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of Josedech the high priest; and be ye || people, and great additions were made

to the church, of those who became ornaments of the Christian profession. The town was very eminent for public order and morality, for a sacred observance of the Sabbath, and the vaThe habits

of character then formed, were so judiciously and firmly established, that they continued with little relaxation for three or four generations.

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strong, all ye people of the land, saith
the Lord, and work; for I am with you,
saith the Lord of Hosts. He pointed
out the respective rights and duties of
the different classes of the community,
and enforced the necessity of subor-rious duties of religion.
dination and mutual harmony, with so
much clearness and energy, introdu-
cing with peculiar felicity the expect-
ed aid and presence of the Lord of
Hosts in their great work, that the pub-
lic commotions were effectually allay-
ed, and the reasonable claim of the
magistrates was established by a gen-
eral acquiescence. On a similar oc-
casion, old Romé would have resorted
to prodigies, the republics of Greece
would have taken arms, the rulers of
superstitious pagans or catholics would
have produced pretended revelations;
but the fathers of New-England need-
ed nothing but the testimonies of the
known truth of God, ably illustrated
and happily applied.

In the early times of New-England, it was cominon for the magistrates to consult the elders of the churches, on subjects of the most important deliberation for the general welfare.Mr. Cotton was much improved in this way, and by his extensive erudition, his great knowledge of the human character, and his habits of accurate discrimination in judgment, was eminently useful. The General Court, knowing that the political institutions of the Israelites have been the chief guide of all great legislators of ancient and modern times, desired Mr. Cotton with the assistance of Gov. Winthrop, to make an abstract of the judicial laws of Moses, and prepare them for their adoption. These were approved by the General Court and became the fundamental laws of the colony.

In the unhappy tumults which were excited in the colony, by the errors of Roger Williams, Mrs. Hutchinson, and others, Mr. Cotton generally inclined to the side of lenity, and made great exertions to reclaim those who fell into error, previous to their being cut off from the communion of the churches. The parliament having become the His moderation with all his powers of ruling party in the civil contentions in reasoning, and great knowledge of di- || England, Mr. Cotton was invited to revine truth, could not save the most ob- turn to his native country. Several stinate, but preserved many who were members of both houses of the parliainclined to the danger from falling in- ment sent to him pressing invitations to the snare, and maintained the unity for this purpose. But the increase of of the churches. In the general syn- the civil war, with the severe calamiod of the churches held at Cambridge, ties with which it was attended, induAug. 1637, Mr. Cotton united with the ced him to decline a compliance with other members in condemning the pre- their earnest request. He was also vailing errors, which restored the pub- appointed one of the members of lic tranquility. the venerable assembly of divines which met at Westminster, together with Mr. Hooker and Mr. Davenport, but they did not attend.

The ministry of Mr. Cotton, in New-England, as well as in his native country was attended with the special blessing of God. The church of Boston was eminently distinguished for purity in sentiment and morals; and for the uncommon attainments of many of its members. The influences of divine grace were displayed upon the

The labors of this venerable servant of Christ, for the benefit of his people, for the churches and people of the colony and of New-England, and for the cause of divine truth, were unremit ted and unwearied, for almost twenty


years. Going to Cambridge to preach || colony most affectionately lamented an occasional lecture to the College, his death; for in his particular provhe got wet in crossing the ferry.-ince, as a minister of Christ, he was This brought on an asthmatical com- truly their father and bead. The neighplaint, which continued to increase.boring colonies took a share in the He did not, however, remit his public general loss. labors, though seusible that his end This great man possessed by nature, was approaching. Being in a course an uncommon strength of mind, with of preaching, near the close of the sec-great brilliancy of genius. His genius ond Epistle to Timothy, he took for was conspicuous in his childhood, and his text the four last verses of the book. appeared still brighter during his resiHe gave his people the reason for tak-dence at the university. He possessing so many verses, "Because elseed a great thirst for knowledge, and I shall not live to make an end of this pursued his object with an ardour which Epistle." He insisted principally on no ordinary obstacles could obstruct. the last words, Grace be with you all. Such was the versatility of his genius On the succeeding Sabbath he preach that with equal facility, he could invesed his last sermon, on the glory of tigate the principles of ancient lan Christ, from John i. 14. He then guage, penetrate the depths of the spent a day of secret humiliation and mathematics, or detect the subtleties prayer, earnestly imploring the assis-of metaphysical controversy. tance of the Holy Spirit in the great strength of his mind was evinced by work of dying. He then took his his high attainments in science, and leave of his beloved study, observing the rank which he maintained in the that he should never enter it again.-learned world, through the whole of In his sickness, he enjoyed the com- his life. The age in which he lived forts of divine grace, and an anima- was inquisitve, and prolific in great ting foretaste of heavenly blessedness. scholars. At the same time, the sourHe observed that he felt a greater wil-ces of science had been but imperfectfingness to depart from the expectation ly explored, and greater individual of joining in communion and praise powers were necessary for high attainwith those departed saints, Perkins,ments in learning, than in subsequent Ames, Preston, Hildersham, and periods. His disposition for appliDodd, with all others of that great As- ||cation and habits of study were equal sembly. All classes of people visited to the powers of his intellect. him in his sickness, to hear his instruc-his intense application to study, he tions and receive his blessing. Mr. was distinguished in early life, and, Wilson his colleague, said to him, he by early habit, his constitution became hoped God would lift upon him the suited to the service. It was his ordilight of his countenance. He replied,uary practice to spend in study "Brother, he has done it already." twelve hours in a day. It is unnecesTo his brethren in the ministry, warn-sary to add that he was a person of ing them to be faithful in their work, extensive learning. As a scholar, he he observed, "I have now through ranked with Owen, Ames, Twisse, grace been more than forty years aand Selden, who were among the first servant unto the Lord Jesus Christ, scholars of the time. Dr. Preston, and I have ever found him a good Professor of Divinity at the Universimaster." A little before his departurety of Cambridge, would often advise he desired not to be interrupted by his pupils to spend some time with conversation, and calmly resigning Mr. Cotton, previous to entering on his soul to the hand of God, he enter-the work of the ministry. The learn ed into his rest. He died Dec. 1652, ing in which he most excelled was the having just completed the sixty-se-science of divinity. He had a great venth year of his age. The whole knowledge of the holy scriptures, an

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,an extraordinary acuteness of mind and in the uprightness of his intention's in discerning the scope of the inspi- he was perhaps not sufficiently willing red writers, as well as in detecting to weigh the opinions of others. Yet and exposing the various errors of by long and persevering, attention, he his time. He was one of the most ac-succeeded in gaining an uncommon ute controversial writers of the age. mastery of his temper, so that in his Dr. Twisse, who was the moderator latter years, he was seldom known to of the venerable Westminster Assem- be discomposed. In the unavoidable bly of Divines, declared him to be one perplexities of an infant country, he, of the ablest polemical writers, he had as well as his great and excellent known. His talents were most use- friend Governor Winthrop, had numefully employd in exposing and refuting rous trials, many of which altogether the Arminian and Antinomian errors, unexpected and peculiarly painful to which had many and powerful advo- their feelings. But, by the precepts cates. Mr. Cotton appears to have of the gospel, aided by divine grace, been no less distinguished for sound- they attained to a humility, a self posness of judgment and prudence of con- session, an equanimity of conduct, duct, than for vigor of intellect. This which heathen pride and heathen apappears from the uncommon success athy never could reach. which attended the most of his designs. Few characters have given greater Though a firm non-conformist, he evidence of true piety than Mr. Cotmaintained his place as a public minis-ton. In a person of high intellecter in the church of England, for about tual attainments, and strong natural twenty years. He succeeded in bring-temper, the religion of the Holy Spirit ing the most of the people of the town has to contand with obstacles, which, where he lived, with many of his ac-in persons of feebler mental powers, quaintance, who were persons of learn- and milder dispositions,are never found. ing and character, into his own senti- In such therefore, the evidences of diments. The influence which he pos-vine grace are generally more conspicsessed in New-England, shows him to uous, and to them a greater portion of have had a great knowledge of the hu- it is usually imparted. Great was the man heart,' and to possess, in an emin-evidence of grace, when, in early life, ent degree, that uncommon talent of he renounced the enchantment of litcontroling the minds of men. The Jerary fame, which had long dazzled fundamental institutions of New-Eng-before him with the most fervid lusland, particularly those which are of tre, to preach before the University an ecclesiastical nature, of which he the humble doctrines of the divine was the principal author, to say noth- Nazarene. Though preachers of small ing of their nature, by their duration education generally introduce in their for nearly two centuries, through vari-public performances, the little scraps ous changes of society, are a sufficient of learning which they possess, this evidence of the soundness of his judg-was never the practice of the learned ment, and the sagacity of his foresight. Cotton. For the sake of a conscienMr. Cotton was truly an indepen- tious observance of the precepts of dent man. He thought and acted, uni- the gospel, he deliberately renounced formly, for himself. Not more anx- the prospect of the highest preferious to oppose, than to coincide with ments in the church; yea he renounpublic sentiment, he made truth his ced his country and his kindred for an only guide, and duty his only object. untraversed wilderness. As it has ofHabituated to reflection, he carefully ten been the case that men of the examined every object of attention. strongest mental powers and highest He had a strong spirit and was at intellectual attainments have been the times impatient of opposition. With most distinguished for humility, this a confidence in his own judgment, grace was very eminent in the charac


ter of Mr, Cotton. The meekest man passion in the correction of a fault.on sacred record was one of the g eat- He read a chapter of the scriptures, in est men that appears in history, and his family, morning and evening, anlearned in all the wisdom of the Egyp-nexing some familiar exposition,before tims, the most refined nation then on and after which, he made a short prayearth. Mr. Cotton, in all his conduct er. He began the sabbath on Saturand demeanor, manifested a solemn day evening; on the propriety of sense of the steady presence of God, which, he published an able vindicaof his own unworthiness in his sight, tion. This practice commenced in and of that account which he expect New-England with the first planters, ed to render at his bar. The hostility and is still observed. And we believe of envy, malice, and ingratitude, he it to be conformable to the word of often called to encounter. The God. On Saturday evening Mr. Còtenemies of truth, in Old England and ton was more large in his family expoNew, were his enemies. Their mach-sition, after which he catechized his inations and reproaches he bore with children and servants, and sung a great composure of mind, undiverted psalm. After this he retired to study from the service of his Lord, unmov-and secret devotion. The Sabbath, ed from the path of duty. When a excepting his family devotion and pubcertain writer had cast upon him ma-lic service, he spent, principally, in ny severe personal reflections, he ob-secret retirement. The study of a served, "God forbid I should shut my sermon on the Sabbath, so far as it eyes against any light brought to me wearied the mind, he thought desiraby him." One of the highest human ble to avoid. He rose early, was very attainments is to profit by the abuses careful of his time, moderate in eatof enemies. Neither could the flatter-ing, and sparing of sleep. ing marks of distinction laid upon him As a preacher, though he often in different periods of life, change his treated upon the deepest subjects, he sense of his own unworthiness, or di- was singularly plain and intelligible. vert him from the self denying service His voice was soft and sonorous; his of the gospel of Christ. Mr. Cotton delivery affectionate, animated, and was eminent for liberality. Though solemn. A part of his preaching was, he could pay very little attention to generally, in a course. In an exposi property, divine providence so order- tion, he went through the Bible, and ed his circumstances, that he always nearly through the New Testament enjoyed a comfortable supply. Many the second time. In his preaching persecuted ministers in England were he went through the Acts, Revelations, relieved by his bounty. The poor and several of the Epistles, with the ever found him their friend. In the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, and needy circumstances of the country, some other portions of the Old Tes he was laborious in seeking the most tament; he preached much; generalproper objects of charity, and in engaly two or three times a week, besides ging the wealthy to supply their wants. the Sabbath. The Thursday lecture In divising liberal things he generally at Boston, observed to this day, was set the first example. A collection of established principally by him. two hundred pounds sterling was made in Boston for a distressed people at the southward. No man gave more, and but one as much as Mr. Cotton.

He was eminently a man of prayer. This preceded and closed all his undertakings. He often kept days of private humiliation and thanksgiving. In the Christian life, he was eminent-That serenity and gravity which are ly exemplary. He paid great atten-produced by a life of prayer, he altion to the religious education and ways bore in his countenance.-He is government of his family. He was removed to that blessed state, where careful to avoid any appearance of his prayers and praises will be una loyed and eternal.

The following attempts to explain Rom. ix. 3, will, we hope, be very accaptable to our readers. The two first are from the Connecticut Evangelical Magazine,accepted of God, so, I must add, that Vol. 4; the third was intended to be published there-why not admitted the Editors have not made public. Ed. “For I could wish myself accursed from Christ for my brethren."

||endure, from the enemies of Christ.-But, as all who embrace and obey the gospel, whether Jews or Gentiles, are

all who reject it, are by him rejected.. And since the Holy Ghost now directs me to write expressly of a great distinetion, which God in sovereign mercy and grace is about to make, between the Jews, in the rejection of their nation, because of unbelief, by whom

The great difficulty in the way of a right understanding of this passage, a-Christ and his disciples have already rises from the mis-translation of the suffered so many things; and the GenGreek preposition apo, which is here tiles, who have so long been blinded rendered from; whereas it ought to in ignorance and unbelief, in the callhave been rendered after. This pre-ing of them to a saving knowledge of position will bear this translation, since the gospel, I fear, lest while I maintain in another passage, the same apostle this important truth, so upfavorable to has evidently used it, in this sense.- the Jews, my great enemies, some of Thus, 2 Timothy, i. 3. apo progo- you should imagine that I bear hard upnon, "From my forefathers," where on my dear countrymen, on account the meaning evidently is, after my of the personal injury, which I and my forefathers, example being understood. Christian brethren have received from The following is the present reading them, or by their means, since I have of this part of the verse, "I thank God, just mentioned the greatness of these whom I serve from my forefathers sufferings. To prevent, therefore, the with pure conscience." It would have spread of so injurious and false a report been more correctly rendered, "I on this account, I begin this discourse thank God, whom I serve after the ex-on the rejection of the Jews, with the ample of my forefathers with pure con- most solemn assurance I can give you science." If then, "apo" be used into the contrary. And herein, I say the same sense, in the words under the truth in Christ, using all the candor consideration, it will make the mean- and integrity of a Christian, as in the ing of the apostle highly interesting presence of that blessed Redeemer and instructive. This would then be who searches all hearts. He knows the true translation, "For I could wish that I lie not: my conscience also that myself were accursed after the ex-bearing me witness as to the truth of ample of Christ, for my brethren." If what I say, in the Holy Ghost. With we consider the nature of Paul's pre-all this solemnity, on so great an ocdictions, in this chapter, concerning casion, I declare to you and to the the Jews, this meaning appears to be world, so far am I from taking any reexceedingly natural. Then we may vengeful pleasure in predicting the suppose him expressing himself more judgments of God in the rejection of fully, after this manner," Thus, my Ro-my brethren, the Jews, that, on the man brethren, in the preceding part of contrary, I have great grief and conthis letter, I have declared unto you tinual sorrow in my breast, while I the unspeakable privileges, which we think of what hath happened, and will Christians, whether Jews or Gentiles,happen unto them, in consequence of receive in virtue of the gospel; and, I have particularly, in the last chapter, shown how these considerations will be abundantly sufficient to establish us in the faith of the gospel, and render us auperior to all the hardships we can

their opposition to the gospel. Oh! so far from being actuated by a spirit of revenge, in these predictions, which I am about to mention, of their rejection, because of their ill treatment of Christ, and myself and others of his

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