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at war with France, made use of the offer mental law of the German empire. (See of the electors so far only as to secure the Bull.) He thus acquired some claims to neutrality of the king of Bohemia, and the public gratitude; but these were soon rejected the proffered crown. Equally effaced by the general indignation, excited fruitless was the choice of Frederic the by the proposal made, with his consent, by Severe, landgrave of Meissen ; upon which the papal nuncio, to introduce a tax, equal the enemies of Charles elected the virtuous to the tithe of all ecclesiastical revenues, for and heroic count Günther of Schwarz- the benefit of the holy see. All the memburg, whom Charles, as some writers, bers of the diet opposed it; and Charles, though without sufficient authority, assert, in his anxiety to conciliate the princes of put out of his way by poison. Those the empire, announced that he would prowho surrounded Günther in his last mo- pose to the assembly a reform of the Germents extorted from him an abdication, for man clergy. The pope, enraged at this which they were munificently paid by proposal of the emperor, exhorted the Charles, who was as liberal, when the electors to depose him. Charles immedigratification of his ambition was concern- ately relapsed into his accustomed submised, as he was unjust and rapacious in sat- siveness, and not only abandoned all his isfying his avarice. Charles now used reforms, but even confirmed, in 1359, all every effort to appease his enemies. He the privileges of the clergy, all their presmarried the daughter of the elector of the ent and future possessions, and made them palatinate, gave the elector of Branden- independent of the secular power. Such burg Tyrol as a fief, and was unanimously vacillating conduct subjected him to the elected emperor, and consecrated at Aix- contempt of both parties, of which he rela-Chapelle. But no sooner was he crown- ceived a proof before the close of the same ed, than he took possession of the imperial diet, which was held at Mentz. Several insignia, and, contrary to his express prom- princes had, by degrees, obtained possesise, conveyed them to Bohemia. He per- sion of many territories, formerly fiefs of suaded his father-in-law, the elector of the the empire. Charles attempted to reunite palatinate, to subject a great portion of the them with the empire ; but the dissatisfacupper palatinate to the feudal court of tion which was manifested at the attempt, Bohemia. This tribunal, which he regard- frustrated this plan of the weak emperor, ed as the most proper instrument for the who indemnified himself by selling to the subjugation of Germany, was enlarged in king of Poland the rights of sovereignty, its jurisdiction more and more. In 1354, which had been hitherto exercised by the the emperor went to Italy, to be crowned German emperors, over some of his provby the pope; but this favor he purchased inces. It may be easily supposed that, on terms which made him an object of under such an emperor, Germany did not ridicule and contempt. He engaged to enjoy internal tranquillity. Bands of robappear without any armed force. Having bers plundered the country in all quarters. been consecrated at Milan king of Italy, The emperor marched against them withhe confirmed the Visconti in the possession out accomplishing any thing, and, finally, of all the usurpations of which he had left the princes and cities to protect thempromised to deprive them. He also an- selves by mutual alliances, as well as they nulled all the acts of his grandfather, Hen- were able. The state of Italy was no less ry VII, against Florence, and, by a treaty melancholy. Tuscany was suffering the concluded at Padua, resigned the latter evils of anarchy; Lombardy was distractcity, with Verona and Vicenza, to Venice. ed by civil wars, and the Visconti had Trafficking thus with his rights, he went to made themselves masters of the Milanese. Rome, and was crowned by a delegate of The emperor, true to his principle of sancthe pope, but did not dare to remain there tioning power wherever found, appointed a single day. He refused the request of these usurpers his vicars-general in Lomsome Romans, to claim the city, as belong- bardy. Imboldened by this, Barnabas ing to him, in the name of the empire, and, Visconti threatened to subject all Italy to in a treaty, renounced all sovereignty over his yoke. Pope Urban V sent an invitaRome, the States of the Church, Ferrara, tion to Charles to concert measures of Naples, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, and resistance with him, hastened from Avigneven took an oath not to return to Italy on to Rome, concluded several alliances, without the consent of the pope. Despis- levied troops, and waited for the emperor, ed by the Guelphs, detested by the Ghi- who actually appeared with a considerable bellines, Charles returned to Germany, force; so that Italy, for a short time, deemwhere he issued the celebrated golden bull

, ed itself safe. Charles took advantage of which, till recently, continued a funda- the pope's situation to persuade him to crown his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pom- occupations, taught him history, formed erania, at Rome, and, in return, entered him for affairs of state, and implanted in into the most positive engagements with him that gravity which he retained through Crban. Notwithstanding this, he again life. After the death of Ferdinand, his engaged in negotiations with the Visconti

, grandfather, in 1516, Charles assumed the and sold them a formal confirmation of title of king of Spain. The management of all their usurpations. In like manner, this kingdom was intrusted to the celebratduring his residence in Italy, he sold states ed cardinal Ximenes, who, by his genius, and cities to the highest bidder, or, if they prepared the way for the glorious reign of themselves offered inost, made them inde- Charles V. In 1519, Maximilian likewise pendent republics. With great treasures, died, and Charles was now elected empebut despised by his enemies, and hated by ror. He left Spain to take possession of his allies, he returned to Germany. Greg- his new dignity, for which he had to conory XI, having given his consent that his tend with Francis I, king of France. His son Wenceslaus should be elected king coronation took place at Aix-la-Chapelle, of the Romans,* he employed his ill- with extraordinary splendor. The elective gotten wealth to purchase the votes of the capitulation (Wahlcapitulation, see Capituelectors, who were irritated at the conduct lation), signed by his ambassadors, he ratof the pope, and distributed among them, ified without hesitation. The chief feain addition, the domains of the empire on tures of it were the reservations made by the Rhine, and several free imperial cities. the electors, securing themselves against Thus he attained his object. To maintain foreign influence. The emperor was not their rights against the arbitrary measures to begin any war without their consent; of the emperor, the imperial cities in Sua- no language but the German or Latin was bia formed the (so called) Suabian league, to be used in the administration of the which Charles opposed 'in vain. To the affairs of the empire; and the rich compope he manifested his gratitude by ex- mercial confederacies of merchants, whose tending the privileges of the clergy. The wealth, as the instrument expressed it, had empire was nearly ruined, when Charles enabled them to act according to their own died at Prague, in 1378. To his eldest will, were to be abolished by the emperor, son, Wenceslaus, he left Bohemia and Si- assisted by the advice of the members of lesia; to the second, Sigismund, the elec- the empire. The association aimed at was torate of Brandenburg; and to the third, the powerful Hanseatic league, whose inLusatia. His reign is remarkable for the fluence had excited the electors' jealimprovement and prosperity of Bohemia; ousy. The progress of the reformation in for the founding of the universities of Germany demanded the care of the new Prague and Vienna; for a terrible persecu- emperor, who held a diet at Worms. Lution of the Jews, and as the period when ther, who appeared at this diet, with a safe the sale of letters of nobility commenced conduct from Charles, defended his cause in Germany. The history of this prince with energy and boldness. The emperor affords a fine illustration of the soundness kept silent; but, after Luther's departure, of the theory of legitimacy, many of his a severe edict appeared against him, in the usurpations having become a part of the name of Charles, who thought it for his "divine right” of succeeding rulers. advantage to show himself the defender of

CHARLES V, emperor of Germany and the Roman church. The claims which king of Spain (in the latter capacity, he is Francis I had advanced to the empire, and called Charles I), the eldest son of Philip, those which he still preferred to Italy, the arch-duke of Austria, and of Joanna, the Netherlands and Navarre, made war apdaughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of pear inevitable. Charles prepared for it Spain, was born at Ghent, Feb. 24, 1500. by an alliance with the pope.' Hostilities Philip was the son of the emperor Maxi- broke out in 1521. The French, victorimilian and Mary, daughter of Charles the ous beyond the Pyrenees, were unsuccessBold, last duke of Burgundy. Charles's ful in the Netherlands. A congress held birth gave him claims to the fairest coun- at Calais only increased the irritation, and tries of Europe. He was educated in the gave Henry VIII, king of England, a preNetherlands, under the care of William of text for declaring himself for Charles, Croy, lord of Chièvres. Charles preferred whose party daily acquired strength. A military exercises to study. Chièvres, serious insurrection in Spain was happily without diverting him from his favorite subdued. The defeat of Bonnivet, in the

This was the title given to the person elected Milanese, and the accession of the constaduring the lifetime of the emperor, to succeed him ble of Bourbon, indemnified Charles V for after his death.

his want of success in Provence. Francis, who was besieging Pavia, was defeated by Nor did the Protestant princes hesitate to the imperial forces, and taken prisoner, in furnish their contingents, when he was 1525. On this occasion, Charles feigned assembling an army against the Turks. the moderation of a Christian hero. With- Having compelled Solyman to retreat, he out improving his advantages, he remained undertook, in 1535, an expedition against inactive in Spain. But he thought to attain Tunis, reinstated the dey, and released his object in another way. He proposed 20,000 Christian slaves. This success to Francis I such hard conditions, that this added to his character somewhat of the unfortunate prince swore that he would chivalric, which gave him still more infiudie in captivity, rather than accede to them. ence in Christendom, and promoted his Meanwhile, he was carried to Spain, and political projects. He manifested this chivtreated with respect. Charles, however, alrous spirit still more in a speech, which did not visit him, until he was informed he made at Rome, before the pope and that the life of his prisoner was in danger. cardinals, when hostilities were renewed The interview was brief. Charles promised in Italy against France. In this he prohis captive a speedy release. The treaty posed å duel, in which the duchy of Burof Madrid was finally concluded in Janu- gundy on the one part, and the duchy of ary, 1526. The power of Charles now Milan on the other, were to be the prize; became a source of uneasiness to most but, on the following day, he expressed other princes of Europe. Pope Clement himself in such a manner to the French VII placed himself at the head of a league ambassador, that it was suspected that his of the principal states of Italy against the challenge was only a figure of speech. emperor; but their ill-directed efforts were His invasions of Provence and Picardy productive of new misfortunes. Rome met with small success. A truce was was taken by storm by the troops of the concluded in 1537, and, in 1538, prolongconstable, sacked, and the pope himself ed for 10 years. The two monarchs had made prisoner. Charles V publicly disa- an interview, in which they spoke only of vowed the proceedings of the constable, mutual respect and esteem. Soon after, went into mourning with his court, and Charles, who was in Spain, where he had carried his hypocrisy so far as to order annihilated the old constitution of the prayers for the deliverance of the pope. cortes, wished to pass through France to On restoring the holy father to liberty, he the Netherlands. He spent six days with demanded a ransom of 400,000 crowns of Francis I in Paris, where the two princes gold, but was satisfied with a quarter of appeared together in all public places like that sum. He also released, for 2,000,000, brothers. Courtiers were not wanting, the French princes, who had been given who advised the king of France to detain to him as hostages. Henry VIII of Eng- his guest, until he had annulled the treaty land now allied himself with the French of Madrid; but Francis was satisfied with monarch against Charles, who accused promises, which Charles very soon forgot. Francis of having broken his word, given İlaving quelled the disturbances in the on the honor of a gentleman. The quar- Netherlands, Charles resolved, in 1541, to rel brought on a challenge to a duel, which crown his reputation by the conquest of did not, however, take place. The war Algiers. Against Doria's advice, he emwas terminated in 1529, by the treaty of barked in the stormy season, and lost a Cambray, of which the conditions were part of his fleet and army, without gaining favorable to the emperor. Charles soon any advantage. After his return, his reafter left Spain, and was crowned in Bo- fusal to invest the king of France with the logna as king of Lombardy and Roman territory of Milan involved him in a new emperor. On the occasion of this solem- war, in which the king of England emnity, the proud Charles kissed the feet of braced his part. The army of Charles the same pope who had been his prisoner. was defeated at Cerisola; but, on the In 1530, he seemed desirous, at the diet other hand, he penetrated to the heart of of Augsburg, to reconcile the various par- Champagne. The disturbances caused in ties; but, not succeeding, he issued a de- Germany by the reformation induced the cree against the Protestants, which they emperor to accede to the peace of Crespy, met by the Smalcaldic league. He also in 1545. The policy of Charles was to published, in 1532, a law of criminal pro- reconcile the two parties, and, towards cedure. (See Carolina.) Notwithstanding the Protestants, he employed alternately his undertakings in favor of the Catholic threats and promises. After some show religion, Charles always showed himself of negotiation, the Protestant princes raised moderate towards the Protestants, when- the standard of war. The emperor deever his interest left room for toleration. clared, in 1546, the heads of the league under the ban of the empire, excited divis- by his enemies, and suffering from the ions among the confederates, collected an gout, he became gloomy and dejected, and, army in haste, and obtained several advan- for several months, concealed himself from tages over his enemies. John Frederic, the sight of every one, so that the report the elector of Saxony, was taken prisoner of his death was spread through Europe. in the battle of Mühlberg, in 1547. Charles His last exertions were directed against received him sternly, and gave him over France, which constantly repelled his asto a court-martial, consisting of Italians saults. The diet of Augsburg, in 1555, and Spaniards, under the presidency of confirmed the treaty of Passau, and gave Alva, which condemned him to death. the Protestants equal rights with the CathThe elector saved his life only by renounc- olics. Charles saw all his plans frustrated, ing his electorate and his hereditary es- and the number of his enemies increasing. tates; but he remained a prisoner. Mean- He resolved to transfer his hereditary while, the emperor appeared somewhat states to his son Philip. Having convened more moderately inclined towards the the estates of the Low Countries at Louvanquished party. On coming to Witten- vain, in 1555, he explained to them the berg, he expressed surprise that the exer- reasons of his resolution, asserted that he cise of the Lutheran worship had been had sacrificed himself for the interests of discontinued. He visited the grave of religion and of his subjects, but that his Luther, and said, “I do not war with the strength was inadequate to further exerdead: let him rest in peace: he is already tion, and that he should devote to God the before his Judge.” The landgrave of remainder of his days. He then turned to Hesse Cassel, one of the heads of the Philip, who had thrown himself on his Protestants, was compelled to sue for mer- knees, and kissed the hand of his father; cy: notwithstanding his promise, Charles reminded him of his duties, and made him deprived him of his freedom. After hav- swear to labor incessantly for the good of ing dissolved the league of Smalcalden, the people. He then gave him his blessthe emperor again occupied himself withing, embraced him, and sunk back exthe plan of uniting all religious parties, hausted on his chair. At that time, Charles and, for this purpose, issued the Interim conferred on Philip the sovereignty of the (q. v.), so called, which was as fruitless as Netherlands alone. Jan. 15, 1556, he conthe measures proposed by him at the diet ferred upon him, in like manner, the Spanof Augsburg. `Neither was he successful ish throne, reserving for himself merely a in securing the imperial crown to his son. pension of 100,000 ducats. The remainDiscord still agitated public sentiment, and ing time that he spent in the Netherlands a new war broke out against him. Mau- he employed in reconciling his son with rice of Saxony, whom he had invested France, and effected the conclusion of a with the electoral dignity, formed a league, truce. Having made an unsuccessful atwhich was joined by Henry II, king of tempt to induce his brother Ferdinand to France, the successor of Francis. The transfer the imperial crown to the head of preparations had been made with the his son, he sent a solemn embassy to Gergreatest secrecy. Charles was at Inspruck, many, to announce to the electors his absuperintending the deliberations of the dication; after which he embarked at Zeacouncil of Trent, and meditating great land, and landed on the coast of Biscay. plans against France and Turkey. He It is said that he threw himself on the earth was expecting the aid of Maurice, when on landing, kissed it, and exclaimed, “Nathis prince threw off the mask, appeared ked I left the womb of my mother, and suddenly at the head of an army, and in- naked I return to thee, thou common vaded the Tyrol in 1552, while Henry II mother of mankind.” He had selected for entered Lorraine. Charles was near being his residence the monastery of St. Justus, surprised in Inspruck, in the middle near Placensia, in Estremadura, and here of a stormy night. Tormented by the he exchanged sovereignty, dominion and gout, he escaped alone, in a litter, by diffi- pomp for the quiet and solitude of a cloiscult roads. Maurice abandoned the impe- ter. "His amusements were confined to rial castle to plunder, the council of Trent short rides, to the cultivation of a garden, was dissolved, and the Protestants dictated and to mechanical labors. It is said that the conditions of the treaty of Passau, in he made wooden clocks, and, being unable 1552. Charles was not more successful to make two clocks go exactly alike, was in Lorraine. He was unable to recover reminded of the folly of his efforts to bring Metz, defended by the duke of Guise. In a number of men to the same sentiments. Italy, he lost Sienna, by a revolt. He He attended religious services twice every withdrew to Brussels, where, hard pressed day, read books of devotion, and, by de


grees, fell into such dejection, that his fac- sides of every case with great minuteness; ulties seemed to suffer from it. He re- very slow in deciding ; unchangeable of nounced the most innocent pleasures, and purpose; so that he once said to a courtier, observed the rules of the monastic life in who praised him for his perseverance and all their rigor. In order to perform an firmness, that he sometimes insisted upon extraordinary act of piety, he resolved to things not right. Granvella was the only celebrate his own obsequies. Wrapped person who possessed his entire contiin a shroud, and surrounded by his reti- dence. (See Granvella.) Wherever he was, nue, he laid himself in a coffin, which was he imitated the customs of the country, placed in the middle of the church. The and won the favor of every people except funeral service was performed, and the the Germans. Among them he was not monarch mingled his voice with those of liked, owing to his want of the frankness the clergy, who prayed for him. After the which they expected in their emperor. last sprinkling, all withdrew, and the doors Charles was slow in punishing, as well as were closed. He remained some time in in rewarding; but, when he did punish, it the coffin, then rose, threw himself before was with severity; when he rewarded, it the altar, and returned to his cell, where was with munificence. His health early he spent the night in deep meditation. declined. In his 40th year, he felt himThis ceremony hastened his death. He self weak. His sufferings from the gout was attacked by a fever, of which he died, were extreme: he could not even open a at the age of 59 years, Sept. 21, 1558.- letter without pain. After his mother's Charles had a noble air, and refined man- death, he thought sometimes that he heard ners. He spoke little, and smiled seldom. her voice, calling to him to follow her. It Firm of purpose; slow to decide; prompt is said that, when arming for battle, he to execute; equally rich in resources, and trembled; but, in the heat of the ensagacious in the choice of them; gifted gagement, was as cool as if it were imwith a cool judgment, and always master possible for an emperor to be killed. We of himself, he steadily pursued his pur- know of no work, in which the character poses, and easily

triumphed over obstacles. of Charles has been delineated with more Circumstances developed his genius, and truth than in the valuable production of made him great. Although his want of Mr. Ranke, professor in the university of faith was notorious, he imposed, by the Berlin,—The Princes and Nations of the semblance of magnanimity and sincerity, South of Europe in the sixteenth and even on those who had already experienc- seventeenth Centuries (Hamburg, 1827). ed his perfidy. An acute judge of men, Among the numerous sources of the he knew how to use them for his purposes. history of Charles V, we would mention It is improbable that it was his intention to Hormayr's Aus durchaus ungedruckten Paestablish a universal monarchy. In mis- pieren, in his Archiv. für Geogr. Historie, fortune he appears greater than in pros- &c. (Jahrg. 1810). The work of Robertperity. He protected and encouraged the son is too well known to need recommenarts and sciences, and is said to have pick- dation. ed up a brush, which had fallen from the CHARLES VI, the second son of the hand of Titian, with the words, “ Titian is emperor Leopold I, was born Oct. 1, 1685. worthy of being served by an emperor.” His father destined him for the Spanish By his wife Eleonora, daughter of Eman- throne. The last prince of the house of uel, king of Portugal, he had one son, Hapsburg, Charles II, disregarding the afterwards Philip II, and two daughters. house of Austria, whose right to the He had, also, several natural children.- Spanish throne was undoubted, according Charles V is one of the most remarkable to the law of inheritance by descent, had, characters in history. He exhibited no by his will, made Philip, duke of Anjou, talents in his youth, and, in after life, when second grandson of Louis XIV, heir of his armies in Italy were winning battle the Spanish monarchy, and, after the atter battle, he remained quietly in Spain, death of Charles II, Nov. 1, 1700, Philip apparently not much interested in these had taken possession of the vacant kingvictories; but, even in his early youth, his dom. England and Holland united against motto was, not yet (nondum). It was not him, and this alliance was soon joined by till his 30th year, that he showed himself the German empire, Portugal and Savoy. active and independent; but, from this Charles was proclaimed king of Spain, at time to his abdication, he was, throughout, Vienna, in 1703, and proceeded, by way a monarch. No minister had a marked of Holland, to England, from whence, in influence over him. He was indefatigable January, 1704, he set sail, with 12,000 in business, weighing the reasons on both men, för Spain, which was almost wholly

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