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on his sword, in his pocket the portrait of of Finland, and, in the most dangerous Gustavus Adolphus and a prayer-book. season of the year, brought back his fleet It is more than probable, that the ball in safety to the harbor of Carlscrona, which killed him was fired, not from the after which he was appointed governorfortress, but from the Swedish side. His general of Finland. After the murder of adjutant, Siguier, has been accused as an Gustavus III, in 1792, he was placed at accomplice in his murder. A century the head of the regency, and, happily for afterwards, Nov. 30, 1818, Charles XIV Sweden, preserved the country at peace caused a monument to be erected on the with all other nations, while he united spot where he fell. At Charles's death, with Denmark for the protection of the Sweden sunk from the rank of a leading navigation in the northern seas. He likepower. In his last years, he had formed wise founded a museum, established a great plans for the improvement of its military academy for 200 pupils, and navy, trade and commerce. At Lund, he gained universal esteem. In 1796, he reoften conversed with the professors of the signed the government to Gustavus Adoluniversity, and attended public disputa- phus IV, who had become of age, and tions on geometry, mechanics and history. retired, as a private man, to his castle of In Bender, the reading of useful books Rosersberg. He never appeared again in was one of his principal employments: public life till a revolution hurled Gushe sent for Swedish scholars, and caused tavus Adolphus IV, in 1809, from the them to travel through Greece and Asia. throne, and placed Charles at the head of Accounts of some of these travels bave the state, as administrator of the realm, been printed; there are others in manu- and, some months afterwards, June 20, script at Upsal. Firmness, valor and love 1809, as king of Sweden, at a very critical of justice were the grand features of period. The peace with Russia, at FredCharles's character, but were disfigured by ericksham, Sept. 17, 1809, gave the counan obstinate rashness. After his return, try the tranquillity necessary for repairing he showed himself more peaceable, gen- its heavy losses, and for completing the tle, moderate, and disposed to politic constitution. He had already adopted measures. Posterity, considering him in prince Christian of Holstein-Sonderburgrelation to his times, will say that he had Augustenburg as his successor, and, after great virtues and great faults; that he was his death, marshal Bernadotte, who was seduced by prosperity, but not overcome elected by the estates, in August, 1810, to by adversity. His history has been writ- take the place of the prince. On him he ten by his chaplain, Norberg. Adlerfeld bestowed his entire confidence. May 27, has published his military memoirs. Vol. 1811, he founded the order of Charles taire's Histoire de Charles XII, though not XIII, which is conferred solely on freecomplete, nor free from errors in dates, masons of high degree. June 21, 1816, names and geographical facts, is written he acceded to the holy alliance. His with much clearness and elegance. prudent conduct in the war between

Charles XIII; king of Sweden; born France and Russia, in 1812, procured Oct. 7, 1748 ; second son of king Adol- Sweden an indemnification for Finland phus Frederic and Louisa Ulrica, sister by the acquisition of Norway, Nov. 4, of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Having 1814. Although some disappointed nobeen appointed, at his birth, high admiral bles may have given utterance to murof Sweden, his education was directed murs against his government, Charles chiefly to the learning of naval tactics, for XIII nevertheless enjoyed the love of his which purpose he accompanied several people till his death, Feb. 5, 1818. cruises in the Cattegat.' In 1765, he be- CHARLES XIV, John, king of Sweden came honorary president of the society of and Norway (or Scandinavia), married, sciences at Upsal. In 1770, he com- Aug. 16, 1798, Eugénie Bernardine Démenced the tour of Europe. The death sirée (born Nov. 8, 1781), daughter of the of Adolphus Frederic recalled him to merchant Clary, of Marseilles, sister of the Sweden, where he took an important part wife of Joseph Bonaparte. Feb. 5, 1818, in the revolution of 1772. His brother, he succeeded Charles XIII, by whom he Gustavus III, appointed him governor- had been adopted. This prince, whose general of Stockholm, and duke of Süder- political station practically refutes the nemannland. In 1774, he niarried Hedwig cessity of the principle of legitimacy Elisabeth Charlotte, princess of Holstein- maintained by the potentates of Europe, Gottorp. In the war with Russia, in was born, Jan. 26, 1764, at Pau, at the 1788, he received the command of the foot of the Pyrenees, and was called Jean fleet, defeated the Russians in the gulf Baptiste Jules Bernadotte. His father was a lawyer. His uncommon intellectual cul- the abuses that had crept into the army. tivation shows that he was educated with Three months after, he saw himself regreat care. In 1780, he voluntarily en- moved from the office which he had tered the military profession, and, in 1789, administered in the most difficult crisis, at at the age of 26 years, was still a sergeant. the moment when he might have enjoyed When the revolution broke out, he entered the order he had produced. He therefore with enthusiasm the ranks of the defend- retired from the public service, and had ers of his country, and rose quickly already taken up his abode in the country, through the steps of military promotion.. when the 18th Brumaire effected a change In 1794, he was general of division in the in his situation. Bonaparte called him to battle of Fleurus; in 1795, he contributed the council of state. Here he opposed essentially to the passage of the French the establishment of the order of the leover the Rhine, at Neuwied; in 1796, he gion of honor. The first consul, on the served in Jourdan's anny. His services other hand, refused to place him at the on the Lahn, the blockade of Mentz, the head of the expedition destined for St. battle of Neuhoff, the passage over the Domingo, and Bernadotte expressed himRednitz, the taking of Altorf, the capture self very explicitly respecting the entire of Neumark, and the advantages obtained incompetency of general Leclerc for the over Kray, whom he deprived of his duty. An alienation thus took place bemagazines on the Marne, established his tween him and Bonaparte; and his brothreputation as a general. He afterwards er-in-law Joseph could only bring about a led reinforcements to the army of Italy, kind of political reconciliation between and was intrusted, by Bonaparte, with the them. He now received the command siege of the fortress of Gradisca. In the of the army of the West, and, by his hucontests which ensued before he could mane measures, suppressed, in its origin, make himself master of it, he afforded a the insurrection excited in the hardly model of coolness and intrepidity. Short- quieted Vendée, by some chiefs of the ly before the 18th Fructidor, Bonaparte Chouans. (q. v.) After the peace of chose him to carry to the directory the Lunéville, he was appointed ambassador banners taken in the battle of Rivoli, and, to the U. States; but the revival of the in his letter, called him one of the generals war prevented his proceeding thither. In who had most essentially contributed to 1804, the first consul sent him to Hanover the renown of the Italian army. After in the place of Mortier, and his humanity the treaty of Leoben, the disturbances in and disinterestedness gained the love of the southern provinces continuing in con- the Hanoverians. In the same year, the sequence of the 18th Fructidor, the direc- change of the consulate into a hereditory appointed general Bernadotte com- tary empire gave him the staff of a marmandant at Marseilles; but he refused to shal of the French empire, and, soon afier, turn his sword against his fellow-citizens, the grand decoration of the legion of and returned to his division in Italy. honor. On the renewal of hostilities with After the treaty of Campo-Formio, he was Austria, Bernadotte led an army through appointed ambassador of the French re- Anspach, effected a junction with the Bapublic to the court of Vienna. A tumult, varians at Wurtzburg, and, in this way caused by planting the tri-colored banner surrounding the Austrians, contributed to on the palace of the embassy, induced the victory at Ulm. In the battle of Aushim to leave Vienna, He repaired to terlitz, Bernadotte's corps constituted the Rastadt, and from thence to Paris. In centre, which withstood all the attacks of the campaign of 1799, Bernadotte, as the Russian army. June 5, 1806, Napoleon commander of the army of observation, created bıim prince of Ponte-Corvo. In the under Jourdan, was instructed to cross war against Prussia, he led the first corps the Rhine and invest Philippsburg. But d'armée, advanced from Bayreuth, through the approach of the arch-duke Charles, Hoff, to the Saxon Vogtland, and cut off the the retreat of Jourdan over the Rhine, the corps of count Tauenzien from the Prusdissolution of the congress of Rastadt, and sian main army. Oct. 14, he advanced the progress of the allies in Italy, rendered from Dornburg, in the rear of the Prussian extraordinary measures necessary. Ber- army, pursued general Blücher to Lübeck, nadotte, being placed in the ministry of and compelled him to capitulate. He war, urged the accusation of the generals was the only French leader who seriously who had so speedily surrendered the Ital- endeavored to alleviate the melancholy ian fortresses, encouraged the zeal of the fate of this unhappy city on the 6th Nov., conscripts, exerted himself for the restora- 1806. Towards the Swedes, also, taken tion of military discipline, and checked prisoners on the Trave, 1500 in number.

he manifested so much kindness, that his dotte's acceptance of his election Charles name was mentioned with respect in Swe- XIII announced to the diet at Erebro, den. He next marched through Poland Sept. 26, 1810, having previously, at a and Prussia Proper, and fought, Jan. 25, chapter of the order holden on the 24th, 1807, the bloody engagement of Mohrun- created the new crown-prince knight of gen, by which the Russians were prevent the order of seraphim: he was likewise ed from surprising the grand army, and appointed generalissiino of the realm. driving it over the Vistula. He was pre- Napoleon had no influence on this choice; vented from participating in the battle of for, when he learned, in July, 1810, that Friedland by a wound received at Span- the Swedish diet was assembling at Erugen, June 5. From the close of 1807 to bro, to choose a successor to the throne, the spring of 1809, he commanded the he expressed a wish that the king of DenFrench arıny which remained in the north mark might be elected; and the semi-offiof Germany. War having broken out cial Journal de l'Empire contains an antianew, in 1809, between Austria and cle to this effect, which Désaugiers, the France, he led the Saxon allies to the French chargé d'affaires in Stockholm, battle of Wagram, where, with the guard communicated by a note to the Swedish and corps of the viceroy of Italy, they ministry. Meanwhile three Swedish depformed the second line and the reserves, uties had already arrived in Paris io and, animated by his courage, fought with ascertain the sentiments of the prince in the greatest distinction. The Saxons took case of his election. The prince referred Wagram, and maintained possession of them to the emperor, who assured the the burning village for two hours; but, as deputies that he should not oppose the they had lost many of their number, the free choice of the diet, though it should prince commanded general Dupas, whose fall on the prince of Ponte-Corvo. At the division belonged to the ninth corps, to same time, he recalled his chargé d'afsupport them. But Dupas refused, be- faires from Stockholm. After the prince cause he was ordered, from a higher was elected, Napoleon made him several quarter, to remain in his position. Aston- promises in favor of Sweden, but their ished at this, the prince immediately made mutual personal relations were not, on preparations to save the remainder of the that account, more friendly than they had Saxon troops, and then hastened to head- been before. Oct. 18, at noon,

tequarters, to complain to the emperor of Corvo reached the royal Danish castle of this violation of military rules. ** If his Fredericsborg, where he remained in the death,” he said, “ were desired, there were midst of the royal family till the next day, less odious means than one by which so when he departed for Elsinore. Here many brave men must perish with him.” doctor Lindblom, archbishop of Upsal, in The emperor tried to appease the prince the presence of several witnesses, Oct. 19, by saying that such errors were unavoid- 1810, in the house of the Swedish consul, able in so extensive movements. But received his profession of belief in the Bernadotte took his dismission, and went creed of the evangelical Lutheran church. to Paris. Information being received of Amid the thunder of cannon, a Swedish the landing of the English on Walche- galley conveyed him to Helsingborg, where ren, the council of ministers intrusted he landed Oct. 20, and had his first meetto him the charge of repelling the inva- ing with king Charles XIII. On the 31st, sion. He immediately called out the na- he was presented to the diet. By an act tional guards, deceived the enemy by of Nov.5, 1810, the king adopted him; he marches and countermarches, and com- assumed the name of Charles John, and pelled them to evacuate the island. From took the oath as crown-prince and heir of that time the prince lived in the bosom of the throne; after which ceremony, he rehis family, sometimes in the country, some- ceived the homage of the estates. To his times at Paris; and here the deputies of son Oscar was granted the title of duke of Sweden brought him, in September, 1810, Südermannland. His wife came to Stockinformation of his appointment as succes- holm, Jan. 7, 1811, but returned to Paris, sor to the throne, and crown-prince of this where she lived, till some years since, unkingdom. King Charles XIII had pro- der the title of countess of Gothland. The posed him for his successor, on the 18th king being attacked with sickness in the of August, to the estates, and the commit- following year, he committed to the crowntee of the estates, selected for the purpose, prince, March 17, 1811, though with some chose him, August 21, almost unanimous- restrictions, the government of the Swely, on condition that he should embrace dish monarchy, which he conducted till the evangelical Lutheran religion. Bena- Jan. 7, 1812, with wisdom and energy.

He did much to promote the agriculture France, but only to guard the interests of an agricultural society was erected under Sweden, while he promised to coöperate his superintendence), commerce and mil- against Napoleon's plans of conquest: sevitary power of Sweden. Meanwhile, the eral tiines, therefore, he urged the emperor crown-prince so far yielded to the de- to make peace. For the same purpose, he mands of the emperor Napoleon, that wrote to Ney, after the battle of DenneSweden declared war against Great Brit- witz, Sept. 6, 1813. Certain it is, that he ain Nov. 17, 1810. But, after Napoleon endeavored to prevent the passage of the had demanded, in vain, 2000 Swedish Rhine by the allies, for the purpose of sailors for his fleet at Brest, and Sweden penetrating into the interior of France. refused to enforce the continental system May 18, 1813, the crown-prince arrived at in all its rigor, he occupied Swedish Pom- Stralsund, to place himself at the head of erania, without giving any explanation on the Swedish army in Germany. His letthe subject ; and the French ambassador, ter to the French emperor, March 20, Alquier, at Stockholm, used language 1813, had been without effect. Sweden which implied that the crown-prince was had now become more firmly allied with to have in view solely the interest of England and Russia. After the conferFrance. When Charles XIII resumed ence at Trachenberg, Charles John prothe government, the crown-prince made a ceeded to Berlin. He visited, during the remarkable report respecting his adminis- truce, the quarters of the troops committed tration and the situation of the kingdom. to him, repaired again to Stralsumd, where In conformity with his views, the decree he received general Moreau, and, Aug. 11, of July 29, 1812, was issued, by which the reached the corps besieging Stettin. He Swedish ports were opened to all nations. had the command of the united army of This resolution, a consequence of the in- North Germany,consisting of the Russian creasing differences between Sweden and corps of Winzingerode, Woronzow, CzerFrance, was justified by the crown-prince nitschew, of the English under Walmoin a letter to Napoleon. In the war be- den, the Prussian under Bülow, and the tween France and Russia, in 1812, Swe- Swedish under the field-marshal Stedingk. den refused the alliance of France, and, By the victory at Grossbeeren, Aug. 23, in consequence of the provocations which over the French marshal Oudinot, he she had received from that country, con- saved Berlin. By the still greater viccluded a secret league with Russia, at St. tory at Dennewitz, the issue of which Petersburg, March 24, 0. S. (April 8), was decided by the Prussian general 1812, by the terms of which she promised Bülow, count of Dennewitz, over marshal to send an army of 25—30,000 men to Ney, Sept. 6, the capital of Prussia was Germany; but Russia previously pledged a second time saved. Oct. 4, the crownitself to unite Norway with Sweden, either prince crossed the Elbe at Rosslau. His by negotiations or by force of arms. (See march, on the 17th, to Taucha, contributed Scholl's Traités de Pair, x. 101, &c.) This much to the result of the glorious 18th of treaty, however, was set aside at the meet- October, at Leipsic, on which day Charles ing of Alexander and the crown-prince at John acquired new reputation. On the Abo, Aug. 27, 1812, in order that Russia following day, he formed a junction with might employ, for its own defence, its his allies at Leipsic. While they pursued army in Finland, which had been design- the enemy in a direct line to his frontiers, ed to act against Norway, but was now Charles John marched along the Elbe to needed on the Dwina. That treaty is the Mecklenburg, against marshal Davoust and foundation of the political system subse- the Danes. Lübeck was soon conquered, quently observed by Sweden, and pro- and the Danish army separated from the posed at that time by the crown-prince. French, which threw itself into Hamburg. Peace between Sweden and Great Britain A corps was left to prosecute the siege of was also effected at Erebro, July 12, the city, while the crown-prince, with the 1812. Napoleon's head-quarters were main army, turned towards Holstein. At then between Smolensk and Moscow. the end of three months, his outposts exSweden's policy required the greatest pos- tended to Rissen and Fredericia, and sible precaution : its formal declaration of Frederic VI, king of Denmark, in the war against France was not therefore treaty of peace which the crown-prince made till Charles John had reached the concluded with him, Jan. 14, 1814, at Kiel, head-quarters of Alexander and Frederic ceded Norway to Sweden. Hereupon William, at Trachenberg, in Silesia, July Charles John, with the greater part of his 9–12, 1813. The crown-prince evidently army, proceeded through Hanover to the showed that he did not wish to attack frontiers of France. This march, how



ever, was executed so slowly, that, before ent, prince Oscar (Joseph Francis), born he arrived at the theatre of war, Alexander July 4, 1799, is particularly worthy of noand the king of Prussia had already enter- tice. This was seen at the confirmation ed Paris. The crown-prince of Sweden of the prince, which took place April 15, now came to Paris, and had an interview 1815, according to the usage of the Luwith the king of France in Compiegne, theran church. July 4, 1817, the prince but soon left France, to undertake the was declared of age. He has subsequentconquest of Norway, which had elected its ly had a seut in the council of state, and, former governor hereditary king. After June 20, 1818, the Swedish diet and the a campaign of 14 days, he compelled the Norwegian storthing empowered him to prince Christian Frederic to make a treaty exercise plenary regal powers, in case of at Moss, Aug. 14, 1814, by which Norway the absence or sickness of the king. June recognised the conqueror as crown-prince 19, 1823, prince Oscar married Joséphine, of Norway, Nov. 4, 1814. (See Christian daughter of the late duke Eugene, of Frederic, and Norway.)

Leuchtenberg, viceroy of Italy, step-son Since his accession to the throne, Charles of Napoleon, who bore him a son in 1826, XIV has done every thing possible in his who received the title of duke of Schonen. situation to merit the confidence of the Thus the new dynasty seems to be firmly nation, which called him to the throne by established. Its principal support is the a free choice. When, on occasion of a love of the people, which Charles XIV conspiracy against him, the citizens of has won by his conduct, equally prudent Stockholm, in March, 1817, solemnly and noble. His motto, “ The people's love Assured him of their fidelity, he thanked is my reward” (Folkets karlek min belothem with the following remarkable words: ning), expresses the character of his gov—“I came among you with no other cre- ernment. (See the Mém. pour servir à dentials and pledge than my sword and l’Histoire de Charles XIV, par Coupé de my actions. Could I have brought with St. Donat et B. de Roquefort ; Paris, 1820, me a series of ancestors, extending back 2 vols.). The principal dissatisfaction has to the times of Charles Martel, I should arisen from the way in which he has sought have desired it only on your account. For to regulate the foreign debts of Sweden my part, I am proud of the services which (for example, the loans of Mr. Frege), and I have rendered, and of the fame which it seems that, in this case, he has acted on has occasioned my elevation. These very untenable grounds; for the credit of claims have been augmented by the adop- the crown of Sweden has been almost tion of the king, and the unanimous choice annihilated in foreign countries, and loud of a free people. On this I found my complaints have been made respecting the rights; and, as long as honor and justice violation of acknowledged obligations. are not banished from the earth, these He has done much for institutions of rights will be more legitimate and sacred instruction and improvement; in particuthan if I were descended from Odin. lar, he has placed the army and fleet on a History teaches that no prince has acquired respectable footing, has established a large a throne, but by the choice of a nation, or fortified camp for the protection of the by conquest. I have not opened a way country, &c. The memory of Charles by arms to the Swedish throne: I have XIII he has perpetuated by the erection been called by the free choice of the na- of a statue. As the only sovereign who tion, and on this right I rely," &c. In the has retained a throne acquired during the same spirit has he reigned, and nothing late wars in Europe, he has a difficult part has shaken the confidence of the nation to play among the legitimates of that conin him. He has manifested the greatest tinent. It is said that the king of Prussia care for the promotion of justice and the was negotiating, before the French were prosperity of his subjects, and has founded driven from his territory, to give one of several useful institutions from his own his daughters to prince Oscar, but that, funds. He combines a prudent firmness when his situation improved, he broké in the removal of abuses, and a wise re- off the negotiations. gard for the general relations of European CHARLES EMANUEL I, duke of Savoy, policy. Commerce he has endeavored to surnamed the Great; born at the castle encourage, by treaties with the American of Rivoli, in 1562. He proved his courrepublics and the Barbary states. The age in the battles of Montbrun, Vigo, Asti, management of the public debt is improved, Chatillon, Ostage, at the siege of Berue, and the public credit established at home. and on the walls of Suza. He formed, The attention which he has paid to the 1590, the plan of uniting Provence to his education of his son, the heir-appar- dominions. Philip II of Spain, his father

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