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occupied by the French, and landed in Servia, and Temeswar. Cardinal AlbeCatalonia. He succeeded in making him- roni, who was at the head of the cabinet of self master of Barcelona ; but he was Madrid, involved Austria, by his schemes, soon besieged there by his rival Philip V. in a new war. But the quadruple alliThe French had already taken Mont Jouy, ance, concluded at London in 1718, terpreparations were making for an assault minated the war with the removal of this on the city, and it seemed as if Charles minister, in 1720. To secure his domincould not escape being captured. Never- ions to his daughter Maria Theresa, in theless, at the head of a garrison of hardly default of male heirs, Charles strove to 2000 men, he made the most obstinate induce the various powers to guaranty resistance, till the long-expected English the pragmatic sanction, which settled the fleet appeared, which put to flight the 12 succession in her favor. He succeeded, French ships that blockaded the harbor, by degrees, in gaining the concurrence of and landed a body of troops, which come all the European powers. The emperor pelled the French speedily to raise the availed himself of a short period of peace siege. This event was followed by al- to establish various institutions for the ternate reverses and successes. Twice benefit of commerce. He visited, in perCharles reached Madrid, and twice was son, the coasts of Istria, where he caused he driven from the city. The first time, roads and harbors to be constructed, and in 1706, he caused himself to be pro- vessels to be built. His plans respecting claimed king, in the capital, under the the Indian trade in the Netherlands had name of Charles III. He had been a sec- not the same success, and he was comond time compelled to flee to the walls pelled to sacrifice them to the pretensions of Barcelona, when he was informed of of the maritime powers. The reign of the death of his brother Joseph I. Ac- this prince, by nature a lover of peace, cording to the will of Leopold, this event was marked with perpetual agitations. placed the double crown of Charles V on The succession to the Polish throne, after his head; to his claims on Spain, it added the death of Augustus II, in 1733, disthe more certain possession of the Aus- turbed the peace of Europe. Charles, trian dominions. But the allies were with Russia, supported the son of this averse to seeing so much power united in prince; but France and Spain declared the same hands. Charles repaired to Ger- themselves for Stanislaus Leczinsky. many by way of Italy, and, on his arrival, From this arose a bloody war, which leamed that, at Eugene's suggestion, he terminated, in 1735, in the loss of the Two had also been elected emperor. His cor- Sicilies and a part of the duchy of Milan. onation took place at Frankfort, in De- Austria received Tuscany in exchange for cember, 1711, and, in the following year, Lorraine, and obtained Parma. Hardly he received, at Presburg, the crown of had Charles finished this war, when his Hungary. At the same time, he still re- alliance with Russia involved' him anew tained the empty title of king of Spain. in a war with the Turks. In 1737, his He now prosecuted, under the conduct of troops, under field-marshal Seckendorf, Eugene, the Spanish war of succession, invaded Servia, without any declaration which his brother had carried on with só of war, and occupied Nissa. But the much success in the Netherlands; but Turks renewed their attacks with a conMarlborough's disgrace, and the retreat of tinually augmented force, and obliged the the English army, having resulted in a emperor, after three unsuccessful camdefeat at Denain, the allies concluded a paigns, to cede to them, by the peace of peace with France at Utrecht, in 1713, in Belgrade, in 1739, Walachia, and the spite of all the efforts of the emperor to Austrian part of Servia, with Belgrade. prevent it. He was obliged, in the fol- Charles died Oct. 20, 1740, at a time lowing year, to sign the treaty of Rastadt. when he was employed in the improveThis treaty secured him in the possession ment of his distracted finances, and was of Milan, Mantua, Sardinia and the Neth- about putting the last hand to the pragerlands. Soon after, in June, 1715, the matic sanction, by causing the grand-duke Turks declared war against Venice. The of Tuscany, his son-in-law, to be chosen emperor undertook the defence of this king of the Romans. republic. His brave armies, led by Eu- CHARLES VII (properly Charles Albert), gene, achieved decisive victories at Peter- king of the Romans, born at Brussels, in wardein and Belgrade. But, as the Span- the year 1697, was the son of Maximilian iards menaced Italy, Charles concluded, Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, then govin 1718, the peace of Passarowicz, by ernor of the Spanish Netherlands. His which he obtained Belgrade, the north of youth was spent at the imperial court, and, in the war against the Turks, he com- whom he inspired with his own hatred of manded the army of auxiliaries sent by Louis XI, and placed himself at the bead his father. In 1722, he married the of the party then forming against that daughter of Joseph I, having previously monarch. Having passed through Flanrenounced all rights which this marriage ders and Artois, he crossed the Somme at might give him to the succession to the the head of 26,000 men, and appeared throne of Austria. In 1726, he succeeded before Paris. The king sent the bishop his father as elector of Bavaria. He was of the city, Alain Chartier, to reproach one of the princes who protested against him for waging war against his sovereign. the pragmatic sanction, guarantied, in But the heir of Burgundy answered, 1732, by the diet of Ratisbon, and, in con- “Tell your master, that against a prince sequence, concluded a defensive alliance who makes use of the dagger and poison, with Saxony. After the death of Charles there are always sufficient grounds of VI (q. v.), in 1740, he refused to acknowl- war, and that, in marching against him, edge Maria Theresa as his heiress, found- one is very sure of finding, on the way, ing his own claims to the succession on a companions enough. Moreover, I have testament of Ferdinand I. He was sup- taken up arms solely at the urgent request ported by the king of France, with a con- of the people, nobility and princes: these siderable force. În 1741, he was recog- are my accomplices!” Louis met him at nised, at Lintz, as arch-duke of Austria. Montlheri. Charles broke through one The obstacles thrown in his way by car- wing of the royal army, and allowed him. dinal Fleury, who wished not to dismem- self to be carried on too far in pursuit of ber the Austrian monarchy, as well as the the fugitives. Surrounded by 15 gens want of artillery and ammunition, pre- d'armes, who had already killed his masvented him from getting possession of ter of the horse, he received a wound, but Vienna. On the other hand, he took refused to surrender; performed prodigies Prague, where he was crowned and pro- of valor, and thus gave his soldiers time claimed king of Bohemia. In 1742, he to come to his release. From this time, was unanimously elected king of the Ro- Charles conceived so high an opinion of mans : he made a solemn entry into his talents for war, that the greatest reFrankfort, and was crowned by his verses could not cure him of it. He sucbrother, the elector of Cologne. But for- ceeded his father in 1467, and immeditune soon deserted him. The armies of ately engaged in a war with the citizens Maria Theresa reconquered all Upper of Liege, whom he conquered and treated Austria, and overwhelmed Bavaria. It with extreme severity. Before this under

necessary to abandon Bohemia. taking, he had been obliged to restore to Charles fled to Frankfort, and convoked the citizens of Ghent the privileges which a diet, when an attack of the king of had been taken from them by Philip the Prussia on Maria Theresa allowed him to Good. He now revoked his forced conreturn to Münich in 1744, in which city cessions, caused the leaders of the insurhe died in January, 1745, exhausted by rection to be executed, and imposed a grief and disease. He was succeeded in large fine on the city. In 1468, he marthe electorate by his son Maximilian Jo- ried Margaret of York, sister of the king seph, in the imperial dignity by Francis I, of England, and resolved immediately to husband of Maria Theresa.

renew the civil war in France; but Louis CHARLES THE BOLD, duke of Burgundy, disarmed him by giving him 120,000 son of Philip the Good and Isabella of crowns of gold. Oct. 3 of the same year, Portugal, born at Dijon, Nov. 10, 1433, at the monarch and the duke had a meeting first bore the name of count of Charolais, at Peronne, in order to adjust their differunder which he distinguished himself in ences. There the duke learned that the the battles of Rüpelmonde, in 1452, and inhabitants of Liege, instigated by the of Morbeque, in 1453. He was of a vio- king, had rebelled anew, and made themlent, impetuous disposition, sometimes selves masters of Tongres. Charles was breaking out into fury; and early displayed enraged. In vain did Louis on oath prothat unhappy ambition, which was the test his innocence; he was imprisoned source of his errors and misfortunes. His and strictly guarded. After hesitating dislike of the lords of the house of Croy, long between the most violent measures, the favorites of his father, was insur- the duke finally compelled the king to mountable; and, being unable to procure sign a treaty, the most disgraceful conditheir disgrace, he withdrew from the tion of which was, that he should march court, and went to Holland.

with Charles against the city of Liege, again reconciled, however, with his father, which he had himself excited against the

was

He was

a

snare.

duke. Charles encamped before Liege, eers, who told him that all that he could in company with the king: the city was find among them would not be worth so taken by storm, and abandoned to the fury much as the spurs of his horsemen, he of the soldiers. Such success rendered took the city of Granson, and put to the the mind of the duke utterly obdurate, sword 800 men, by whom it was defended. and added the last traits of that inflexible, But these cruelties were soon avenged by sanguinary character, which made him the signal victory which the Swiss obthe scourge of his neighbors, and led to tained near the same city, March 3, 1476. his own destruction. Edward IV con- The loss of this battle plunged Charles into ferred on him, in 1470, the order of the a gloomy dejection, which disturbed his garter. Shortly after, he received, in mind and his health. With a new army, Flanders, Edward himself, who came to he returned to Switzerland, and lost the seek an asylum with the duke. Charles battle of Murten (Morat), June 22d. The gave him money and ships to return to duke of Lorraine, who had fought in the England. About the end of the same army of the Swiss, led the victors to the year, the war between the king of France walls of Nancy, which surrendered Oct. and the duke of Burgundy was renewed ; 6th. At the first information of this siege, and never did Charles show himself more Charles marched to Lorraine, to retake deserving of the name of the Bold, or the city of Nancy from the duke René. Rash, than in this war. Forced to sue He intrusted to the count of Campo-Basso for a truce, he nevertheless soon took up the charge of the first attack, and, on arms anew, accused the king, publicly, of learning that this officer was a traitor, he magic and poisoning, and, at the head of regarded the information as 24,000 men, crossed the Somme. He Campo-Basso protracted the siege, and took the city of Nesle by storm, caused gave René time to come up with 20,000 fire to be set to it, and, as he saw it burn- men. On the approach of this army, he ing, said, with barbarous coolness, “Such deserted, with his troops, to the enemy, so are the fruits of the tree of war.” An that the army of Charles now consisted enemy to tranquillity, insensible to pleas- of only 4000 men. Against the advice of ure, loving nothing but destruction and his council, Charles persisted in risking bloodshed, and, notwithstanding his pride, battle with unequal forces. On the 5th or master of the art of procuring allies, 6th Jan., 1477 (John von Müller himself Charles, who desired to be equal to Louis is in doubt respecting the day), the two XI in dignity and rank, as well as in armies met: the wing of the Burgundian power, formed the plan of enlarging his was broken through and dispersed, and dominions on the Rhine, and elevating his the centre, commanded by the duke in states into a kingdom, under the name of person, was attacked in front and flank. Belgic Gaul. He visited the emperor As Charles was putting on his helmet, the Frederic III, at Treves, to obtain the title gilded lion, which served for a crest, fell of king and vicar-general of the empire, to the ground, and he exclaimed, with which the emperor had promised him, on surprise, Ecce magnum signum Dei.!" condition that he should marry his daugh- Defeated, and carried along with the curter to the archduke; but, as neither would rent of fugitives, he fell, with his horse, enter first into obligations, they separated into a ditch, where he was killed by the in dissatisfaction, and the negotiation was thrust of a lance, in the 44th year of his broken off. Louis, meanwhile, involved age. His body, covered with blood and Charles in greater embarrassments, by ex- mire, and with the head imbedded in the citing against him Austria and the Swiss. ice, was not found till two days after the Charles now determined to dethrone him, battle, when it was so disfigured that for and, for this purpose, made an alliance some time his own brothers did not recogwith the king of England; but, being nise it. He was finally known by the compelled to hasten to the aid of his rela- length of his beard and nails (which he tive, the bishop of Cologne, he lost ten had suffered to grow since his defeat at months before Neuss, which he besieged Morat), as well as by the scar of a swordin vain, and then hastened to Lorraine, to cut, which he had received in the battle take revenge on the duke Rene, who, at of Montlheri. With this prince expired the instigation of France, had declared the feudal government in Burgundy. war against him. Having completed the Charles was not without good qualities. conquest of Lorraine by the taking of In the government of his people, we find Nancy, in 1475, he turned his arms against no traces of the severity with which he the Swiss; and, notwithstanding the rep- treated himself, and his disposition made resentations of these peaceful mountain- him attentive to the administration of jus

terms

tice. He was buried at Nancy, at the was proud by nature, and more to be piticommand of the duke of Lorraine. In ed than blamed for his too great confi1550, Charles V, his great-grandson, caus- dence in his artful mother. After the ed his remains to be conveyed to Bruges. battle of St. Denis, 1567, in which the He was married three times, but left only constable of Montmorenci lost his life, one daughter, Maria, heiress of Burgundy, Catharine entered into negotiations for by Isabella of Bourbon, his second wife. peace. But the Calvinists reserved a (See Marimilian I.)-Compare the work of part of the places which they were to the baron de Barante, peer of France, have surrendered, and continued to keep Hist. des Ducs de Bourgogne de la Maison up a communication with England and de Valois (Paris, 1824, 10 vols.). In Quen- the German princes. A new civil war tin Durward, sir Walter Scott has de- soon broke out.

Notwithstanding the scribed the character of Charles, and some jealousy of Charles, Catharine placed the of the quarrels between him and Louis of duke of Anjou at the head of the royal France.

army. The prince of Condé having been CHARLES VII, king of France. (See shot in the battle of Jarnac, in 1569, and France, and Joan of Arc.)

the admiral Coligni having been defeated Charles IX, king of France, son of at Montcontour, in the same year, the Henry II and Catharine of Medici, born king concluded peace, in 1570, on in 1550, at St. Germain-en-Laye, ascend- which were so favorable to the Calvinists, ed the throne at the age of 10 years, after that they seem even to have suspected the death of his brother Francis II. No treachery under them. The heads of regency was appointed, and it was deem- that party did not therefore all appear at ed sufficient to write to the parliament, court when Charles celebrated his marthrough the young prince, that he had re- riage with Elizabeth, the daughter of quested his mother to undertake the ad- Maximilian II. By degrees this distrust ministration of the public affairs; and the disappeared, and the marriage of the parliament acquiesced in this resolution, young king of Navarre (afterwards Henry to avoid exciting new contests between IV) with Margaret, sister of Charles IX, the Guises and the princes of the blood. seemed to banish every suspicion. This Catharine consented that the king of Na- marriage took place August 18, 1572. On varre should be appointed governor-gen- the 22d, the first attempt was made on eral of the realm, as she was too well the life of Coligni, and on the 24th beaware of the weakness of his character to gan that massacre known under the name fear it. In order to gratify her ambition, of the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, from she resolved to throw every thing into having taken place on the night of the confusion. (See Catharine de Medici.) festival of that saint. Civil war broke The Guises soon saw that they must op- out for the fourth time, and Catharine pose a Catholic league to the political asso- now became aware of the errors of her ciations of the Calvinists. (See Guise.) – policy. Charles could no longer conceal The cruel persecutions against the Hugue- his aversion to her, and was on the point nots now broke out. (See Bartholomew's of assuming himself the reins of governDay, St.)—The duke of Guise, who ob- ment, when he died, childless, in 1574. tained possession of the person of the He was succeeded by his brother Henry young king, was shot by an assassin be- III. Charles was brave, indefatigable, fore Orleans, in February, 1563. In his ambitious, of a lively, penetrating genius, last moments, he advised the king and the and loved the sciences. The cruelties queen mother to negotiate with the par- which disgrace his reign should be laid ties. This advice was followed; a treaty to the charge of his mother rather than was signed, March 19, and Havre was himself. taken from the English, July 27. The CHARLES X, Philip, king of France and king, who was the same year declared of Navarre, brother of Louis XVI and Louis age, visited the provinces in company XVIII, succeeded the latter on the throne with his mother. At Bayonne, he had a of France, Sept. 16, 1824. Till 1795, he meeting with his sister Isabella, the wife bore the title of count of Artois; till 1824, of Philip II of Spain. This excited such that of monsieur. He was born at Versuspicions in the Calvinists, that they took sailles, Oct. 9th, 1757, and, in 1773, marup arms, and immediately formed the plan ried Maria Theresa of Savoy, the sister of of attacking the king on his return to the countess of Provence, his brother's Paris. Being warned in season, he es- wife, who bore him the duke

of Angoucaped the danger ; but this plot could not lême (q. v.) and the duke of Berri (q. v.), fail to arouse the hatred of Charles, who and died June 20, 1805. He was educated at the court of Louis XV, and mani- rétablissement et la gloire de votre maison." fested in his youth an amiable disposition, The English government gave him, at the and a capacity for mental improvement, end of 1794, a pension of £15,000 sterling. together with a fondness for the fêtes then He had himself sent his diamonds, and fashionable at Versailles, and for expen- the sword which Louis XVI had given sive pleasures. At a ball in the opera-hall

, his son, to marshal Broglio, to relieve, by in 1778, he pulled off the mask of the the sale of them, the most pressing wants duchess of Bourbon. This affront gave of the emigrants. As Russia seemed disrise to a duel with the duke of Bourbon, posed to send troops to the assistance of related by the baron Bezenval in his Mé- the French royalists, the count proceeded moires. In 1782, the count of Artois from Hamm, by way of Cuxhaven, to served as a volunteer in the camp of St. England, in July, 1796, embarked from Roch, before Gibraltar, and was created that country on board the squadron of chevalier of St. Louis. In 1787, as presi- commodore Warren, and landed on the dent of a bureau of the notables, he pur- Ile-Dieu Sept. 29, 1796, expecting to carry sued different views from his brothers, the aid to the chiefs of Vendée. But advices king and the count of Provence. The from England that the Russian auxiliary people, therefore, believed that he was corps was not to be expected, made him opposed to the reform, which was so uni- resolve to re-embark. He returned to versally desired; and, when, with the count England, where he afterwards resided in of Provence, he had completed the regis- the castle of Edinburgh. In 1799, he left tration of the stamp and land tax acts, Scotland, in order to join the band of the manifested their ill will by an attack on prince of Condé in the Russian army in his person. Two days after the 14th of Switzerland ; but, being informed of KorJuly, 1789, he and the prince of Condé sakow's defeat and Suwarrow's retreat, he gave the signal for the fatal emigration, returned to England. After the peace of from which so much misery has sprung. Amiens, he again took up his residence in The count of Artois repaired to Turin, Edinburgh. On the renewal of the war in had an interview with the emperor Leo- 1803, he went to London, and, subsepold in Mantua, resided some time at quently, till 1809, resided at Hartwell

, an Worms, at Bruck near Bonn, at Brussels estate which Louis XVIII had purchased. and Vienna. The monarchs assembled In 1813, he went to the continent, to await at Pilnitz (q. v.) afterwards promised him the result of the entry of the allies into to support the cause of his family. Louis France. In February, 1814, he crossed XVI took the oath to maintain the consti- the Rhine, and was at Vesoul, when the tution, Sept. 14th, 1791, and invited the complaints made by the duke of Vicenza, French princes who were at Coblentz to at the congress of Chatillon, induced him return to France; but they refused to to return. After Napoleon's abdication, obey, and protested against the new con- he, as lieutenant-general of the kingdom, stitution-equally disobedient to their coun- immediately proclaimed, in Nancy, to the try and their king. Hereupon the legis- French people, the triumph of liberty lative assembly of the nation withdrew the reign of the laws, the abolition of the from the count of Artois, May 19, 1792, conscription, the suppression of the droitsthe appanage of 1,000,000 francs, assigned réunis, and the entire oblivion of the past." him by the constitution, and referred his April 12, 1814, he entered Paris, and ascreditors to his estates. The prince was sumed the supreme authority till the arrithen at Turin, from whence he excited val of Louis XVIII, in whose name he commotions at Lyons, and in other parts declared to the president of the senate, of France. He then undertook the com- April 15, that the king, his brother, would mand of a corps of emigrants, which, in recognise for the basis of the constitutionconnexion with the Prussian army, invad- representation in two chambers, personal ed Champagne. After the issue of this liberty, freedom of the press, and other campaign, so unfortunate for the Bour- rights, for which they had been so long bons, the count retired to Hamm, in West- contending. He now entered immediatephalia, where, after the death of Louis ly on the work of reform. He caused the XVI, he was appointed by his brother, papal archives and other things, taken who had taken the title of regent, lieu- from Rome by Napoleon, to be restored tenant-general of the kingdom.

He now

to the holy father: the cours prevótales, solicited the assistance of the empress the tribunals of the customs, and a portion Catharine, who received him at her court of the droits-réunis, were suppressed. The with the greatest distinction, and present- cours prevõtales (q. v.) were afterwards reed him with a valuable sword, "pour le stored for two years. He then signed the

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