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chancellor, the bishop of Fulda), the sons borders of Derbyshire. While a schooland grandsons of the king, the first prince boy, he made models in clay. His mothof the blood, the orders of knighthood, the er, the widow of a wealthy farmer, had universities, &c., all had their chancellors. destined him for a lawyer. But the very The German states began about the mid- day that he arrived at Sheffield, to enter dle of the 15th century to appoint chan- his new school, he saw some images excellors, whose duties are widely different, hibited at the window of the sculptor and but are generally united with the office of gilder Ramsay. That moment decided president of the higher judicial and exec- his destiny; and, in obedience to his imutive authorities. In Bavaria, for exam- pulse, he resolved to become an artist. ple, there were a chancellor of the privy He became a pupil of Ramsay, labored council, and a court-chancellor, a chan- three years without cessation, designed cellor of fiefs, and executive chancellors, in and modelled every leisure moment, and the different provinces. King Frederic studied from nature, but was obliged to II (the Great) of Prussia established, some conceal his productions from his dissatisyears after his accession to the throne, in fied master. In 1802, he went to London, 1747, the office of a grand-chancellor and where he became known by a successful chef de justice for the famous Samuel de bust of the celebrated Horne Tooke, in Cocceji, to whom he had committed the which he displayed the principles of a reform of the judiciary. He had several free, natural style. The city of London successors in this dignity, but it was final- now intrusted him with the execution of ly abolished. In the Austrian monarchy the statue of George III; after the comthere are three court-chanceries--1. the pletion of which he prepared a design of imperial-royal, at the head of which stand a monument, to be erected on the shore the high court-chancellor, with three other of Yarmouth, in honor of Nelson ; but the court-chancellors, viz., the Bohemian-Ga- idea, in itself tasteless, of erecting the lician, the Lombardo-Venetian, and the statue of the hero 130 feet high, with a Austrian-Illyrian; 2. the Hungarian; and, star on bis left breast (to be illuminated 3. the Transylvanian. In Austria, almost by night), as a Pharos, on a pier projectevery office of importance is called a ing far into the sea, and on a pedestal court office. The dignity of a privy- made of the bows of vessels taken from chancellor of the court and state was the enemy, was too gigantic to be executconferred, after a long interruption, on ed. Chantrey's reputation was more inprince Metternich.
creased by a group of two sisters (in the CHANCERY. (See Equity, Courts of.) cathedral of Litchfield) embracing each CHANGES. (See Combination.). other in the gentle slumber of death,
CHANNEL, ENGLISH; the sea between whose childish forms exhibit repose and England and France, the passage of which tranquillity in every outline and in every is often very tedious for vessels going from member; a kneeling female, lady St. Vinthe Atlantic into the German ocean. (See cent, and a lively girl, standing on tiptoe, Calais and Dover.)
and caressing a dove in her bosom (the CHANNELS, or CHAIN-Wales, of a ship; daughter of the duke of Bedford), placed broad and thick planks projecting hori- at Woburn abbey, at the side of Canova's zontally from the ship's outside, abreast Graces. He has also executed several of and somewhat behind the masts. They other monuments in St. Paul's church are formed to extend the shrouds from and other places. His latest productions each other, and form the axis or middle are highly esteemed-the busts of Playline of the ship, so as to give greater se- fair, Walter Scott, Benjamin West, Wordscurity and support to the masts, as well as worth, &c. In 1814, Chantrey visited to prevent the shrouds from damaging the Paris, where he viewed the models of gunwale, or being injured by rubbing Italian sculpture, and afterwards travelled against it.
to Italy. He has, nevertheless, remained Chant. (See Church Music.)
faithful to his original natural style. Ono CHANTREY, Francis; an English statu- of the last works of Chantrey is the statue ary. The opinion of English critics is of Washington, in the state-house at Bosnot without foundation, that this artist, ton. He has lately completed a bronze who was formed in the school of nature, statue of Pitt, 12 feet high, in modern cosand who has struck out a new career hy tume, for the city of London. the power of his own genius, has exercis- Chaos; according to the signification ed a favorable influence on the improve- of the word, the void which embraces all ment of sculpture in England. He was things. Hesiod mentions, as the original born in 1782, at Morton, a village on the principles of all things, Chaos, Earth, Tar
tarus and Eros (Love); other ancient po- sequently, one of the first epic attempts in ets made Chaos alone the primeval source French literature. As it was announced 20 from which every thing is derived; others years before its publication, great expectaadded to it Night, Erebus and Tartarus; tions had been raised, which were by no and others still represented Chaos as the means answered on its appearance (1656). parent of the Earth and Heaven ; after In the first 18 months, indeed, six editions the production of which, Eros (Love) were rapidly sold; but it soon became completed the creation. In later times, an object of ridicule with the modern by chaos is understood the unformed French poets, and sunk into oblivion. primeval matter, of which every thing is As a man, Chapelain was universally made. Chaos, according to Hesiod, pro- esteemed. He died Feb. 22, 1674. The duced by and out of itself Erebus and most complete edition of his Pucelle (18 Night, who, in turn, were the parents of books) appeared at Geneva in 1762. The Æther and Day.
royal library in Paris contains all the 24 CHAPEL HILL; a post-town in Orange books in manuscript. county, North Carolina, near the head of CHAPELLE (properly Claude Emanuel New Hope creek, a branch of the Haw; Luillier); so called from La Chapelle, a 28 miles W.N. W. of Raleigh; lon. 79° 3' village near Paris, where he was born in W.; lat. 35° 40 N. It has an elevated 1626 ; one of the most amiable and pleasand healthy situation, and contains about ing of the French poets. His lively an 30 houses. The surrounding country is convivial disposition, his wit and talents, hilly, abounding in springs, and the soil is procured him the friendship of persons not remarkably fertile. This is the seat the most distinguished for rank and leamof the university of North Carolina, which ing: among the latter were Racine, Boiwas incorporated in 1793; and degrees leau, Molière, Lafontaine, Bernier, &c. were first conferred in 1797. The college The productions of Chapelle bear the buildings consist of a chapel, two spacious stamp of his characteristic ease, gayety edifices for the accommodation of students, and wit. His description of a journey to all of brick, and a president's house. The Montpellier, Relation d' un Voyage fait en funds consist of 30 or 40,000 dollars in France (1662, 12mo.), written jointly with bank stock, 50 or 60,000 acres of land, and Bachaumont, is a model of ease and pleasall escheated property. There is a good antry. He also wrote many songs, sonchemical apparatus. The college library nets and epistles. He possessed, in a recontains about 1800 volumes. The exec- markable degree, the talent of saying utive officers consist of a president, who is many witty things on a barren subject. also professor of moral philosophy, and 4 He died in 1688. professors, 1 of mathematics, 1 of chemis- CHAPLAIN properly signifies a person try, 1 of languages, and 1 of rhetoric; and provided with a chapel
, or who dis2 tutors.
charges the duties thereof. The name is CHAPELAIN, Jean, better known by an applied to clergymen both in the Catholic unsuccessful poem than many poets by and Protestant churches. The origin of the successful ones
, was born in Paris, Dec. 4, term is generally explained in the follow1595. Marini, who went to Paris to have ing manner: Bishop Martin (9. v.) is said his Adonis printed there, induced him to to have worn a hood (capa) which was valwrite a preface to that poem, by which ued as possessing miraculous powers, and Chapelain attracted the notice of cardi- was, therefore, preserved, after his death, in nal Richelieu. The latter, having the a separate house, called, from this hood, weakness to set up for a bel esprit, stood capella (chapel), and the person stationed in in need of a poet who would labor with the chapel to show it to pious spectators him, and, at times, also, for him. Chape- was termed chaplain. Charlemagne is said lain was possessed of talents and learning; to have possessed St. Martin's hood among he was obsequious and (which was the his relics, and to have erected a chapel, principal thing) discreet, and thus his for- called by the name of St. Martin, in Gertune was made. He became one of the many, at the place where Fürth afterwards first members of the Académie Française, arose. This emperor is also related to and was charged with the organization of have built similar chapels at Nuremberg that body. He received a large pension, and and Altenfurt. Another less probable dersoon became the oracle of the French ivation deduces the word, indeed, from poets of that time. It would have been capella, but explains it to signify the box better, however, if he himself had not set in which the first missionaries carried the up for a poet. His Maid of Orleans (Pu- requisites for celebrating the Supper, who celle) was begun in 1630, and was, con- were thence denominated chaplains.
CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE, Jean, born in memorial. The tactician Æneas men, the year 1722, in Auvergne, took clerical tions several attempts to express the letters orders, and devoted himself to the study of of the alphabet at a distance by signals; astronomy. In 1760, he was appointed and, towards the end of the 18th century, by the academy to observe the transit a trial of this kind wus we by Amon(q. v.) of Venus over the sun's disk, at tons. The system of the former, however, Tobolsk (June 6, 1761). He had the admits of only a very limited application; good fortune to find the sky clear and a whole night being hardly sufficient to serene at the time when he wished to compose two or three words according to make his observations. After an absence his method. Amontons, who is generally of two years, he returned, and published placed among the inventors of the telea narrative of his travels. Besides much graphic art, left no sketch of the machine valuable information, it contains many contrived by him. The problem, thereunfavorable remarks on Russia, so that the fore, still remained to be solved. The empress Catharine II herself wrote a reply object was, to discover an expedient for to it, in a pamphlet, entitled Antidote contre conveying any information with despatch le Voyage de l'Abbé Chappe. The same to any place and at any time. Chappe phenomenon, by which Chappe had been invented a machine, the signals of which attracted to the north, prompted him, in are very distinct, while its motions are 1769, at the suggestion of the academy, to easy and simple. It may be erected at undertake a voyage to California; but, be- any place, deties every kind of weather, fore he could complete the object of his and, notwithstanding its simplicity, convoyage, he died at St. Lucar, Aug. 1, 1769. tains signs enough to convey any ideas, in His observations on this voyage have such a way that not more than two sigbeen published by C. F. Cassini, un- nals are commonly necessary. The honor der the title Voyage de Californie (Par- of this invention was contested by many is, 1772, 4to.). They did not answer the persons. The chagrin which these disexpectations which had been entertained putes produced in the mind of Chappe of them.
threw him into a deep melancholy, and, in CHAPPE, Claude, nephew of Chappe 1805, he put a period to his existence hy d'Auteroche (q.v.), born in 1763, celebrated precipitating himself into a well. His as the inventor of the telegraph, attracted brother, Jean Joseph, became director of notice, in his 20th year, by several valu- the telegraph in Paris. able essays in the Journal de Physique. CHAPTAL, Jean Antoine Claude, count Wishing to communicate with his friends, of Chanteloup, peer of France, born in who lived at the distance of several miles 1756, devoted himself to the study of medifrom him, he conceived the idea of con- cine and the natural sciences. Having versing with them by means of signals; been long known as a distinguished phyand his experiments for this purpose led sician, he rendered himself conspicuous him to his important invention. Having as an adherent to the cause of the revolusucceeded in erecting his machine on a tion, at the assault upon the citadel of large scale, he laid a description of the Montpellier, in 1791. Being called to work, which he called telegraph, before Paris, in 1793, on account of the scarcity the national assembly, in 1792. The of gun-powder, his chemical knowledge, establishment of the tirst telegraphic line and his activity in the enormous factory was ordered in 1793: the first event com- at Grenoble, enabled him to supply the municated by it was the capture of Condé. necessary quantity, by the production of The convention, having received this news 3500 pounds every day. In 1794, he reat the opening of a session, forthwith de- turned to Montpellier, received a place in creed that Condé should be called, in fu- the administration of the department of the ture, Nordlibre, and was apprized, in the Herault, and the professorship of chemissame sitting, that the edict had been de- try, which had been founded there for livered and published to the army.* The him. In 1798, he was made a member method of interchanging messages by sig- of the Institute, favored the revolution of nals was known to the ancients, and has the 18th Brumaire (q. v.), was appointed been used by navigators from time im- by the first consul, in 1709, counsellor of
state, and, in 1800, minister of the interior, The telegraph at Liverpool communicated in- in which post he encouraged the study of telligence to that at Holy Head, 156 miles distant, all the arts, and established a chemical and received an answer, the whole within the period of 35 seconds. This is supposed to be the manufactory in the neighborhood of Paris. quickest interchange of communication that ever
In 1804, he fell into disgrace: the reason took place. Allus London paper), Sept. 27, 1829. assigned is, that he refused to declare, in one of his reports, that sugar prepared and partial imitation of ancient forms, by from beets was better than that from the which a bishop and archbishop may be sugar-cane. In 1805, however, he was elected or degraded like an officer of the made, by the emperor, grand cross of the army, afforded just occasion of ridicule to legion of honor, and member of the con- the Catholics. servative senate. After the return of Na- CHARACTER. This name is given to poleon from Elba, he was appointed di- certain marks, used to signify objects or rector-general of commerce and manufac- ideas. The written language of the Chicures, and minister of state. On the res- nese is a language of figures, every object toration of the king, he was obliged to or notion being expressed in it by a parretire to private life, and, at the same time, ticular figure. We, also, for the sake of to enter into negotiations with the prin- brevity and precision, use, in several scicess of Orleans, relative to Chanteloup, ences, certain signs: for instance- Aswhich formerly had belonged to her. In tronomical Signs: O Sun; Moon; March, 1816, the king nominated him a Earth; Mercury; Venus; 7 Mars; member of the academy of sciences. Vesta ; & Juno; Pallas ; Ceres; Chaptal's works on national industry, 7 Jupiter; h Saturn; # Herschel. The chemistry, the cultivation of the vine, &c., twelve signs of the zodiac: gp Aries; are very much esteemed; especially his 8 Taurus; I Gemini; o Cancer; Chimie appliquée aux Arts (Paris, 1807, Š Leo; me Virgo; — Libra; m Scorpio; 4 yols.); his Chimie appliquée à l’Agri- Sagittarius ; 13 Capricornus; Aquaculture (Paris, 1823, 2 vols.); and De i'm-, rius ; # Pisces.—Mathematical and Arithdustrie Française, Paris, 1819, 2 vols.). metical Signs, &c. : Roman ciphers: 1,1; He was director of two chemical manufac- II, 2; III, 3; IV, 4; V,5; VI, 6; VII, 7; tories, at Montpellier and Neuilly, discov- VÍII, 8; IX, 9; X, 10; XX, 20; L, 50; ered the application of old wool, instead C, 100; CC, 200; D or 15, 500; M or of oil
, in the preparation of soap, and the cíɔ, 1000, &c. In Algebra, the first letmode of dyeing cotton with Turkish red. ters of the alphabet, a, b, c, commonly He invented several kinds of cement and denote given magnitudes, while the last artificial Puzzolanas, by means of native letters, x, y, z, &c., stand for unknown calcined ochre, without the aid of foreign magnitudes, which are to be found. Furmatters; new varnishes for earthen ware, thermore, +(plus) more, -(minus) less, without the use of lead ores and plum- signify addition and subtraction; X debago, &c., which are so often destructive notes multiplication, • division, = equalof health and life; and extended the ap- ity, v root (radix). Also: ° degree;' minplication of chemical agents to bleaching. ute; second; ill third ; &c.—Chemical
CHAPTER (from the Latin caput, head); Signs : A air; Fearth; V water ; Afire; one of the chief divisions of a book. As silver; O gold; ! copper; ] iron; the rules and statutes of ecclesiastical ħ lead; 2 tin ; & quicksilver; Ø nitre; establishments were arranged in chapters, Š salt; sulphur; tartar.— Geometriso also the assembly of the members of a cal and Trigonometrical Signs : Langle; religious order, and of canons, was called triangle; square; O circle; i simia chapter, because some or all of the chap- larity; Il or #parallel; un equality and ters, containing the rules, were read there; similarity, or coincidence; A > B, and the place where they assembled, as A greater than B.-Formerly there were well as the reproof administered to a de- more signs and abbreviations used in scilinquent member, by reading the rules of entific works than at present. In Prussia, the chapter transgressed, had the same the use of signs in medical prescriptions name. The orders of knights, which has been abolished on account of the danorigiually had much of the ecclesiastical ger of their being confounded. constitution, used this expression for the CHARACTER Masks; such as appear, meetings of their members, and even some not in dominos, but in the usual dress of corporations of mechanics or tradesmen certain ranks. call their assemblies chapters. In Eng- CHARADE; a syllabic enigma ; that is, an Jand, as elsewhere, the deans and chapters enigma, the subject of which is a name or had the right to choose the bishop, but a word, that is proposed for discovery Henry VIII assumed this right as a pre- from an enigmatical description of its rogative of the crown. In Prussia, also, several syllables, taken separately, as so Protestant bishops have been lately elect- many individual words. A charade may ed, and, still more lately, an archbishop, be called complete, if the different enigwithout the vote of a chapter, by a mere mas which it contains are brought into a order of the government. This arbitrary proper relation to each other, and, as a whole, unite in an epigrammatic point. CHARENTON ; a market-town about The most agreeable manner of expressing three leagues and a half from Paris, on such conceits is in verse. Sometimes cha- the road to Troyes and Lyons, at the conrades are proposed under the form of little fluence of the Marne with the Seine. To stories, sonnets, &c.
its situation, Charenton, which is a very CHARCOAL. (See Carbon.) To the in- busy and populous place, owes its nuformation contained in the article Carbon, merous mercantile and manufacturing we will only add a fact lately announced establishments. The bridge across the in the scientific journals, that, in Picardy, Marne must be considered as the key to and other provinces of France, where turf Paris on this side ; hence the memorable is almost exclusively used as fuel, the in- attacks upon it both in the civil wars of habitants, by means of a cheap apparatus, France, and in those with foreign eneare able to carbonize it so as to render it mies. In 865, the Normans made themequal to the best charcoal.
selves masters of it, and destroyed it. In CHARDIN, Jean, son of a Protestant 1814, its possession was warmly conjeweller in Paris, and a jeweller himself, tested. The students of the veterinary was born in 1643. Before he had reached school at Alfort, in the neighborhood, had his 220 year, his father sent him to the solicited from the government permission East Indies, in order to buy diamonds. to defend this post against the advancing After a short residence in Surat, Chardin troops of Wirtemberg and Austria. It lived six years in Ispahan, where he was was intrusted to them ; but they were less engaged in mercantile business than in compelled to retire, after a heroic deprofound studies and scientific researches, fence, before superior numbers. At Petitmaking use of his connexions at court Charenton is the celebrated hospital for for collecting the most authentic informa- the insane, where many unfortunate indition of the political and military state of viduals, of both sexes (usually 4—500),
are Persia. He collected the most valuable treated with great care, in order to effect materials relating to antiquities and his- their cure: those who are declared incurtory. In 1670, he returned to France, able are sent to Bicètre. Here died, in Finding, however, that he could hope for 1813, Sade, the author of Justine, whom no employment on account of his religion, Napoleon, on account of this immoral and he again left France for Persia, in 1671, dangerous publication, had ordered to be taking with him a considerable quantity treated as insane. of jewels, &c. He spent 10 years partly CHARETTE DE LA COUTRIE. (See Venin Persia and partly in India. In 1681, dée.) he arrived in London, where, soon after CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES. (See Minister, his arrival, Charles II bestowed on him Foreign.) the honor of knighthood. Chardin pub- CHARITY, brothers and sisters of. (See lished the first volume of his travels, in Fraternities.) London, in 1686. The other volumes were CHARKOW; capital of Slobodsk-Ukraine, about to follow, when he was appointed in Russia, containing about 1500 houses, minister plenipotentiary of the king of and nearly 15,000 inhabitants. It carEngland to the states-general of Holland, ries on considerable commerce, and four and agent of the English East India com- great faits are held in the place every year. pany to the same. His new duties did In 1803, the high school at Charkow was not distract him from his favorite employ- erected into a university, and several proment, so that, in 1711, two editions of his fessors were invited thither from Germatravels appeared. He soon after returned ny. The emperor granted it an annual to England, where he died in 1713. The income of 130,000 paper-rubles, and, in exactness and truth of his statements, and addition to this, a donation of 400,000 the extent of his knowledge, have been rubles was offered by the nobility of the confirmed by all succeeding travellers. country for its organization, of which The best edition of Chardin's travels is sum, however, the greater part was yet that by Langlès, 1811, in 10 vols. 8vo., unpaid in 1809. The number of profeswith an atlas in folio.
sors is 38, and that of the students about CHARENTE; a river in France, rising 300; 60 of whom are supported at the in the department of the Upper Vienne. emperor's expense. The latter are bound, It falls into the sea about 8 miles below after leaving the university, to teach, for Rochefort, opposite to the isle of Oleron, six years, in the schools within the disafter a course of about 100 miles. It trict of the university, and are pretty arbigives its name to a department. (See De- trarily sent, by the university, to those partments.)
places in which they are to be employed.