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are highly worthy of attention. St. Mi- Cowes; a seaport on the north coast chael's church is a beautiful specimen of of the Isle of Wight, situated on the river the pointed style of architecture. There Meden, which divides it into East and are places of worship for Roman Catho- West Cowes; 12 miles W. S. W. Portslics, Independents, Dissenters, Methodists, mouth. West Cowes fort is situated in Presbyterians, Baptists and Quakers; also lon. 1° 19 W., lat. 50° 46' N. The harvarious charitable institutions, 2 hospitals, bor is as safe as any in the British chanalms-houses and charity schools. The nel, and by far the most convenient for principal manufactures are those of rib- vessels bound to Holland and the east bons and watches. Two representatives countries, and is much frequented by to parliament are now elected by the ships to repair damages sustained at sea, freemen, amounting to nearly 4000. A and to water, until the weather permits weekly market is held here on Friday; them to proceed on their respective voyand there are several fairs, one of which ages. This place is much resorted to in is called the great or show fair, and con- summer, as a bathing place. East Cowes tinues 8 days; on the first day of which is is a hamlet opposite to West Cowes. celebrated the grand procession of lady COWLEY, Abraham, a distinguished Godiva and her followers. This celebra- English poet, was bom at London in tion is founded on the following story : 1618. His father, a grocer, died before It is said that Leofric, earl of Mercia, who his birth, but his mother obtained him adpossessed the property of the tolls and ser- mission into Westminster school, as king's vices of Coventry, exacted bis dues so scholar. He complained of his own derigidly, that the inhabitants were greatly fective memory, in the acquirement of the aggrieved, and at length Godiva, his pious rules of grammar, but nevertheless became wité, became their advocate. The earl, a correct classical scholar, and so early wearied by her solicitations, promised to imbibed a taste for poetry, that, in his 16th grant her request, if she would ride naked or 17th year, while yet at school, be pubthrough the town at mid-day. His terms, lished a collection of verses, which he according to the legend, were accepted, entitled Poetical Blossoms. These juveand the countess rode through the town nile productions, which are more moral with no covering but her flowing tresses. and sententious than imaginative, attracted It is added that she had modestly com- considerable attention towards the author, manded every person to keep within doors who, in 1636, was elected a scholar of and away from the windows, on pain of Trinity college, Cambridge, where he soon death, but that one person could not for- obtained great literary distinction, and pubbear taking a glance, and lost ủis life for his lished a pastoral comedy, entitled Love's curiosity. In commemoration of this oc- Riddle, and another in Latin, called Naucurrence, a procession occasionally takes fragium Joculare, which was acted before place at the show fair, in which a female the university by the members of Trinity of easy purchase rides in a dress of linen college. He continued to reside at Camclosely fitted to her limbs and colored like bridge until 1643, when he was ejected them. The curious person who stole the by the puritanical visitors; on which he glance is called Peeping Tom, and a wood- removed to St. John's college, Oxford, en image of him is to be seen on a house where he published a satirical poem, enin the city. The story has little founda- titled the Puritan and the Papist. He tion. It is first mentioned by Matthew of engaged actively in the royal cause, and Westnsinster, in 1307, that is, 250 years was honored with the friendship of lord after the time of Leofric and Godiva. Falkland. When the queen was obliged Population, 24,242; 49 miles N.W.Oxford. to quit England, Cowley accompanied her.

COVERED WAY (chemin couvert); a space He was absent from his native country of ground on the edge of the ditch, rang- nearly 10 years, during which time be ing round the works of a fortification. undertook various journeys for the royal Its glacis descends, by an easy slope, to-family; and it was principally through wards the field. It affords a safe com- him that the correspondence was mainmunication round all the works, facilitates tained between the king and queen. In sallies and retreats, and the reception of 1647 appeared his collection of amatory auxiliaries, compels the enemy to begin poems, entitled the Mistress. This was his operations at a distance, checks his followed, in 1650, by a comedy, called the approach and the erection of breach bat- Guardian, afterwards altered into the Cutteries, and its parapet protects the fortifi- ter of Coleman Street. In 1656, being no cations in its rear.

Jonger employed abroad, he returned to COVERTURE. (See Husband and Wife.) England, where, it is presumed, he still remained a medium of confidential com- ic Odes exhibit a most unbridled license munication between the king and the of thought, metre and expression, but royal party. Soon after his arrival, he contain many very striking combinations published an edition of his poems, con- and images. His Davideis, which is intaining most of the works which appear complete, although conveying no strong in the final collection. He was, about proof of epic talent, contains some pleasthis time, committed to custody by the ing passages. Of his occasional pieces, ruling powers, but was released on the his Hymn to Light is decidedly the most celebrated doctor Scarborough becoming elevated and poetical. As an essayist in bail for him to the amount of £1000. prose, Cowley is natural, easy and equaFor the purpose, probably, of appearing. ble, abounding with thought, but without in an ostensible character, he assumed the any of the affectation or straining which profession of physic, and had sufficient disfigures his poetry. Nor is his comedy, interest to procure a mandamus from Ox- the Cutter of Coleman Street, without huford, in 1657. He again visited France, mor, although of a temporary nature. As and resumed his functions of agent in the a writer of Latin verse, he is highly comroyal cause on the death of Cromwell

. mended by doctor Johnson. His principal On the restoration, he returned with the performance in that language, consists of other royalists. By the interest of the six books on plants, which show remarkduke of Buckingham and the earl of St. able facility in the accommodation of Alban's, he obtained the lease of a farm at verse to an untoward subject. His imitaChertsey, held under the queen, by which tions of the satires and moral epistles of his income was rendered about £300 per Horace are also much admired by Warannum. It however appears, that neither ton. Whatever place Cowley may retain the mind nor body of Cowley was fit- in general estimation as a poet, he must ted for his new mode of life. A severe always stand high as a wit: few authors cold and fever, caught from wandering afford so many new thoughts, and those among the damp fields, terminated his life so entirely his own. July, 1667, in the 49th year of his age. CowPER, William, a distinguished modThe private character of Cowley entitled ern English poet, was born at Berkhamhim to general respect; and Charles II stead, Heits, Nov. 26, 1731. His father, (no very conclusive testimony, certainly) the rector of the parish, was the reverend observed, that he had not left a “bet- John Cowper, D.D., son of Spencer Cowter man behind him in England.” It per, one of the justices of the common appears, on higher authority, however, pleas, a younger brother of the lord chanthat the loyalty of Cowley was free from cellor Cowper. He received his early the servility and gross adulation of the education at a school in his native county, courtiers of the day, and that he possessed whence he was removed to that of Westa free, independent spirit; was modest, minster. Here he acquired a competent sober and sincere; of gentle affections and portion of classical knowledge ; but, from moderate wishes. As a poet, he probably the delicacy of his temperament, and the stands at the head of the metaphysical timid shyness of his disposition, he seems class, so ably discussed in doctor John- to have endured a species of martyrdom son's life of him. He is, by turns, easy, from the rudeness and tyranny of his more gay, splendid, witty, and never trite and robust companions, and to have received, vulgar, although often fantastic, strained, indelibly, the impressions that subsequentand extravagant. The chief merit of ly produced his Tirocinium, in which Cowley consists in a kind of sport of the poem his dislike to the system of public imagination in pursuit of a thought through education in England is very strongly all its variations and obliquities, and in stated. On leaving Westminster, he was searching throughout the material world articled, for three years, to an eminent atfor objects of similitude with intellectual torney, during which time he appears to ideas, connected by the most fanciful rela- have paid very little attention to his protions. The Anacreontics of Cowley are fession; nor did he alter on this point among his most agreeable pieces, and few after his entry at the Temple, in order to have paraphrased the Teian bard more qualify himself for the honorable and lufelicitously. His own original ballad, the crative place of clerk to the house of lords, List of Mistresses, is deemed still more which post his family interest had secured sprightly and pleasant. His love verses, for him. While he resided in the Temple, entitled the Mistress, abound with wit, he appears to have been rather gay and but are utterly destitute of feeling, being social in his intercourse, numbering among at once ingenious and frigid. His Pindar- his companions Lloyd, Churchill, Thornton and Colman, all of whom had been Olney. To the influence of this lady, the bis companions at Westminster school, world is indebted for the exquisitely huand the two latter of whom he assisted morous ballad of John Gilpin, and the with some papers in the Connoisseur. author's master-piece, the Task. The latHis natural disposition, however, remained ter admirable poem chiefly occupied his timid and diffident, and his spirits so con- 2d volume, which was published in 1785, stitutionally infirm, that, when the time and rapidly secured universal admiration. arrived for his assuming the post to which The Task unites minute accuracy with he had been destined, he was thrown into great elegance and picturesque beauty; such unaccountable terror at the idea of and, after Thomson, Cowper is probably making his appearance before the assem- the poet who has added most to the stock bled peerage, that he was not only obliged of natural imagery. The moral reflecto resign the appointment, but was precip- tions in this poem are also exceedingly itated, by bis agitation of spirits, into a impressive, and its delineation of characstate of great mental disorder. At this ter abounds in genuine nature. His reperiod, he was led into a deep considera- ligious system too, although discoverable, tion of his religious state ; and, having im- is less gloomily exhibited in this than in bibed the doctrine of election and repro- bis other productions. This volume also bation in its most appalling rigor, he was contained his Tirocinium-a piece strongly led to a very dismal state of apprehension. written, and abounding with striking obWe are told, “ that the terror of eternal servations, whatever may be thought of its judgment overpowered and actually disor- decision against public education. About dered his faculties; and he remained seven the year 1784, he began his version of Homonths in a continual expectation of being mer, which, after many impediments, apinstantly plunged into eternal misery.” In peared in July, 1791. This work posthis shocking condition, confinement be- sesses much exactness, as to sense, and came necessary, and he was placed in a is certainly a more accurate representareceptacle for lunatics, kept by the amiable tion of Homer than the version of Pope; and well-known doctor Cotton of St. Al- but English blank verse cannot sufficiently ban's. At length, his mind recovered a sustain the less poetical parts of Homer, degree of serenity, and he retired to Hunt- and the general effect is bald and prosaic. ingdon, where he formed an acquaintance Disappointed at the reception of this labo with the family of the reverend Mr. Unwin, rious work, he meditated a revision of it, which ripened into the strictest intimacy. as also the superintendence of an edition In 1773, he was again assailed by reli- of Milton, and a new didactic poem, to be gious despondency, and endured a partial entitled the Four Ages; but, although he alienation of mind for some years, during occasionally wrote a few verses, and rewhich affliction he was highly indebted vised his Odyssey, amidst his glimmerings to the affectionate care of Mrs. Unwin. In of reason, those and all other undertakings 1778, he again recovered; in 1780, he finally gave way to a relapse of his malawas persuaded to translate some of the dy. His disorder extended, with little spiritual songs of the celebrated madame intermission, to the close of life; which, Guion. In the same and the following melancholy to relate, ended in a state of year, he was also induced to prepare a absolute despair. In 1794, a pension of volume of poems for the press, which was £300 per annum was granted him by the printed in 1782. This volume did not attract crown. In the beginning of 1800, this gifiany great degree of public attention. The ed, but afflicted man of genius, exhibited principal topics are, Error, Truth, Expos- symptoms of dropsy, which carried him tulation, Hope, Charity, Retirement and off on the 25th of April following. Since Conversation ; all of which are treated his death, Cowper has, by the care and with originality, but, at the same time, with industry of his friend and biographer, a portion of religious austerity, which, Hayley, become known to the world, as without some very striking recommenda- one of the most easy and elegant lettertion, was not, at that time, of a nature to writers on record. acquire popularity. They are in rhymed Cow-Pock. (See Vaccination.) heroics; the style being rather strong than CowRY-SHELLS; shells used for coin; poetical, although never fiat or insipid. a kind of sınall muscles, belonging to the A short time before the publication of this Indian scas, &c.; the cymræa moneta of volume, Mr. Cowper became acquainted Linnæus. They have an oval, smooth with lady Austen, widow of sir Robert Shell. The largest are an inch and a Austen, who subsequently resided, for half in size, and indented on both sides of some time, at the parsonage-house at the opening. They are collected twice a

year in the bay of Bengal, on the Malabar His four pictures for the council hall at coast, and, in still greater quantity, in the Versailles-Solon, Trajan, Severus and neighborhood of the Maldive islands. Ptolemy Philadelphus-excited the admiThey are used throughout the East Indies, ration of connoisseurs. His chief works especially in Bengal and in the African are, the Martyrdom of St. James (in the trade, instead of small coins. The de- church of Notre Dame), Cain murdering mand is so great, that, notwithstanding the his Brother (in the academy), the Trinity insignificant price (in 1780, a pound of and the Conception of the Holy Virgin (in them might be bought for three cents), the Hôtel des Invalides). Coypel had a about $150,000 worth are sent every year rich imagination, drew correctly, underto Bengal.

stood expression, and was an agreeable colCoxe, William, a historian and travel- orist.2. His son, Anthony, born at Paris, ler, born in London, 1747, was educated in 1661, where he died in 1721, possessed at Eton and Cambridge, and successively spirit and invention. At the age of 14, he accompanied several young men of the studied the works of the Venetian colorfirst English families, on their travels in ists, and, though his studies were interEurope, in the capacity of tutor. Among rupted by his speedy return to France, the these were the earl of Pembroke, the late works that he executed obtained the greatMr. Whitbread (the famous parliamentary est applause, which rendered him probaorator), and the marquis of Cornwallis

. bly more careless than he would otherHe published an account of his travels wise have been. The richness of his through Switzerland (1779), and through imagination and the greatness of his comPoland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark position caused his imperfect drawing to (1784-92), which are highly esteemed, be overlooked, and his dazzling coloring and have been translated into almost all excused his want of harmony. His fame the languages of Europe. As a historian, laid the foundation for the manner of the he brought himself into notice by his Me- French school.—3. Much more pure and moirs of Sir Robert Walpole, in 1798, correct, but comparatively neglected by which were followed by those of Horatio the public of his time, was his younger Lord Walpole, in 1802. He then pub- brother, Noel Nicholas Coypel, usually lished his History of the House of Austria called Coypel the uncle, born at Paris, in (1807), which has been translated into 1692, where he died in 1735. Far from German; next, his Memoirs of the Kings desiring to dazzle by a false glitter, he of Spain of the House of Bourbon, from aimed only at truth and nature. Without 1700 to 1788 (1813, 3 vols., 4to.). Marlbo- general popularity, he was satisfied with rough's Life and 'Original Papers (1818 the praise of a small circle of connoisseurs et seq., 3 vols. 4to.) is a valuable work. of good taste. He finally received a place Mr. Coxe died in 1828.

in the academy.-4. Charles Anthony, the Coxie, or Coxcin, Michael, a painter son of Anthony, born at Paris, in 1694, and engraver, born at Mechlin, 1497, a where he died in 1752, followed the expupil of Bernard van Orley, travelled to ample of his father, and accommodated Rome, where he remained several years, himself to the taste of his time with great attracted by the works of Raphael, with success. The applause which he received whom he was probably personally ac- did him much injury. He was entirely a quainted. Here he executed several mannerist. His coloring was dazzling, but paintings in fresco, and many other pieces. inharmonious. His father was the author fle also painted the history of Cupid and of a poetical epistle on painting, addressl'syche, in the style of Rapbael, which ed to him, written with much elegance. was engraved on 32 copperplates. In the Coysevox, Antoine, a sculptor, born at imperial gallery of Vienna, we find a Ma- Lyons, in 1640, went to Alsace, in lois donna with thie infant Jesus, by him. His 27th year, to adorn the beautiful palace of works are rare, even in the Netherlands. the cardinal Fürstenberg at Saverne. On lle died in 1592.

his return to France, he became a memCOYPELS, THE; 1. Noel, the father, born, ber of the academy of the arts of painting it is uncertain whether at Paris or in and sculpture, and made several busts of Normandy, in 1628 or in 1629, died Louis XIV, and other works for the royal in 1707, at Paris. After he had embel- palaces. His figures are full of grace, lished, by the royal command, the old natural and noble. He was called the Louvre with his paintings (from the car. Vandyke of sculpture, on account of the toons of Lebrun), and had, in like manner, beauty and animation of his portraits. adorned the Tuileries, he was appointed a The statue of cardinal Mazarin, in the director of the French academy in Rome. museum at Paris, is a masterpiece of art. Besides this, his most distinguished works body and limbs are incrusted with a hard, are the statue of Louis XIV, on horseback, compact shell. Of the sense of taste, we for the estates of Bretagne; the sepulchre can say nothing, but that, as the animals of Colbert; the statues representing the possess a remarkably complex and elabDordogne, Garonne and Marne; the group orate apparatus for mastication, there is of Castor and Pollux; the sitting Venus; no reason for believing them devoid of the Nymph of the Shell; the Hamadryad; this sense. The mouth is furnished with the sportive Faun with the Flute; Pega- at least eight pieces or pairs of jaws, sus and Mercury. Coysevox died at Paris, which pass the food through an extremely in 1720, in the 80th year of his age. short gullet into a membranous stomach

CRAB (cancer, Lin.). This name, which of considerable size. This stomach is appears to be derived from the Greek rendered curious by having within certain Kapaßos, through the Latin carabus, used by cartilaginous appendages, to which strong Pliny to designate certain crustaceous grinding teeth are attached. These, in species, is now applied to a considerable crabs, are five in number, and placed at group of invertebral animals, whose bod- the pyloric extremity, or outlet of the ies are covered by an external skeleton, or stomach; so that the aliment, after being calcareous crust, having 10 articulated subjected to the action of the jaws, is again limbs, adapted for swimining or walking, more perfectly chewed by the stomachand breathing by branchia, or gills. The teeth, before entering the digestive tube, head and corselet are united, the latter where it is exposed to the action of the being broader than it is long. The tail is biliary fluid of the liver. The latter organ short in proportion, and concealed by be- is of great size in these creatures, and is ing turned forward beneath the body. all that soft, rich, yellow substance, found This genus is distinguished from all oth- immediately beneath the superior shell, ers of the same family by the semicircu- usually called the fat of the crab, and lar shape of the corselei, the pointed or justly esteemed a delicious morsel. A hooked extremities of the last joint of the little posterior to the stomach (commonly limbs, the narrowness of the superior called sandbag), the heart is situated-a shell from before backwards, the posterior somewhat globular, whitish body, which direction of the hinder tarsi, and the ab- propels a colorless lymph to the gills sence of spines or ridges from the forceps, (called dead man's flesh or fingers) and rest or biting claws. They belong to the of the body, whence it is brought back to fourth section of ten-legged, short-tailed the heart by a hollow vein (vena cara), of crustacea (decapoda brachyura) of the latest considerable size. The process of sloughsystems, and are of numerous species, ing, moulting, or throwing off the entire exceedingly various in size, color, and calcareous covering, which constitutes modes of living. A slight survey of the their only skeleton, is common to all the structure of these animals might lead to crustacea, and is very worthy of attention. the opinion that their senses were lim- As it is obvious that the hard shell, when ited or imperfect; but proper observation once perfected, cannot change with the shows the contrary to be true. The sense growth of the animal, it becomes necesof sight, in most of the species, is pecu- sary that it should be shed entirely; and liarly acute, and enables them to distinguish this shedding takes place at regular perithe approach of objects from a very con- ods, at which the increase of size occurs. siderable distance. Their power of smell- No one can behold the huge claws or ing is also great, though we have not yet forceps of various species, and the smalldiscovered the organ by which this sense ness of the joints between them and the operates. It has been inferred that the body, without feeling some surprise that antenne serve this purpose. Until more the creature should be able to extricate positive knowledge is acquired on the them from the old shell, though this is subject, no evil can arise from this opin- readily accomplished. The aquatic crabs, ion as to the seat of the sense of smell. when the season of shedding arrives, genThe entrance to the organ of hearing is at erally seek the sandy shores of the creeks the base of the peduncle sustaining the and rivers, and, having selected a situation, antennæ, and consists of a small, hard, they remain at rest, and the change betriangular prominence, covered by a mem- gins. The body of the crab seems to brane, within which is a cavity containing swell, the large upper shell is gradually the expanded auditory nerve. Of all the detached at the edge, or where it joins the senses, that of touch, except so far as it thorax or corselet, and the membrane may be possessed by the antenna, appears gradually gives way, and rises up from to be the least perfect, since the whole behind, somewhat like the lid of a chest.

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