous to 1822, their agriculture and pasturage together the government of Georgievsk), containare insufficient for their support. The ing 33,586 square miles, with 146,500 inmanagement of domestic affairs rests habitants, of whom 21,000 are Russians wholly with the females. These pre- and 48,000 colonists. Here are 22 fortipare, from soft and fine wool, cloth dress- fied places (as Georgievsk, Kizliar (a es and coverings of various kinds. The commercial city, with a population of men have no employment but war and 9000), Alexandrovsk, &c.) along the Cuplunder, whereby to procure the necessa- ban, the Kama and the Terek, as defences ries of life. Every prince in the neigh- against the savage tribes of the mountains. borhood can purchase their aid, by fur- Since 1825, Stavropol has been the capinishing them with provisions and 10 or tal of this province, and general Jermoloff