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The university possesses a library, and a come independent. Charlemagne marchcabinet for the natural sciences. Charkow ed against them with rather a small army; also contains a gymnasium, a military but he relied on the assistance of his academy, &c. A philotechnic society brother Carloman, to whom a portion of likewise holds its meetings there. Aquitania then belonged. Carloman ap

CHARLATAN (in Italian, ciarlatano); a peared, indeed, in the field, but, in the mountebank, quack-doctor, empiric; hence decisive moment, deserted his brother, every one who makes loud pretensions to who was obliged to sustain, alone, an unknowledge or skill which he does not equal conflict. His great courage and possess. The word is probably derived conduct, after a long and doubtful contest, from the Italian ciarlare (to prate), because procured him the victory, in 770, and the the chief art of a charlatan consists in insurgents submitted. In this campaign, boasting and idle talk. We find charla- the youthful hero displayed such distiné tans in all sciences, politics, religion, &c. guished military talents, that the fear of Of the latter, Molière says :

his name curbed his fiercest vassals. Aussi ne vois-je rien qui soit plus odieux

This contest convinced Charlemagne of Que les dehors plàtrés d'un zèle spécieux;

the necessity of repressing the nobles, and Que ces francs charlatans, que ces dévous de employing them thenceforward in imporplace, &c.

tant enterprises, in order to divert their How many political proclamations re- attention from the internal affairs of the semble, in charlatanism, the boasting pla- empire. Had he not, therefore, himself cards of quacks, or the advertisements of been inclined to wars of conquest, in new systems for teaching languages, &c., which his talents could be exhibited in in a few hours! (For further information, all their splendor, he would have been see the interesting article Charlatan in the induced to undertake them by the interEncyclopédie Moderne, and for instances nal condition of the empire. At Carloof charlatanism, see the daily papers.) man's death, in 771, and after the flight

CHARLEMAGNE (Carolus Magnus, Charles of his wife and her two sons to her father, the Great); one of those characters whose in Italy, Charlemagne made himself masachievements bear the impress of gigantic ter of the whole empire, the extent of power, by whom nations have been formed which was already very great, as it emand destroyed, and who have exercised an braced, besides France, a large part of influence which has been felt for centu- Germany. He now formed the plan of ries, and compelled succeeding generations conquering the Saxons, for which his zeal to admire their greatness, though unable for Christianity and its diffusion served to justify all their actions. Charlemagne, him as a tolerable pretence. The Saxons, king of the Franks, and subsequently em- a nation of German heathens, were in peror of the West, was born in 742, in the possession of Holstein and Westphalia, castle of Carlsberg, on the lake of Wurm- between the rivers Weser and Elbe, and, see, in Upper Bavaria. Others mention like other barbarians, preferred pillaging the castle of Ingelheim, near Mentz, and to peaceful occupations, and a wandering others Aix-la-Chapelle, as the place of his to a settled mode of life. They had sevnativity. His father was Pepin the Short, eral leaders, and constituted various tribes, king of the Franks, son of Charles Martel. which were seldom disposed to coöperate. After the decease of his father, in 768, he An invasion of the Saxons into the terriwas crowned king, and, according to the tory of the Franks was the alleged cause wish which Pepin had expressed, divided of the first war which Charlemagne began France with his younger brother Carlo- against them in 772. The other wars man; but the conditions of this partition were produced by the rebellions of this were several times altered, without being warlike nation, which, overpowered, but ever adjusted to the satisfaction of the not entirely vanquished, was never reparties. Their mutual discontent was duced to complete submission till the fostered principally by the king of the peace of Seltz, in 803, after it had emLombards, Desiderius (the father-in-law braced Christianity. A part of the Saxof both princes), because Charlemagne had ons Charlemagne removed to Flanders repudiated his wife. Desiderius sought and Switzerland, and their seats were ocrevenge for the rejection of his daughter, cupied by the Obotrites, a Vandal tribe in by exciting and encouraging commotions Mecklenburg. The famous pillars called in France, in which he was assisted by Irminsäule were destroyed by Charlethe circumstance that the nobles aspired magne, as monuments of pagan worship. to independence. The people of Aquita- Thus for 32 years did the Saxons resist a nia were the first who attempted to be- conqueror, who, at times, indulgent to imprudence, often severe to cruelty, striv- luna, made himself master of the county ing, with equal eagerness, to convert and of Barcelona, and spread the terror of his to subdue them, never became master of name every where. But, on his return, their country till he had transformed it his troops were surprised in the valley of almost entirely into a desert. The Sax- Roncesvalles by the Saracens, in connexons might have made a more successful ion with the mountaineers (the Gascons), defence against the power and genius of and suffered a severe defeat; remarkable Charlemagne, had they not been distracted from the circumstance, that Roland, one by internal dissensions. The most cele- of the most famous warriors of those brated of their leaders was Wittikind, times, fell in the battle. (See Chivalry.) and, next to him, Alboin, who finally em- The disaffection of the tribes of Aquitabraced Christianity in 783. To explain nia induced Charlemagne to give them a the protracted resistance of the Saxons, separate ruler: for this purpose he selectwe must remember that the manner ined the youngest of his sons, Louis (called which the armies of those days were or- le Débonnaire). The Lombards were no ganized produced an armistice every year less turbulent, and the Greeks made in(the levy of troops being only for one cessant efforts to reconquer Italy; and the campaign); that Charlemagne was obliged nobles, to whom he had intrusted a part to wage wars at the same time against of the sovereignty of this country, evinced the Lombards, the Avars, the Saracens little fidelity. He therefore gave them his and the Danes; and that the magnitude of second son, Pepin, for a monarch; his his states facilitated the rebellions of his eldest son, Charles, remaining constantly vassals, on which account all his attention with him, and assisting him in his maniwas often required to preserve internal fold undertakings. In 780, he caused tranquillity, and maintain his own author- these two sons to be crowned by the pope ity. While he was combating the Sax- in Rome, hoping, by this means, to render ons on the banks of the Weser, pope the royal dignity inviolable in the sight Adrian implored his assistance against of the people. Charlemagne had another Desiderius, who had torn from him the son, also called Pepin, who was the oldest exarchate of Ravenna, which Pepin the of all his children, being the son of his Short had presented to the holy see, and divorced wife. This circumstance probwho was urging the pope to crown the ably inspired the monarch with an avernephews of Charlemagne, that Charle- sion to Pepin, and prevented him from magne himself might be considered a admitting him to participate in the govusurper, and his subjects be induced to re- ernment. Pepin, therefore, became the nounce their allegiance. The danger was instigator of a conspiracy against his faurgent. Charlemagne immediately left ther, and finally died in a monastery. Germany, and marched with his army to After returning from Spain, Charlemagne Italy. Desiderius fled to Pavia, which was was again obliged to take the field against bravely defended by the Lombards. The the Saxons. Exasperated by the defeat of city finally fell, and Desiderius, with the his generals in 782, he caused 4500 Saxwidow and sons of Carloman, were carried ons to be massacred at Verden-a measure prisoners to France. Desiderius ended which urged to fury the hatred of the his life in a monastery. Respecting the people. The year 790, the 22d of his fate of the others, history is silent. In reign, was the only one which he passed 774, Charlemagne was crowned king of without taking up arms. Italy with the iron crown. Although the increased, he meditated more seriously kingdom of Lombardy was now extinct, the accomplishment of the plan of his the provinces of which it consisted were ancestor, Charles Martel, to restore the allowed to retain their former laws and Western empire. To prevent the partition constitutions, it being a general maxim of of the empire, the empress Irene, who the great monarch not to deprive the then reigned at Constantinople, proposed conquered nations of their usages and to Charlemagne to marry their children, laws, nor to govern them all under one by which means the world would again form. In this he followed the dictates of have been united under one dominion. sound policy, which, in so turbulent times, Her proposition was accepted; but Irene's led him to beware of consolidating all his ambition carried her so far, that she devassals into a political body with equal throned her own son, to render herself rights, which might render a general com- supreme, and offered her own hand to bination against their ruler practicable. Charlemagne, who did not seem averse to In 778, he repaired to Spain, to assist a this singular union, which would have Moorish prince. He conquered Pampe- afforded the world an unparalleled spec

As his power tacle, had not Irene herself been deposed. of which he attended, with all the scienIn the year 800, Charlemagne was crown- tific and literary men of his court-Leied emperor of the West by pope Leo III; drades, Theodulphus, the archbishops of and, although his journey to Rome had, in Treves and Mentz, and the abbot of Corall probability, no other object, he pro- vey. All the members of this academy fessed himself much surprised at this cer- assumed names characteristic of their talemony. On Christmas-day, he was pro- ents or inclinations. One was called Daclaimed Cæsar and Augustus ; he was mætas, another Homer, another Candidus ; invested with the ornaments of the ancient Charlemagne himself took the name of Roman emperors, and the only thing for- David. From Italy he invited teachers gotten was, that the empire could not of the languages and mathematics, and subsist long in a family where the au- established them in the principal cities of thority was, by law, divided among the his empire. In the cathedrals and monchildren of the deceased monarch. After asteries he founded schools of theology Charlemagne had made a monk of one and the liberal sciences. He strove assidof his sons, Pepin, king of Italy, died in uously to cultivate his mind by inter810, whose death was followed, the next course with scholars; and, to the time of year, by that of Charles, the oldest. Thus, his death, this intercourse remained his of his legitimate sons, one only remained, favorite recreation. He spoke several Louis, king of Aquitania, whom he adopt- languages readily, especially the Latin. ed as his colleague in 813, as his age and He was less successful in writing, because increasing weakness gave him warning he had not applied himself to it till he that the end of his life could not be far was further advanced in years. In the distant. He died Jan. 28, 814, in the 71st winter he read much, and even caused a year of his age and the 47th of his reign, person to read to him while he took his with anticipations and fears that his em- meals. He endeavored to improve the pire would not long withstand the attacks liturgy and church music. He was deof foreign enemies ; apprehensions which sirous of introducing the Roman liturgy the event confirmed. He felt, too late, into his states; but the clergy, who clung that the same Saxons, part of whom he to the ancient usages, offered some resisthad driven from their seats, would one day ance. Several churches, however, comtake revenge on his empire, and in their plied with the wish of the monarch, and train bring with them other barbarians. Others mingled the Roman and Gallican Charlemagne was buried at Aix-la-Cha- liturgy. He attempted to introduce unipelle, his favorite and usual place of resi- formity of measures and weights, but was dence. He was deposited in a vault, unable to accomplish his design. Another where he was placed on a throne of gold, great plan of his was to unite the Rhine in full imperial costume. On his head he with the Danube, and, consequently, the wore the crown; in his hand he held a Atlantic with the Black sea, by means of chalice; at his side was the sword; on his a canal. The whole army was employed knees lay the book of the evangelists; at on the work; but its accomplishment was his feet his sceptre and shield. The sep- prevented by the want of that knowledge ulchre was sealed, and over it was erected of hydraulic architecture which has been a kind of triumphal arch, on which were since acquired. The arts, however, under the words "Here lies the body of Charles, his patronage, produced other monuments the great and orthodox emperor, who glo- of his fame. The city of Aix-la-Chapelle riously enlarged, and for 47 years happily received its name from a splendid chapel, governed, the empire of the Franks." which he caused to be built of the most Charlemagne was a friend of learning; beautiful Italian marble. The doors of he deserves the name of restorer of the this temple were of bronze, and its dome sciences and teacher of his people. He bore a globe of massive gold. The impeattracted, by his liberality, the most dis- rial palace was built in the highest style tinguished scholars to his court; among of splendor. Charlemagne also erected others, Alcuin, from England, whom he baths, in which more than 100 persons chose for his own instructer; Peter of could swim in warm water.

He was Pisa, who received the title of his gramma- himself very fond of swimming, and frerian; and Paul Warnefried, more known quently used these baths, with all the nounder the name of Paul Diaconus, who bles of his court, and even with his solgave the emperor instruction in Greek diers. At Seltz, in Alsace, he had a no and Latin literature. By Alcuin's advice, less splendid palace. To Charlemagne Charlemagne established an academy in France is indebted for its first advances in his palace at Aix-la-Chapelle, the sittings navigation. He built the light-house at

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Boulogne, and constructed several ports. linen shirt, over which was a coat with a
He encouraged agriculture, and made silk border, and long breeches. For his
himself immortal by the wisdom of his outer dress, he wore a cloak, and always his
laws. Thus his law de villis is esteemed sword, the hilt and belt of which were of
a monument of his views on rural econo- gold and silver. He possessed a natural,
my; and Menzel, in his history of the impressive eloquence, and, in his expres-
Germans, says of him, “ His greatest praise sion of countenance, there was something
is, that he prevented the total decline of to excite respect, united with gentleness
the sciences in the West, and supplied and kindness. (See Eginhard.)
new aliment to their expiring light; that CHARLEMONT AND GIVET; one of the
he considered the improvement of nations strongest fortresses in France, in the de-
as important as their union and subjuga- partment of the Ardennes, with 3500 in-
tion. This love of intellectual improve- habitants. The works occupy both banks
ment is the more laudable in a prince of the Meuse, about 25 miles above Na-
whose youth was spent in military exer- mur, at the junction of several roads, on a
cises and the chase, and his whole after steep mountain. The two places com-
life in the whirlpool of war; at a time, too, pletely command the river, and serve as a
before the charm of beautiful models had point of support to a friendly army, ad-
made intellectual occupation an enjoy- vancing along the Meuse, and as a serious
ment, but when literature and science, obstruction if the forces belong to the en-
appearing in heavy forms, destitute of emy, obliging them to leave behind a corps
grace, deterred rather than invited. His of observation, at least double the number
fame filled even the East. He received of that which composes the garrison. The
ambassadors from the patriarch of Jeru- castle and small town of Charlemont were
salem, from the emperors Nicephorus and built in 1555, by Charles V. Louis XIV,
Michael, and was twice complimented who had obtained possession of the place
with embassies from Haroun al Raschid, by the peace of Nimeguen, as it was capa-
the famous caliph of Bagdad, all of which ble of containing only two battalions, en-
he received with a splendor unexampled larged it by fortifying the small town of
even in the East. He convened coun- Givet, which lies at the foot of the hill,
cils and parliaments, published capitula- and by increasing the fortifications of
ries, wrote many letters (some of which Charlemont. At present, the place con-
are still extant), a grammar, and several sists of four fortresses, two of which,
Latin poems. His empire comprehended Charlemont and Great Givet, lie on the
France, most of Catalonia, Navarre and left bank of the Meuse, and the other two,
Arragon; the Netherlands, Germany as far Little Givet and Mont d'Haur, upon the
as the Elbe, Saale and Eyder, Upper and right. Charlemont rises from a narrow
Middle Italy, Istria, and a part of Sclavo- rock, which is 200 feet high, commands
nia. In private life, Charlemagne was almost every direction, descends perpen-
exceedingly amiable; a good father, and dicularly towards the Meuse, and the west
generous friend. His domestic economy side, on the north, is very steep, and de-
afforded a model of frugality ; his person, a scends with a gentle slope on the east.
rare example of simplicity and greatness. This last side, the only one on which an
He despised extravagance of dress in men, attack can be apprehended, is defended by
though, on solemn occasions, he appeared six bastions, a horn and a crown-work,
in all the splendor of majesty. His table and several 'detached works. Almost all
was very frugal. His only excess was his the moats are hewn in the rock, and well
love of the other sex. He was large and provided with casemates. Great Givet
strong; his height, according to Eginhard, has four bastions and three ravelins with
equalled seven times the length of his foot. dry ditches. Little Givet contains four
His head was round; his eye large and bastions, and full ditches, but no covered
lively; his nose of more than common size; way; and Mont d'Haur, a hill opposite
his countenance had an agreeable expres- to Charlemont, is included within the lines
sion of serenity. His gait was firm; his of the fortress by a strong crown-work,
bearing manly. He enjoyed constant and may, at the same time, serve as a for-
health, till the last four years of his life, tified camp. The fortress is calculated for
when he was attacked by fevers, and be- a garrison of 11,000 men, but, in case of
gan to limp. In summer, he was accus- necessity, can contain 25,000, and may be
tomed to repose for two hours after dinner, defended by 3—4000 men. Though the
for which purpose he used to undress; two Givets and Mont d'Haur would not
but at night he slept uneasily. He wore offer great obstacles to an attack, yet Char-
the dress of his country; on his body, a lemont is almost impregnable. It has

never yet been seriously attacked. The itary in his family. Chilperic II, king of Prussians, indeed, contemplated assailing the Franks, refusing to acknowledge it, in 1815, but abandoned the design, al- Charles Martel as mayor of the palace, though the Givets and Mont d'Haur had the latter deposed him, and set Clothaire already capitulated. By the treaty of Paris, IV in his place. After the death of Cloit was occupied by a Russian garrison. thaire, he restored Chilperic, and, subse

CHARLEROY, or CHARLES SUR SAMBRE; quently, placed Thierri on the throne, a town in the Netherlands, in Namur, on showing how absolute was the control of the north side of the river Sambre, in a the mayor, and that the royal dignity was a place formerly called Charnoy; 20 miles mere phantom. Charles Martel rendered E. N. E. Mons, 20 N. E. Maubeuge; lat. his reign famous by the great victory 50° 26' N.; lon. 4° 32 E.; population, 3744. which he gained, in October, 732, over the It has manufactures of glass, hardware and Saracens, near Tours, from which he acwoollen stuffs, and in the neighborhood quired the name of Martel, signifying hamare extensive pits of turf and coal. It was mer. He died in 741. His son Pepin the taken by the French, under general Va- Short governed the Franks till the year lence, in the month of November, 1792, 752, nominally under the effeminate king with 4000 prisoners. It was recovered by Childeric III; but, in this year, pope the Austrians, in the month of June, 1793, Zachary replied to a question put to him when the French were twice defeated; by the states of France, that he ought to once with the loss of 4000 men, and again be king who had the royal power; in conof 7000. July 25, 1794, it again surren- sequence of which the Franks declared dered to the French at discretion, with the Pepin king at Soissons, in 752. He died garrison of 3000 men and 60 pieces of in 768, highly honored by his subjects. cannon.

His sons were Charlemagne and CarloCHARLES; the name of many important man. (See Charlemagne.) personages, whose lives are here given or CHARLES IV, emperor of Germany, of referred to, in the following order:- page the house of Luxemburg; was born in Charles Martel,

73 1316, and educated at Paris. His father, Charles IV, emperor of Germany, . 73 Jobn of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, Charles V, emperor of Germany, celebrated in history for his chivalric spirit, and king of Spain,

75 fell in the battle of Crecy. The quarrels Charles VI, emperor of Germany, . 78 of the emperor Louis the Bavarian with Charles VII,

79 the king of Bohemia, the father of Charles, Charles the Bold,

82 the choice of the latter, in the room of the Charles VII of France. (See France, emperor, excommunicated by Clement VI, and Joan of Arc.) : :

82 and the victory which Louis, far his supeCharles IX, king of France, 82 rior in power and talents, obtained over his Charles X, king of France, 82 rival, we have not room to relate. After Charles I, king of England, 85 the death of Louis, Oct. 21, 1347, Charles Charles II, king of England, 89 of Luxemburg, who inherited the kingdom Charles Edw. Stuart. (See Edward.) 91 of Bohemia, and had been chosen emperor Charles XII, king of Sweden, 91 in 1346, by five electors, hoped to occupy Charles XIII, king of Sweden, 94 the imperial throne without opposition. Charles XIV, king of Sweden, 94 But the very means which had raised him Charles Emanuel, duke of Savoy,. . 98 to the throne created him enemies. The Charles I, king of Spain. (See princes of the empire

regarded him as a Charles V, emperor of Germany.), . 99 servant of the pope. Ten years had not Charles IV, king of Spain, 99 yet elapsed, since Germany, at the diet of Charles Louis of Austria,

99 Rense, had adopted the most energetic Charles Augustus of Weimar, (see measures against the claims of the holy Weimar),

... 100 see. The election of Charles IV was the For the sovereigns of this name not enu- first infringement of the celebrated constimerated here, we refer the reader to the his- tution of 1338. In consequence, the archtory of the countries to which they belong. bishop of Mentz, whom Clement IV had

CHARLES MARTEL; a son of Pepin He- deposed, the electors of Brandenburg and ristel (mayor of the palace under the last the palatinate, the duke of Saxe Lauenkings of the Merovingian dynasty). His burg, who arrogated a vote in the election, father had governed under the weak kings assembled at Lahnstein, declared the of France with so much justice, and so choice of Charles to be void, and elected much to the satisfaction of the people, that Edward III of England, brother-in-law of be was enabled to make his office hered- the last emperor; but this monarch, then VOL. III.

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