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Such was the man, who under God, felt authorized and bound to follow laid the foundation of the eldest church Christ alone. Thus he became one in the United States. the pillars, one of the most able and The first Governor of the colony of faithful supporters of Mr. Robinson's Plymouth, was Mr. John Carver. Dur-church. ing the period of the residence of Mr. Mr. Carver was a deacon of the Robinson and his congregation at Ley- church in Leyden, and retained the den, Mr. Carver was much distinguish-office after his removal to America. ed for his talents and piety; and for As an officer in the church, by his clear his activity, zeal and fidelity in the understanding, his sound judgment, service of the company. In early life, his exemplary character, he possessed his heart was, apparently sanctified by much influence, and was eminently the grace of God, which was evinced useful in the performance of his many by a life faithfully devoted to the ser-important duties. When we contemvice of the Redeemer. He possessed plate this little church, standing alone a grave rather than an ardent temper, in the christian world, with no friends yet he deliberately embraced the reli-or sister churches for its support, withgious sentiments of the Puritans, and out the enjoyment of any ecclesiastical resolved to submit to the privations of constitution, without any ancient or worldly good, rather than neglect or established usages for their regulation, abuse the religion of a divine Saviour, the passions of individuals highly exby being subject to ordinances, after the cited by oppression; while we adore commandments and doctrines of men.- the merciful care of the great Head of He rejoiced in the privileges of a British the church, in preserving them from subject, and remembered with humble ruin,,we cannot but admire the wisgratitude the great things which God dom, the prudence, the moderation, of had done for his church in his native the officers and influential members, land, in delivering it from the bondage by whose instrumentality they were of papal superstition and tyranny. Yet thus preserved, and led to such an perceiving that the national church, eminent purity of gospel order. The pertinaciously, retained errors, after experience of two centuries has disthey had been most clearly pointed out covered no material defects in the sysby affectionate and faithful friends;tem which they established. And no that it persisted in enforcing, by penal churches in the Christian world, acsanctions, rites of human prescription, cording to their number, have, more unwarranted, if not inconsistent with eminently, enjoyed the divine blesthe gospel of Christ; that it would al-sing, than those which have been regulow no indulgence to those who beg-lated according to their model. ged an exemption from those burden- When the congregation at Leyden some services, while they would ac-had become generally disposed to a cord with all essential ordinances; removal from Holland, Mr. Carver and he felt himself called, in the providence Mr. Cushman were deputed to make of God, to bear a temperate testimony application to the Virginia Company against such impositions, and to exer- in England, for some lands within their cise those rights which Christ has given patent, for the establishment of a Colto all his people. Mindful of the highony. On account of the many prejudiprecept, Stand fast in the liberty where- ces existing in England against this with Christ has made us free, and be not congregation, their first application was entangled again with the yoke of bon- unsuccessful. The year following, dage; and knowing that to this no human authority was paramount; believing that many of the ordinances to which his obedience was required ere an abridgement of this liberty, he

1619, they obtained the grant.—Mr. Carver, for his education, his discretion, his gravity of manners, and his activity in the business of the emigration, was looked upon by the adventurers as the

The negociation of this important treaty was the last public service per

On the fifth of April 1621, after a short illness, a mysterious providence removed him from the afflicted colony whose cup of sorrows now was full, removed him to the rest which remaineth for the people of God. Notwithstanding the low state of the colony, they gave their lamented Governor all the funeral honors which were in their power to bestow; the men were under arms, and fired several

proper person for their chief magis-tainment provided for that purpose, trate, before their departure from Hol-" they entered into a perpetual league land. of friendship, commerce and mutual The emigrants arrived in the harbor defence.' -The natives manifested of Cape Cod, Nov. 9th, 1620. A po- the highest satisfaction at the scene.litical compact, which was their civil|| It was an event of uncommon interest, constitution for many years, was soon as the existence of the colony depen formed, and, on the eleventh of that ded on the issue.- This treaty was month, was signed by forty-one per-maintained inviolably by Massasoit sons, all the males who were of age. till his death; and was the foundation Mr. Carver is the first signer, and im- of that peculiar harmony which long mediately after, was unanimously cho- subsisted between the Plymouth Col sen Governor. No other magistrate ony and the natives. was appointed. In the perils and distresses of the succeeding winter, all that could be done by the benevolent || formed by their worthy, by the illustrious patriot, by the exemplary Christian, was performed by Mr. Carver, to support the settlers under their accumulated sufferings, to preserve them from despondency, to provide every practical relief, and to preserve the colony from ruin. He cheerfully submitted to an equal share of privation and labor, afforded every possible assistance to the sick, coun selled the dying, and comforted the mournful survivers; his serene coun-volleys over his grave. tenance inspired confidence in every Mr. Carver was a man of singular beholder, his humble submission di- piety, of great fortitude and public rected all souls to God. During the spirit; grave in his manners, yet open, most of the period of the raging sick-condescending, and affectionate. ness, in which one half of the whole possessed a good estate, the greater number died, Gov. Carver enjoyed part of which was spent in the service good health, and was able to discharge of the colony. As a magistrate, he the important duties devolving upon was firm, upright, and watchful; as a him. Christian, humble and exemplary.The Governor having been inform-By his virtues, he was endeared to all ed that Massasoit, a powerful Indian his acquaintance, but especially, to Sachem, not far distant from the plan- the infant colony of which he was a tation, was amicably disposed towards most distinguished ornament and supthe settlement, sent him a message, port By the removal of such pillars, inviting him to an interview at Plymouth. He accordingly came with great state, attended by a numerous train, and on the 22d of March halted Mr. Carver's wife, who was distinat the entrance of the town.- -The guished for her piety, overcome with Governor, attended by a file of armed grief, died about six weeks after her men, advanced to meet the royal sav-husband. His posterity have been nuage, and, after much ceremony, they || merous and respectable in the Plymproceeded to a friendly interview.-outh colony, and distinguished for The Colony, very providentially, health and longevity.One of the were provided with an Indian inter- towns in the county of Plymouth now preter. After partaking of an enter- bears his name.


God taught our venerable fathers that his own almighty arm, and that alone, must "sustain the children of his love."

[To be continued.]

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For the Utica Christian Magazine.



Is there evidence, aside from the holy scriptures, that God's moral character is good?

these. Nevertheless, he left not hin without witness, in that He did g and gave us rain from heaven, and f ful seasons; filling our hearts with and gladness.

Though the heathen abando the true God, and lost sight of div

If this be the manner, in which i spired men demonstrate the divin goodness, we ought to conclude that is demonstrable in this way; eve though no blind heathen, or half blin christian ever did, or will see the de monstration.

If there be evidence of the goodness of God aside from the positive testimo-revelation, yet God always follow ny of the scriptures, or aside from any them with a witness of his go history or doctrines contained in the ness; and the witness was in that scriptures; it is probable that the DID GOOD. The apostle's argum scriptures, which are full of argument, imples, either that Cod's doing d do, in some way, make use of this good, especially to sinners, is a witn mode of reasoning, and bring forward of his perfect and infinite goodne this evidence of the goodness of God. or else that God did so much good as If the scriptures intimate no evidence, be an ample witness of his goodness from the light of nature, of the good- Let the construction of the arg ness of God; it is a presumptive argument be as it may, one thing is clea ment that there is no such evidence.- and it is the thing in question; G The scriptures, no where, intimate that did not leave himself without witne the doctrines of the Trinity, and of of his goodness, even aside from 1 the incarnation of the son of God, to holy scriptures. His giving rain fro make atonement, are evident from the heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling the light of nature; but the Eternal power hearts with food and gladness, was th and Godhead of the Deity are said to witness of his goodness. be evident from the light of nature.With regard to all other doctrines, this is a rule which we may adopt; if the scriptures treat them as evident from the light of nature,they are thus evident whether we, sinful, benighted mortals, can see the evidence or not. But if the scriptures consider them as doc- 2. The apostle further represents trines of mere revelation, we may con- in the same manner, the inexcusable clude that they are not made evidentness of the heathen, in the 1st chapter by the light of nature. The only en-to the Romans. He considers them quiry, therefore, which is necessary, in as without excuse for not glorifying order to decide on the question before God as God; not merely because us, is this; Do the scriptures consider they had evidence, from the holy the goodness of God as being evident scriptures, of his moral and adorable from the light of nature? I think they perfections; but because they had this do; and am therefore in favor of the evidence, even aside from divine reveaffirmative of the present question.-lation. The invisible things of him, We observe, from the creation of the world, are clear1. In the 14th of Acts, the seen. If it be urged that nothing (speaking to the idolaters of Lycaonia) of the living God, who made heaven and earth, and the sea and all things therein; who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways, urges their inexcusable wickedness, in rejecting the true God, on accouut of the evidences of his goodness, aside from the holy scriptures. The words are

but eternal power could be seen in this way; I admit that they who urge this objection can see nothing but eternal power; and perhaps no sinful men ever did see any thing but eternal power; and sinners may imagine that they see eternal power, joined with infinite malice in the Creator of the world. But, I trust, no one can con

ceive it an inexcusable crime not to be challenged to show why the Alglorify a being as the infinitely amia- mighty will not do iniquity; perhaps ble God, concerning whose moral per-I can do it, and perhaps not. All I fection there is no evidence. The have now undertaken is, to show that apostle urges the inexcusableness of this is the manner in which the scripthe heathen, on this ground, only, that tures argue the divine perfection. his glorious perfection is evident from Elihu proceeds. Yea, surely, God will the creation of the world, aside from not do wickedly, neither will the Aldivine revelation. Now let it be grant- mighty pervert judgment. This is the ed, that I, with all my prejudice and stu-same thing, newly stated; and he propidity, cannot see the connection be- ceeds in his argument, to prove that tween omnipotence and infinite good- the Almighty Being will not pervert ness; does this prove that an inspired judgment. Who hath given him a apostle, or a perfectly holy man could charge over the earth, or who hath disnot see the connection? posed the whole world? i. e. Does he The apostle's argument implies that act, by a delegated power, and not there is a demonstration of the adora-independently? He goes on to conble perfection of God, aside from the holy scriptures; even from the creation of the world. If I say there is no such demonstration, because I cannot see it, I prefer my own discernment to the testimony of the apostle Paul.

sider it as the greatest absurdity to conceive that the Almighty, the independent Creator and disposer of all things, should do wickedly His words are these.-If now thou hast understanding, hear this; hearken to 3. We may notice, in the 34th and the voice of my words. Shall even he subsequent chapters of Job, the moral that haleth right, govern? And wilt perfection of God abundantly argued thou condemn him that is most just? from his supremacy. I shall only state | Is it fit to say to a king, thou art wickthe arguments, as they stand in those ed? or to princes, ye are ungodly? chapters, and submit it to those who How much less to him that accepteth have more meekness, and consequeat-not the persons of Princes, nor regarly, more discernment, on this subject, deth the rich more than the poor; for to point out to us the force of those they are all the work of his hands? arguments. For I verily believe that He seems to represent it as astonishing a man, perfectly meek and holy, that men, who admit the omnipotence, would as clearly see, from the light of independence, and absolute supremanature, the moral, as the natural per-cy of God, should entertain a doubt fection of God. respecting his moral perfection. He

In Job 34th, Elihu expostulates seems to take for granted that men of with Job for saying, I am righteous, understanding, i. e. men of piety, will and God hath taken away my judg-see the demonstration of the moral, ment-my wound is incurable, with from the natural perfection of God. out transgression-and it profiteth a Accordingly he concludes, by observman nothing, that he should delight||ing, that Job hath spoken without himself in God. Therefore, says Eli-knowledge, and his words were without hu, hearken unto me ye men of un- wisdom. So much we notice in this derstanding. He seems to be sensible Chapter. I will only observe that this that true spiritual wisdom and under- is the manner of Elihu's reasonings standing was necessary in order to with Job, to the end. If any say, see the force of his arguments.-Far These are only the reasonings of Elibe it from God that he should do wick-hu; we may observe that Elihu is not edness; and from the Almighty that reproved among the rest of Job's he should commit iniquity. The argu- friends: but the other three were rement is that God is the Almighty, proved exclusively. Not only so: therefore will not de wickedly. If I but the next and last reprover of Job,

For the Utica Christian Magazine.

ON KNOWLEDGE, LAW AND SIN. QUESTION. Is a knowledge of the lan essential to the existence of sin?

was the Lord himself. And if we examine all that the Lord says to Job, to vindicate his own moral character, we find it all of a piece, all on the same plan, adopted by his servant Elihu. He challenges Job, by a long To sin presumptuously, against a detail of his marvellous works of pow. clear revelation and understanding of er and wisdom, and absolute suprem- the law, is to sin, in a more aggravated acy, to acknowledge his moral per- degree, than to sin in ignorance of the fection. By this means alone, Job law. We easily conceive that degrees was convinced, and humbled himself of criminality may be various. But, before God, as appears in the last chap- the question is, Is it possible to sin, in ter. Then Job answered the Lord and perfect ignorance of the holy rule which said, I know that thou canst do every is violated? Take an instance of the thing; and that no thought can be violation of the first command, "Thou withholden from thee. Who is he that shalt have no other Gods before me." hideth counsel without knowledge? A violation of this command consists Therefore, have I uttered that I under-in loving some other object more than stood not: things too wonderful for me. God. All men have their various ob Hear I beseech thee, and I will speak, I jects of supreme affection. Among the will demand of thee, and declare thou whole, a man is found who has never unto me. He recapitulates the majes-heard of a God, nor of a rule of righttic language of the Lord, which pierced him with conviction of the divine moral perfection; and then adds, I have heard of thee, by the hear ing of the ear, but now mine eye seeth thee; Wherefore I abhor myself and repent in dust and ashes. This is the way in which the moral perfection of God is argued, successfully in the book of Job. There is no appeal made to positive testimonies, or to the plan of redemption and grace; no appeal to any thing which is a matter of mere revelation, but simply to the power and supremacy of God. Thus we find the scriptures argue from other topics, besides themselves, even from the light of nature, in favour of the moral perfection of God; and they challenge the conviction of mankind from such evidence. If any, therefore, say there is no such evidence, or that it amounts not to demonstration, it becomes them to give us a new construction of a very considerable part of the scriptures.

BENEVOLENCE is that divinely amiable disposition, which feebly dawns in the earthly Christian, shines with morning beauty in the glorified saint, glows with noonday brightness the exalted archangel, and flames with ht inaccessible in the all-powerful JEHOVAH


eousness: he has lived to the age of 20 years, in the very depth of pagan darkness. His supreme affection has all this time been placed on himself. He has never had a conception of any being more worthy than himself. course, he has never felt the least remorse, in loving himself supremely.— If he has found it necessary to oppose or destroy his neighbors, who impeded his selfish purposes, he has done it without any degree of remorse or hesitation. At length he is taught, and convinced that there is a God; and that he justly claims supreme affection.— We will suppose, further, that this miserable, benighted pagan, at twenty years of age, becomes a true convert. Jesus Christ, being revealed to him, is embraced by a true and living faith. "Old things," in his case, "are passed away; and behold all things are become new." Now he takes a retrospective view of his past life and character. He finds, that he has been either a holy, or an unholy creature.— For there is no character intermediate, which is neither holy nor sinful What opinion of himself does his own experience suggest? If he concludes that he has been innocent and holy, why does he embrace the Saviour, who

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