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The crab next begins to withdraw the to turn them from their course. With limbs from their cases, and the large mus- unyielding perseverance, they surmount cles of the claws undergo a softening, every obstacle which may intervene, which allows of their being drawn through whether a house, rock, or other body, not the smaller joints. This movement is avoiding the labor of climbing by going slowly effected, and, at the time it is ac- round, but ascending and passing over it complished, the parts about the mouth, in a straight line. Having reached the the antenna and eyes are withdrawn from destined limit of their journey, they detheir old cases, and the animal escapes, posit their eggs in the sand, and recomretaining his original figure, but soft, help- mence their toilsome march towards their less, and incapable of exertion or resist- upland retreats. They set out after nightance. By a gentle and not very obvious fall, and steadily advance, until the apmotion, we next observe the sand dis- proach of day-light warns them to seek placed below the body, and the crab be- concealment in the inequalities of the gins to be covered with it, until, at length, ground, or among any kind of rubbish, he is sufficiently covered for safety, though where they lie ensconced until the stars still in sight. This is generally in shallow again invite them to pursue their undeviwater, where the sun shines freely upon ating course. On their seaward journey, the bottom; and, in the course of 12 hours, they are in full vigor and fine condition; the external membrane begins to harden, and this is the time when they are caught so as to crackle like paper when pressed in great numbers for the table. Their upon, and the process of hardening goes flesh, which is of the purest whiteness, is on so rapidly, that, by the end of the next highly esteemed, but, like that of all crus48 hours, the crab regains something of taceous animals, is rather difficult of digeshis former solidity and ability to protect tion. Returning from the coast, they are himself by flight or resistance. Myriads exhausted, poor, and no longer fit for use. of these animals are caught on the shores They then retire to their burrows, and of the rivers and creeks of the Chesa- slough, or shed their shells, after which peake bay, when in their soft state, and operation, and while in their soft state, sold to great advantage. The epicure they are again sought by epicures. Seewho has never tasted soft crabs should ing they are so much valued as an article hasten to Baltimore, Annapolis or Easton, of food, it is not surprising that their numin Maryland, in July and August, to make bers should be exceedingly diminished, or himself acquainted with one of the highest quite extinguished, in populous islands, luxuries of the table, which fairly disputes where multitudes are annually consumed, the palm with canvass-back ducks, also before they have deposited their eggs for to be obtained in perfection in Baltimore the continuance of the species. Besides during the winter. The habits of crabs this cause of diminution, they are destroyare very various : some are exclusively ed, in great numbers, by other animals, aquatic, and remain on the sands or rocks, and numbers of them perish from exhausat great depths in the sea ; others inhabit tion and injury on their homeward progexcavations formed in the soft coral reefs ress. When the eggs are hatched, the or bars on certain coasts; some spend young, in like manner, seek the hills, and their days altogether on shore, living in pursue the course of life peculiar to their burrows or dens, formed in a moist or Crabs generally subsist upon aniboggy soil; others resort to the rocky flats mal matter, especially in a state of decomor beaches, to bask in the sun, where only position, though some of them are very an occasional wave dashes over them, and fond of certain vegetable substances. This seek refuge in the sea when alarmed; is especially the case with the swift-runwhile some species are completely terres- ning or racer crabs, which live in burrows trial, inhabiting holes upon the highest made in a soft or watery soil, in the vicinhills and mountains of the West Indies. ity of sugar-cane fields. From their numOf these land-crabs, the most remarkable bers and activity, they become a great is the species formerly so abundant in the nuisance, destroying large quantities of highlands of Jamaica (cancer ruricola), and cane, by cutting it off and sucking the still common in less densely peopled or juice. They sometimes increase to such uninhabited islands. When the season a degree, that, in conjunction with the for spawning arrives, vast armies of them rats and other destroyers of the cane, they set out from the hills, marching in a direct blight the hopes of the planter, and comline towards the sea-shore, for the purpose pletely spoil his crop.

Their excavaof depositing their eggs in the sand. On tions in the soil are so deep and extensive, this grand expedition, nothing is allowed and it is so very difficult to catch or de

race.

ter,

stroy them in any way, that they may be of my prize, one vigilant imp at a distance regarded as seriously subtracting from the has taken alarm, and, by dashing across value of estates situated near the sea, or the spot where the unsuspecting individwhere they are abundant. No one, who ual rested, set all in the vicinity to flight, has not made the experiment, could read- and changed my anticipated triumph to ily believe the great distance at which mortification.— Inquirers who wish to obthese marauders descry an approaching tain the most ample knowledge of the pursuer, nor the extraordinary celerity construction, functions and classification with which they escape. Few men can of crustaceous animals, we refer to Desrun with sufficient swiftness to overtake marest's excellent work, entitled Consithem; and even when, from any accident, dérations générales sur les Crustacés (8vo, the pursuer is led to hope that he has cut Paris, 1825). Such as wish to be satisfacoff the retreat of his victim, the wonderful torily acquainted with the babits of these facility they have in running, or rather curious beings, would find much gratificadarting in any direction, or with any part tion from a visit, during the fine season, of their bodies foremost, almost uniformly to some of the places of resort upon our enables them to elude capture, and re- Atlantic coast, where they will find an commence their flight. It is seldom, abundant field thrown open to their exhowever, that they leave the mouths of amination. Perhaps cape May is one of their dens, or go to a distance from them, the best situations for this purpose, on in the day-time; and their vigilance is account of the facility of visiting it, and such, that they regain them in a moment, the excellence of its sea beach. and disappear securely, as soon as a man CRAB, in ship-building; a sort of woodor dog comes near enough to be seen. en pillar, whose lower end, being let down The writer has known a planter, whose through a ship's decks, rests upon a socket, crop was ruined one season by bad weath- like the capstern. It is employed to wind er, rats and crabs combined, vent his in the cable, or to raise any weighty matspleen by shooting the crabs, which were It differs from the capstern by not not otherwise to be approached so as to being furnished with a drum-head, and by be killed. This, as might be supposed, having the bars going entirely through it. was a very ineffectual revenge, since their CRAB-APPLE. (See Apple.) shells are sufficiently hard to cause most CRABBE, George, one of the most popuof the shot to glance harmlessly off. Per- lar of the modern British poets, was bom haps poisoning, by means of the powder Dec. 21, 1754, at Altborough, in Suffolk. of the nur vomica, or St. Ignatius's bean, He was the son of an officer of the cuswould prove a more effectual method. Á toms, and was intended for a surgeon. mixture of this powder with sugar or mo- The poetical disposition of the boy showed lasses and crumbs of bread might be tried itself

' early, being awakened by the oppowith a considerable prospect of success. site spirit of the father, who used to cut The species which daily bask in the sun, all the verses out of the journals which he on the rocky shores of the West India read, considering them as a useless incumislands, are quite as vigilant, and very little brance. The pieces of paper containing inferior in swiftness to those above-men- them served the children for playthings tioned. Some of them are very large, Thus the little George acquired the habit splendidly colored, and well suited to ex- of reading verse, learned many of the cite the wishes of a naturalist to add them pieces by heart, and, after a while, atto his collection. Many an hour of anx- tempted to supply the gaps often made in jous watching, and many a race of breath- the pieces by the process of excision. less eagerness, have they caused the writer By and by, he wrote for the journals, and, in vain. Sometimes when, with great in 1778, gained a prize for a poem on caution, I had approached, and placed hope, which induced him to give up the myself between the crab and the sea, study of surgery, and go to London, where hoping to drive him inland and secure he devoted bimself entirely to belles lettres him, just at the instant success seemed to Here Edmund Burke became his paternal be certain, the vigilant animal would dart friend and adviser. The first poems which sidewise, backwards, or in a direction he published after his change of residence, entirely opposite to that he might be ex- including the Village (1782), received great pected to take, and scamper securely to applause. Doctor Johnson encouraged his ocean hiding-place. At other times, the young poet to persevere. Burke perwhile stealing upon one which was pre- suaded him to study theology, and, by lavented from observing my approach by a borious application, without having visited projecting piece of rock, and almost sure a university, he gained an academic de

gree. The duke of Rutland conferred on the capital of Poland, and though, afterhim a living in his gift, to which another wards, Sigismund III (who reigned from was afterwards added. Crabbe now mar- 1587 to 1632) fixed the royal residence at ried, and became the father of a numerous Warsaw, still it remained, till 1764, the family. At a later period, he received a place of coronation. It contains about lucrative benefice, in the county of Suf- 25,000 inhabitants, of whom many are folk; and, in 1813, he was made rector Germans, and a great number Jews. It of Trowbridge. The study of theology, consists of Cracow proper, or the old for a long time, withdrew Mr. Crabbe city, surrounded with fortifications, walls almost entirely from poetic labors. As and ditches, and the suburbs of Stradom late as 1807, after an interruption of almost and Clepar on the left, and Casimir

on 20 years, he gave some new poems to the the right, bank of the river Vistula. The public, among which the Borough de- traveller, on seeing the number of rich serves particular mention. His latest old churches and towers, the lofty castle, work is the Tales of the Hall, in which and the mass of houses, spread out before two brothers, who have met after a long him on the boundless plain, would supseparation, describe many scenes and pose that he was approaching a splendid events which they have witnessed. His city; but, on entering, he finds a labyrinth smaller tales, in verse, deserve also to be of crooked and dirty streets, bearing the mentioned. His works have gone through remains of former splendor. Cracow is many editions, and, of late years, he has the see of a bishop, who formerly bore the himself made a collection of them. His title of duke of Severia. The church of poetry has been justly compared to the the castle (a Gothic building well worth painting, of Teniers and Ostade, being seeing), the richest church in Galicia, condistinguished for truth, accuracy and life. tains the monuments of many Polish Its charm lies in the masterly treatment kings, the tombs of the famous Sobieski, of subjects which, in themselves, have of Jos. Poniatowski, of Kosciusko and little of a poetical character. His muse Dombrowski. Of the other 72 churches, loves to visit the huts of poverty and mis- some are remarkable for their antiquity. ery, and describes the scenes which they In the church of St. Anna stands the exhibit with heart-rending truth. His marble monument of Copernicus. On descriptions of nature are living, circum- one of the three hills near Cracow stands stantial and true. Every thing about him the monument of Kosciusko, 120 feet. is characteristic, clear and simple. He high. The city is supposed to have been has been called the anatomist of the human founded by a prince named Cracus, about sou.

A. D. 700. It adopted the Magdeburg CRABETH, Dierk and Wouter, brothers; law in 1257. From this time, it has been painters on glass ; said, by some, to be the seat of a flourishing commerce, and Germans ; by others, to be Dutchmen. has possessed a good university, with They lived at the end of the 15th and the an observatory. The university was rebeginning of the 16th centuries, at Gouda, modelled in 1817. On the division of where they executed 11 paintings on Poland, in 1795, Cracow fell to Austria, glass, in St. John's church, which are still which had already taken possession of the admired. Wouter excelled in exactness, suburb of Casimir. In 1809, it was, toDierk in power. The art of painting on gether with all West Galicia, made a part glass, according to some accounts, ceased of the duchy of Warsaw. By an act of with them. It is related that the jealousy the congress of Vienna (1815), Cracow, of the two brothers prevented them from with a territory of 487 square miles and communicating to each other the secret of 108,000 inhabitants (of whom 7300 are their particular style, and that each, on Jews, and 1500 Lutherans), was declared receiving a visit from the other, carefully a republic, to remain perpetually neutral, concealed such of his works as were not and to be governed according to the concompleted, lest the observation of the grad- stitution of May 3, 1815. The city has a ual improvement of the painting might militia for its defence. The taxes are enable his brother to acquire the peculiar considerably reduced, a part of the debts advantages of his style.

paid, and useful buildings have been Cracow; a republic and city in Poland, erected. The three powers, under whose in West Galicia, situated on an extensive protection Cracow is (Austria, Russia and plain, at the confluence of the rivers Prussia), on the 5th of Oct.

, 1826, estabRudawa and Vistula, where many impor- lished a new course of study for the unitant commercial roads centre ; lon, 199versity and other institutions for instruc57'' E.; lat. 50°3 52' N. It was formerly tion. The constitution, signed by Metternich, Rasumoffsky, and Hardenberg, invitation to Lübeck. In 1774, however, for Austria, Russia and Prussia, estab- he was invited to Kiel as pro-chancellor lishes a house of representatives, and a and first professor of theology; and, ten senate with a president, a court of appeal, years after, was appointed chancellor and &c. The legislative body consists of rep- curator of the university. Ile died in resentatives chosen by the corporations, 1788, with the reputation of an accomtogether with three deputies of the senate, plished scholar, a poet, a fertile author, three prelates of the chapter, three doctors one of the first pulpit orators, and a man of the university, and six judges. The of a noble character and an active zeal executive power is in the hands of a senate, for the public good. Besides many hisconsisting of twelve senators, eight of torical and theological works, he wrote whom are for life, and four for a limited a poetical translation of the psalms, and period. The president and eight of the three volumes of poems, of which the members are chosen by the national as- odes and hymns are the best. sembly; the other four by the chapter His son, Charles Frederic Cramer (born and the university. Most of the inhabit- in 1752, died in 1807), was likewise an ants are Catholics, but all sects are pro- author, and lived long in Paris, whither tected. No one is qualified for being a he was drawn by the interest which he senator or representative without having took in the French revolution. His jourstudied in one of the universities of Po- nal, which he kept with great care, conland.

tains much information, as his house was Cradle, in shipbuilding; a frame placed the point of union of many distinguished under the bottom of a ship, in order to men, and he was concerned in important conduct her, smoothly and steadily, into transactions. the water, when she is launched ; at which Cramp (kramp, Dutch), in architecture time it supports her weight whilst she and sculpture ; pieces of iron, bronze, or slides down the descent or sloping passage other metal, bent at each end, by which called the ways, which, to facilitate her stones in buildings, and limbs, &c., of passage, are daubed with soap and tal- statues, are held together. The ancient low.

Romans made great use of cramps in their Craft, in sea language, signifies all buildings, and the cupidity of modern manner of nets, lines, hooks, &c., used in barbarians, like pope Barberini, has defishing. Hence little vessels, as ketches, stroyed many a fine work for the sake of hoys, smacks, &c., of the kind commonly the bronze used in its construction. The used in the fishing trade, are called small Pantheon, with its fine portico, by Agrippa, craft.

and the Coliseum, have suffered most CRAMER, John Andrew, born Jan., 1723, from these wanton aggressions, and the at Jöhstadt, near Annaberg, in the Saxon baldachin of St. Peter's, and some eighty Erzgebirge, where his father was a poor pieces of brass ordnance, are nearly all clergyman, studied theology at Leipsic, in that we have in exchange for some of the 1742, where he supported himself by his finest works of which the world could literary labors and private instruction. In boast. connexion with Ebert, Joh. Elias Schle- CRANBERRY; a small red fruit, progel, Gærtner, Geller, Klopstock, Rabener duced by a slender, wiry plant (vaccinium and other young men, whose labors had a oxycoccos), growing in peaty bogs and favorable influence on the cultivation of marshy grounds in Russia, Sweden, the the German taste, he was actively en- north of England and Germany, and in gaged in editing the Bremischen Beitrüge, North America. The leaves are small, and likewise the Sammlung vermischter somewhat oval, and rolled back at the Schriften von den Verfassern der bremischen edges, and the stem is thread-shaped and Beiträge. In 1754, by the influence of trailing. The blossoms are small, but Klopstock, he was appointed court preach- beautiful, each consisting of four distinct er and consistorial counsellor of king petals, rolled back to the base, and of a Frederic V at Copenhagen, and, in 1765, deep Aesh color. The American cranprofessor of theology in the same place. berry (V. macrocarpon), growing in bogs Here he was much respected and beloved, principally, on sandy soils, and on high and received the surname der Eyegode lands, frequent from Canada to Virginia, (the very good). The revolution, which is a larger and more upright plant than caused the downfall of count Struensee the last, with less convex, more oblong, and the queen Caroline Matilda, occa- much larger leaves. The berries are sioned also the disgrace of Cramer, and larger, of a brighter red, and collected in induced him, in 1771, to accept of an great abundance for making tarts, jelly,

&c. They are also exported to Europe, and stilt-like legs, which eminently fit but are not considered there equal to the them for living in marshes and situations Russian cranberries, These fruits are subject to inundations, where they usually collected, in America, by means of a rake; seek their food. This is principally of in Germany, by wooden combs. In Eng- vegetable matter, consisting of the seeds land, they are picked by hand, as they of various plants, or grujns plundered grow there but scantily. They are pre- from grounds recently ploughed and sown. served with sugar, much of which is They also devour insects, worms, frogs, required to correct the natural tartness of lizards, reptiles, small fish, and the spawn the berries. In England, they are pre- of various aquatic animals. They build served dry in bottles, corked so closely their nests among bushes, or upon tusas to exclude the external air : some per- sucks in the marshes, constructing them sons, however, fill up the bottles with of rushes, reeds, &c., surmounted by spring water. They keep very long in some soft material, so high that they fresh and pure water. At sea, they are an may cover the eggs in a standing posiagreeable addition to the few articles of tion. They lay but two eggs, for whose diet which can be had. In the Pomarium incubation the male and female alternately Britannicum, by Phillips (London, 1827), take their place on the nest. During the it is stated, that, in 1826, cranberries ar- time that one is thus engaged, the other rived in England from New Holland, acts as a vigilant sentinel ; and, when the which were much superior in flavor to young are hatched, both parents unite in those of Europe and America.

protecting them.

The cranes annually CRANE (grus, Pal., &c.); a genus of migrate to distant regions, and perform birds belonging to the order gralla, L.; voyages astonishing for their great length and, by the great Swedish naturalist, and hazardous character. They are recomprised in his extensive genus ardea, markable for making numerous circles though properly ranked as a distinct ge- and evolutions in the air, when setting nus by all subsequent naturalists. The out on their journeys, and generally form distinctive characters of this genus are as an isosceles triangle, led by one of the follows: The bill is but little cleft, is com- strongest of their number, whose trumpetpressed, attenuated towards the point, and like voice is heard as if directing their rather obtuse at its extremity; the man- advance, when the flock is far above the dibles are subequal, with vertical margins, clouds, and entirely out of sight. To this the upper being convex, with a wide fur- call-note of the leader the flock frequently row on each side at the base, which be- respond by a united clangor, which, heard comes obliterated before reaching the at such a distance, does not produce an middle of the bill. The nostrils are situ- unpleasing effect. From the sagacity ated in these furrows, and are medial- with which these birds vary their flight, concave, elliptical, pervious, and closed according to the states of the atmosphere, posteriorly by a membrane. The tongue they have, from the earliest ages, been is fleshy, broad and acute. The ophthal- regarded as indicators of events; and their mic region and lora are feathered, though maneuvres were attentively watched by the head is generally bald, rough, and the augurs and aruspices--a circumstance sometimes crested. The body is cylin- which, together with their general harmdrical, having long and stout feet. The lessness and apparent gravity of demeanor, naked space above the tarsus is extensive, led to their being held in a sort of veneand the latter is more than twice as long ration, even by some civilized nations. as the middle toe. The toes are of mod- When obliged to take wing from the erate length, covered with scutella, or ground, cranes rise with considerable difsmall plates, and submargined ; a rudi- ficulty, striking quickly with their wings, mental membrane connects the outer one and trailing their feet along and near the at base; the inner is free; the hind toe is ground, until they have gained a sufficient shorter than a joint of the middle one, and elevation to commence wheeling in ciris articulated with the tarsus, elevated cles, which grow wider and wider, until from the ground; the nails are tile-shaped, they have soared to the highest regions of falculate, and obtuse; the middle one has the air. When their flight is high and its cutting edge entire ; the hind nail is silent, it is regarded as an indication of the longest; the wings are moderate, with continued fine weather; they fly low and the first and fifth priinaries subequal; the arc noisy in cloudy, wet or stormy weather. tail is short, and consists of twelve feathers. Against approaching storms, the cranes, These birds are generally of considerable like various other birds of lofty flight, size, and remarkable for their long necks readily guard, by ascending above the

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VOL. III.

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