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Charles is on the score of insincerity. It ed at once to all those dangerous prerogą. is asserted that he never intended to fulfil tives, which it had cost the nation so much the conditions imposed upon him. This blood and treasure, first to abridge, and can scarcely be denied; but it is equally then to abolish. This unrestrictive recertain that some of them might justly be turn was not more injurious to the nation deemed questionable, if not demanded than fatal to the family of the Stuarts, with a direct view to produce that con- which, had a more rational policy prevailduct in the king which so naturally fol- ed, might have occupied the throne at lowed. On the whole, though many may this moment. On the 29th of May, 1660, demur to his title of martyr, few will hes- Charles entered his capital amidst univeritate to regard him as a victim to a crisis sal and almost frantic acclamations; and which the growing power of the com- the different civil and religious parties mons, and the unsettled nature of the pre- vied with each other in loyalty and subrogative, rendered sooner or later inevit- mission. His first measures were prudent able. His fate, like that of the house of and conciliatory. Hyde, lord Clarendon, Stuart generally, exhibits the danger and was made chancellor and prime minister; absurdity of those high theoretical notions and an act of indemnity was passed, from of kingly prerogative, which, while they which those alone were excepted who add very little to the real power of those were immediately concerned in the late whom they are intended to favor, too fre- king's death. A settled revenue was acquently seduce them into encounters with cepted in lieu of wardship and purveycurrents of principle and action, a resist- ance, and the army was reduced. In reance to which is always futile, and gen- spect to religion, there was less indulerally destructive.
gence; for not only were prelacy and the CHARLES II, king of England and Scot- parliamentary rights of bishops restored, land, son of Charles I and Henrietta Ma- which was to be expected, but an act of ria of France, was born in 1630. He was uniformity was passed, by the conditions a refugee at the Hague on the death of of which nearly all the Presbyterian clerhis father, on which he immediately as- gy were driven to a resignation of their sumed the royal title. He first intended livings. In 1662, he married the infanta to proceed to Ireland, but was prevented of Portugal, a prudent and virtuous prinby the progress of Cromwell. He there- cess, but in no way calculated to acquire före listened to an invitation from the the affection of a man like Charles. The Scots, who had proclaimed him their indolence of his temper, and the expenses king; and, being obliged to throw himself of his licentious way of life, soon involved into the hands of the rigid Presbyterians, him in pecuniary difficulties; and the unthey subjected him to many severities popular sale of Dunkirk to the French and mortifications, which caused him to re- was one of his most early expedients to gard that sect ever after with extreme relieve himself. In 1663, a rupture took aversion. In 1651, he was crowned at place with Holland, which, as it proceedScone; but the approach of Cromwell, ed from commercial rivalry, was willingly with his conquering army, soon rendered supported by parliament. It was attendbis abode in Scotland unsafe. Hoping to ed, in the first instance, by various naval be joined by the English royalists, he took successes; but, France and Denmark enthe spirited resolution of passing Crom- tering into the war, as allies of the Dutch, well, and entering England. He was im- the English were overmatched, and a Dutch mediately pursued by that active com- fleet entered the Thames, and, proceeding mander, who, with a superior army, gain- up the Medway, burnt and destroyed ed the battle of Worcester; and Churles, ships as high as Chatham. Such was after a variety of imminent hazards, in the naval disgrace of a reign, which, on one of which he was sheltered for 24 many other accounts, is probably the hours in the branches of a spreading oak, most nationally discreditable one in the reached Shoreham, in Sussex, and effect- English annals. The domestic calamities ed a passage to France. He passed some of a dreadful plague, in 1665, and of the years in Paris, little regarded by the court, great fire of London, in 1666, added to which was awed by the power of the the disasters of the period. Soon after, English commonwealth; and this indigni- Clarendon, who had become very unpopty induced him to retire to Cologne. It ular, and was personally disagreeable to is the province of history to state the Charles, was dismissed, and sought shelter circumstances that produced the restora- from his enemies by a voluntary exile. A tion, which general Monk so conducted, triple alliance between England, Holland that Charles, without a struggle, succeed- and Sweden, for the purpose of cheeking the ambition of Louis XIV, followed. It faction, met with universal belief; and, in did honor to the political talents of sir relation thereto, the parliament exhibited William Temple, and was one of the few nearly as much credulity and heat as the public measures of the reign which de- vulgar. Many Catholic lords were comserve approbation. The thoughtless mitted; Coleman, the duke of York's profusion of Charles, however, soon secretary, and several priests, were hangbrought him into a condition which ren- ed; and a venerable nobleman, the earl of dered him the mere pensioner of Louis; Stafford, was beheaded. The duke of by whose secret aid he was supported in York thought fit to retire to Brussels, and all his attempts to abridge the freedom of a bill for his exclusion from the throne his people." In 1670, he threw himself passed the house of commons. Such into the hands of the five unprincipled was the state of the country, that Charles ministers, collectively denominated the was obliged to give way to sone popular cabal, who supported him in every at- measures, and the great palladium of civil tempt to make himself independent of liberty, the habeas corpus bill, passed durparliament. A visit which Charles received ing this session. The temper of the parfrom his sister, the duchess of Orleans, liament was so much excited, that the was rendered subservient to French pol- king first prorogued and then dissolved it. icy, by means of one of her attendant The court now sought to establish a balladies, a beautiful Frenchwoman. This ance of parties; to distinguish which, the female made, as was intended, a conquest terms whig and tory were about this time of Charles, who created her duchess of invented. In 1680, a new parliament asPortsmouth ; and, anidst all his other at- sembled, and the commons again passed tachments, she retained an influence over the exclusion bill, which was rejected by him which kept him steadily attached to the lords. This parliament was also disFrance. The party troubles of this reign solved in the next year, and a new one commenced, about this time, by the open called at Oxford, which proved so restiff, declaration of the duke of York, presump- that a sudden dissolution of it ensued; tive heir to the crown, that he was a con- and, like his father, Charles determined vert to the Roman Catholic religion. henceforward to govern without one. By Soon after, the ministry broke the triple the aid of the tory gentry and the clergy, alliance, and planned a rupture with the he obtained loyal addresses from all parts Dutch; and, as the king did not choose to of the kingdom, and attachment to high apply to parliament for money to carry on monarchical principles came again into the projected war, he caused the exchequer vogue. The charge of plots and conspirato be shut up in January, 1672, and, by cies was now brought against the Presbyseveral other disgraceful and arbitrary terians. A person named College was proceedings, gave great disgust and alarm executed upon the same infamous evito the nation. The naval operations dence as had been previously turned against the Dutch were by no means suc- against the Catholics; and the famous earl cessful
, and, a new parliament being called, of Shaftesbury, who headed the popular which strongly expressed the discontent party, was brought to trial, but acquitted. of the nation, the cabal was dissolved, and The nonconformists, generally, were also a separate peace made with Holland in treated with much rigor; and a step of 1674. Divisions in the cabinet, fluctua- great moment, in the progress to arbitrary tions in the king's measures, and parlia- power, was the instituting suits at law mentary contests, followed, and occupied (quo warrantos) against most of the corpothe next three years, until, in 1677, rations in the kingdom, by which they Charles performed a popular act, by mar- were intimidated to a resignation of their rying his niece, the princess Mary, to the charters, in order to receive them back so prince of Orange. By taking some de- modelled as to render them much more cided steps in favor of the Dutch, he also dependent than before. These rapid forwarded the peace of Nimeguen, in 1678. strides towards the destruction of liberty The same year was distinguished by the at length produced the celebrated Ryepretended discovery of the celebrated house plot, the parties to which certainly popish plot, for the assassination of the intended resistance; but that the assassinaking, and the introduction of the Catholic tion of the king was ever formally proreligion. Notwithstanding the infamous jected, seems very doubtful. It certainly characters of Oates and Bedloe, and the formed no part of the intention of lord improbable nature of their disclosures, William Russel, whose execution, with their tale, supported by the general sus- that of Algernon Sidney, on account of picion of the secret influence of a Catholic the plot, forms one of the striking events of this disgraceful reign. Charles was, ish history. It need not be added, that he at this time, as absolute as any sove left many illegitimate children, the deereign in Europe; and, had he been an scendants of some of whom are still active prince, the fetters of tyranny among the leading peerage of the country. Inight have been completely riveted. The fate of his most distinguished son, the Scodand, which, at different periods of ill-fated duke of Monmouth, is an affair of his reign, had been driven into insur- history. rection by the arbitrary attempts to re- CHARLES EDWARD STUART. (See Edstore Episcopacy, was at length com- ward.) pletely dragooned into submission; and CHARLES XII, king of Sweden, born at the relics of the Covenanters were sup- Stockholm, June 27, 1682, was well inpressed with circumstances of great bar- structed in the languages, history, geograbarity. It is said, however, that Charles phy and mathematics. He understood was becoming uneasy at this plan, which German, Latin and French. Curtius' was chiefly supported by the bigoted aus- history of Alexander was his favorite terity of the duke of York; and that he book. On the death of his father, in 1697, had made a resolution to relax, when he when he was but 15 years old, he was expired, from the consequences of an apo- declared of age by the estates. Mear plectic fit, in Feb., 1685, in the fifty-fifth while, the young king showed but litt's year of his age and twenty-fifth of his inclination for business: he loved violent reign. At his death, he received the sacra- bodily exercises, and especially the chase ment, according to the rites of the Roman of the bear. To his jealous neighbors, this church, and thus proved himself to have seemed a favorable time to humble the been, during the whole of his life, as hyp- pride of Sweden in the north. Frederic ocritical as profligate. The character of IV of Denmark, Augustus II of Poland, Charles II requires little analysis. He and the czar Peter I of Russia, concluded was a confirmed sensualist and voluptu- an alliance which resulted in the northern ary; and, owing to the example of him war, so called. The Danish troops first and his court, his reign was the era of the invaded the territory of the duke of Holmost dissolute manners that ever prevailed stein-Gottorp. This prince, who had in England. The stage was an open married the eldest sister of the king of school of licentiousness, and polite litera- Sweden, repaired to Stockholm, and asked ture was altogether infected by it. Charles for assistance. Charles had a particular was a man of wit, and a good judge of attachment for him, and proposed, in the certain kinds of writing, but was too defi- council of state, the most energetic meascient in sensibility to feel either the sublime ures against Denmark. After making or the beautiful, in composition; neither some arrangements respecting the internal was he generous even to the writers whom administration, he embarked at Carlscrona he applauded. He possessed an easy good in May, 1700. Thirty ships of the line, nature, but united with it a total indiffer- and a great number of small transports, ence to any thing but his own pleasure; strengthened by an English and Dutch and no man could be more destitute of squadron, appeared before Copenhagen. honor or generosity. His ideas of the Arrangements were making for the disrelation between king and subject were embarkation, when Charles, full of impaevinced by his observation on Lauderdale's tience, plunged from his boat into the cruelties in Scotland :-“I perceive," said water, and was the first who reached land. he, “that Lauderdale has been guilty of The Danes retired before the superior many bad things against the people of power of the enemy. Copenhagen was Scotland; but I cannot find that he has on the point of being besieged, when the acted in any thing contrary to my interest.” peace negotiated at Travendal was signed Yet, with all his selfishness and demerits as (Aug. 8, 1700), by which the duke of Hola king, Charles always preserved a share stein was confirmed in all the rights of of popularity with the multitude, from the which it had been attempted to deprive him. easiness of his manners. Pepys' memoirs, Thus ended the first enterprise of Charles and other private documents, however, XII, in which he exhibited as much intelclearly show the opinion of the more ligence and courage as disinterestedness. reflecting portion of his subjects; and it is He adopted, at this time, that severe and now pretty generally admitted, that, as he temperate mode of life, to which he ever was himself a most dishonorable and remained true, avoiding relaxation and heartless monarch and man, so his reign useless amusements ; wine was banished exhibited the English character in a more from his table; at times coarse bread was disgraceful light than any other in Brit- his only food; he often slept in his cloak on the ground; a blue coat, with copper alliance against Sweden (at that time Pebuttons, was his whole wardrobe; he ter's ambassador in Dresden), was delivwore large boots, reaching above his ered up to him, on his demand, and was knees, and gloves of buffalo skin. With broken on the wheel. It was, with jusrespect to the female sex, he manifested tice, a subject of astonishment, that a the greatest indifference, and no woman prince, till then so magnanimous, could ever had any influence over him. After stoop to such intemperate revenge. In thus checking Denmark, the attacks of other respects, Charles exhibited, during Augustus and Peter were to be repelled. his stay in Saxony, moderation and magThe former was besieging Riga, the latter nanimity. He subjected his troops to the menaced Narva and the country situated strictest discipline. Several ambassadors about the gulf of Finland. Without re- and princes visited the camp of the king turning to his capital, which, in fact, he at Altranstädt, among whom was Marlnever revisited, Charles caused 20,000 borough, who sought to discover Charles's men to be transported to Livonia, and plans, and convinced himself that the went to meet the Russians, whoin he victorious hero would take no part in the found, 80,000 strong, in a fortified camp, great contests of the South. The king of under the walls of Narva. On the 30th Sweden, however, before he left GermaNov., 1700, between eight and ten thou- ny, required the emperor to grant to the sand Swedes placed themselves in order Lutherans in Silesia perfect freedom of of battle, under the fire of the Russians, conscience; and the requisition was comand the engagement began. On the pre- plied with. In Sept, i707, the Swedes vious evening, Peter had left his camp lett Saxony. They were 43,000 strong, on pretence of bringing up reinforcements. well clothed, well disciplined, and enIn less than a quarter of an hour, the Rus- riched by the contributions imposed on the sian camp was taken by storin. Thirty conquered. Six thousand men remained thousand Russians perished on the field for the protection of the king of Poland: or threw themselves into the Narva; the with the rest of the army Charles took the rest were taken prisoners or dispersed. shortest route to Moscow. But, having After this victory, Charles crossed the reached the region of Smolensk, he altered Dwina, attacked the intrenchments of the his plan, at the suggestion of the Cossack Saxons, and gained a decisive victory. hetman Mazeppa, and proceeded to the Charles might now have concluded a Ukraine, in the hope that the Cossacks peace, which would have made him the would join him. But Peter laid waste arbiter of the North ; but, instead of so their country, and the proscribed Mazeppa doing, he pursued Augustus to Poland, could not procure the promised aid. The and deterinined to take advantage of the difficult marches, the want of provisions, discontent of a great part of the nation, for the perpetual attacks of the enemy, and the purpose of dethroning him. Augustus the severe cold, weakened Charles's army attempted in vain to enter into negotia- in an uncommon degree. General Löwtions; in vain did the countess Königs- enhaupt, who was to bring reinforcements mark, mistress of Augustus, endeavor to and provisions from Livonia, arrived with obtain an interview with Charles, and only a few troops, exhausted by the march, disarm the Swedish hero by her beauty. and by continual skirmishes with the RusCharles refused to negotiate with the sians. Pultawa, abundantly furnished king or to speak with the countess. The with stores, was about to be invested, war continued; the Swedes gained a when Peter appeared with 70,000 men. brilliant victory at Clissau ; in 1703, all Charles, in reconnoitring, was dangerPoland was in the possession of the con- ously wounded in the thigh ; consequentquerors ; the cardinal primate declared the ly, in the battle of June 27th, O. s. (July throne vacant; and, by the influence of 8th), 1709, which changed the fortunes of Charles, the new choice fell on Stanislaus the Swedish hero and the fate of the Leczinsky. Augustus hoped to be secure North, he was obliged to issue his comin Saxony, as Peter had meanwhile occu- mands from a litter, without being able to pied Ingria, and founded St. Petersburg, at encourage his soldiers by his presence. the outh of the Neva. But the victor This, and still more the want of agreement of Narva despised an enemy on whom he between Renschild and Löwenhaupt, hoped, sooner or later, to take an easy were the reasons why the Swedes did not revenge, and invaded Saxony. At Al- display their usual skill in maneuvring, transtädt (q. v.), he dictated the conditions which had so often given them the victoof peace, in 1706. The Livonian Patkul ry. They were obliged to yield to supe(q. v.), who was the prime mover of the rior force, and the enemy obtained a complete victory. Charles saw his generals, lar contest, Stanislaus came to Bender to his favorite minister, count Piper, and ask the king of Sweden to give his conthe flower of his army, fall into the power sent to the treaty which he saw himself of those Russians so easily vanquished at obliged to conclude with Augustus; but Narva. He himself, together with Mazep- Charles refused. The Turks now repz, fled with a small guard, and was moved their prisoner from Bender to Deobliged, notwithstanding the pain of his motica, near Adrianople. Here he spent wounds, to go several miles on foot. He two months in bed, feigning sickness, and finally found refuge and an honorable re- employed in reading and writing. Conception at Bender, in the Turkish territory. vinced, at last, that he could expect no His enemies were now inspired with new assistance from the Porte, he sent a parthope. Augustus protested against the ing embassy to Constantinople, and set off treaty of Altranstädi ; Peter invaded Livo- in disguise with two officers. Accusnia; Frederic of Denmark made a descent tomed to every deprivation, Charles puron Schonen. The regency in Stockholm sued his journey on horseback, through took measures for the defence of the Hungary and Germany, day and night, Swedish territory. General Steinbock with such haste, that only one of his atassembled a body of militia and peasants, tendants was able to keep up with him. defeated the Danes at Helsingborg, and Exhausted and haggard, he arrived becompelled them to evacuate Schonen. fore Stralsund about one o'clock on the Several divisions were sent to Finland to night of the 11th Nov. O. S. (224), 1714. keep off the Russians, who, nevertheless, Pretending to be a courier with important advanced, being superior in numbers. despatches from Turkey, he caused himCharles, meanwhile, negotiated at Bender self to be immediately introduced to the with the Porte; succeeded in removing commandant, count Dunker, who questhe ministers who were opposed to him, tioned him concerning the king, without and induced the Turks to declare war recognising him till he began to speak, against Russia. The armies met on the when he sprang joyfully from his bed, banks of the river Pruth, July 1, 1711. and embraced the knees of his master, Peter seemed nearly ruined, when the The report of Charles's arrival spread courage and prudence of his wife (see rapidly throughout the city. The houses Catharine) produced a peace, in which the were illuminated. A combined army of interests of Charles were entirely neglect. Danes, Saxons, Russians and Prussians ed. This monarch, however, projected immediately invested Stralsund. Charles at Bender new plans, and, through his performed, during the defence, miracles agents, solicited of the Porte auxiliaries of bravery. But, being obliged to surrenagainst his enemies. But the Russian der the fortress, on Dec. 15, 1715, he proagents were no less active to prepossess ceeded to Lund, in Schonen, and took the Porte against him, pretending that measures to secure the coast. He then Charles designed to make himself, in the attacked Norway. The baron of Görtz, person of Stanislaus, the actual master of whose bold but intelligent plans were Poland, in order, from thence, in connex- adapted to the situation of the Swedish ion with the German emperor, to attack the monarchy, was, at that time, his confidenTurks. The seraskier of Bender was tial friend. His advice was, that Charles ordered to compel the king to depart, and, should gain Peter the Great to the interest in case he refused, to bring him, living or of Sweden by important concessions, dead, to Adrianople. Little used to obey make himself master of Norway, and from the will of another, and apprehensive of thence land in Scotland, in order to debeing given up to his enemies, Charles throne George I, who had declared himresolved to defy the forces of the Porte, self against Charles. Görtz discovered with the two or three hundred men of resources for prosecuting the war, and which his retinue consisted, and, sword entered into negotiations, at Aaland, with in hand, to await his fate. When his the plenipotentiaries of the czar. Peter residence at Varnitza, near Bender, was was already gained, and a part of Norattacked by the Turks, he defended it way conquered; the fortunes of Sweagainst a whole army, and yielded only den seemed to assume a favorable aspect; step by step. The house took fire, and Charles was besieging Fredericshall, when, he was about to abandon it, when, his on Nov. 30, 1718, as he was in the spurs becoming entangled, he fell