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injuries, and protect colonial liberty. Trials by jury were recognized by law, colonial assemblies sanctioned by a written ordinance, and the common law of England adopted as authority in their courts.

The foundation of American liberty was now laid—the superstructure now begun-and its influence, wide and enduring, for more than two centuries has been felt throughout the globe. The house of burgesses in Virginia, during that time has been the nursery of freemen, and a monu. ment of glory has been erected by its patriot leaders, “ under whose shade kings will moulder and dynasties be forgotten.”

From the facts above detailed, England, it would seem, paid nothing toward the discovery or colonization of America. It is true, that many of her citizens expended fortunes in the great and glorious undertaking; it is also true, that a large portion of those who risked their possessions, and even life itself, in the effort, received little or no compensation therefor. Still England, at a subsequent period, asserted and undertook to main. tain her rights by force of arms, and to collect a revenue in this country, without our consent, because a few English merchants, in their rambling adventures, had, perchance, seen its coast from their decks. We have, therefore, indulged ourselves in recapitulating the early history of the first British colony here, because it throws light upon our glorious Revolution. We shall pursue it, however, no further at present, because it is too remote from the object we seek to attain. In conclusion, then, we observe, that its population soon rolled over the Alleghanies, into the valleys of the Ohio, the Kentucky, and their tributary streams, and thence into the southern parts of Illinois, carrying with them the habits, manners, and customs, they had formed ; thus rendering the history of the first settlement and colonization of Virginia, a legitimate portion of our own.

NOTE 1. “No baron's family,” says Hume, in speaking of the Duke of Northumberland, “was on a nobler or more splendid footing. It consisted of a hundred and sixty-six persons, masters and servants, and fifty-seven strangers ; in the whole, two hundred and twentythree. "Two-and-a-half pence are supposed to be the daily expense of each. If a servant be absent a day, his mess is struck off'; if he goes on my lord's business, board-wages are allowed him-eight pence a day for his journey in winter, and four pence in summer, besides the maintenance of his horse. A hundred and nine fat beeves, at 13s. 4d., two hundred and twenty-four lean ones, at 8s., are to be bought, and the latter put into the pasture. Six hundred and forty-seven sheep are allowed, at twenty pence a pair ; only twenty-five hogs are allowed, at two shillings a pair ; twenty-eight veals, at twenty pence; and forty lambs, at ten pence or a shilling.

“ These seem to be reserved for my lord's table, and that of the upper servants, called the knights' table ; the other servants, as they eat salted meat almost through the year, and with few or no vegetables, had a very bad and unhealthy diet; so that there cannot be anything more erroneous, than the magnificent ideas formed of the roast beef of Old England.' Only seventy ells of linen, at eight pence an ell, are annually allowed for this great family. No sheets were used. The linen was made into eight table-cloths for my lord's table, and one table-cloth for the knights - the latter was washed once a month.

The drinking, however, was tolerable, namely, ten tierces and two hogsheads of Gascony wine at £4 13s. 4d. per tierce. Only ninety-one dozen candles for the whole year. The family rose at six, dined at ten, and supped at four in the afternoon. The gates are all shut at nine, and no further ingress or egress permitted. My lord and lady have set on their table for breakfast, at seven o'clock in the morning, a quart of beer or mulled wine, two pieces of salt pork, six red herrings, four white ones, and a dish of sprats ; on flesh days, half a chine of mutton, or a chine of beef boiled. Mass is ordered to be said at six o'clock, in order, says the household book, that all my lord's servants may rise early. Alter Lady-day, no fires are permitted in the rooms, except half-fires in my lord's and lady's, and Lord Percy's, and the nursery. It is decided that, from henceforth, no capons are to be bought, but only for my lord's own mess, and the said capons shall be bought for two pence a-piece, lean and fed in the poultry; and master chamberlain and the stewards be fed with capons, if there be strangers sitting with them. Pigs are to be bought for three pence or a groat a-piece, chickens at a halfpenny, hens two pence, and only for the above-mentioned tables. When my lord is on a journey, he carries thirty-six horsemen with him, together with beds and other accommodations. The inns, it seems, could afford nothing tolerable. My lord passes his time in three country-seats, but he has furniture only for one. He carries everything along with him--beds, tables, chairs, kitchen utensilsand yet seventeen carts and one wagon suffice for the whole. One cart suffices for all his kitchen utensils, cooks' beds, etc. He has eleven priests in his house, besides seventeen persons, chanters, musicians, etc., belonging to his chapel, yet he has only two cooks for a family of two hundred and twenty-three persons. If we consider the magnificent and elegant manner in which the Venetian and other Italian noblemen lived, with the progress made by the Italians in literature and the fine arts, we shall not wonder that they considered the western nations of Europe as barbarians. The earl is not deficient in generosity, he pays, for instance, an annual pension of a groat a year to my Lady of Walsingham, for her interest in heaven. No mention is anywhere made of plate, but of the having of pewter vessels." Such, in part, is the description given by Hume of a feudal baron's household in the sixteenth century.

NOTE 2 “ The emperor” falls little short of his royal brother of England, in the reverence and respect of his subjects. “When the emperor,'' says an old writer,“ listeth, his will is a law, and must be obeyed; not only as a king, but as half a god they esteem him. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing; at his feet they present what he commandeth, and at the least frown of his brow, their greatest spirits will tremble with fear." In one other respect, “the emperor” had a decided advantage over his brother of England: Powhattan “could make his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, and pots, besides pianting his corn for exercise, and hunting deer for amusement."


Northern Illinois settled principally from New York, and New-England-Protestant Re

formation-Luther-Calvin-Plymouth Patent-Henry VIII.-Anne Boleyn-Cardinal Woolsey-Acts of conformity-Queen Elizabeth-Puritans- James I.--Puritans embark for Holland-For America-Settle at Plymouth— Their success—Sir Harry Vane--Hugh Peters.

NORTHERN Illinois having been settled originally by emigrants, princi. pally from New York and New England, and having also been included in the original patent granted by King James to the Plymouth company, on the third of November, 1620 ;—the history, habits, customs, manners, and character of “the Pilgrims,” are essentially ours. Although many German emigrants from Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, have resorted thither, and of late, foreigners from almost “ every nation under the whole heaven," have made northern Illinois their home, still the habits, man. ners, and customs of New York and New England predominate, appa. rently at the north, in about the same ratio that the habits, manners, and customs of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolina's, do at the south.

A concise view then of the origin, progress, and colonization of " the Pilgrims” in New England, and their emigration and settlement else. where, in aftertimes, cannot be an obtrusive theme.

Religious reformation was the original principle which kindled the zeal of our Pilgrim fathers; and the settlement of New-England was a part of its result. An Augustine monk* denouncing indulgences in the sixteenth century, introduced a schism into the Catholic church, and shook the papal throne to its centre. A young French refugee, † of great skill in theology and civil law, shortly thereafter established a powerful party in the republic of Geneva, by conforming its ecclesiastical discipline to the principles of republican simplicity, of which Englishmen afterward became prominent members, and New-England its principal asylum. “ A mode of worship,” says Hume, .“ was established, the most simple imaginable ; one that borrowed nothing from the senses; worthy of that Being it professed to serve, but little suitable to human frailty. Rejecting all exterior pomp and ceremony, it was so occupied in this inward life that it fled from all intercourse with society, and from every cheerful amusement which could soften and humanize the character.”

“So absolute," continues the same eloquent historian, “was the authority of the crown, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, that the precious spark of liberty had been kindled, and was preserved by the Puri. tans; and it was to this sect, whose principles appear so frivolous, and habits so ridiculous, that the English owe the whole freedom of their in. stitutions."

* Martin Luther.

+ John Calvin.

These observations of a British author, (in 1759,) who had no partiality for republics, have since been fully illustrated, and their truth made more manifest by subsequent events.

The doctrines of popular liberty, protected during their infancy in the American forests, have been infused into the institutions of every rising state upon our Continent; and after making a proselyte of refined and ac, complished France, have aroused the public mind to resistless action, from the Straits of Gibraltar to the mighty Kremlin of the north.

Several ineffectual attempts were made to colonize New-England, ere “ the Pilgrims” landed on its shores. One near the mouth of the Ken. nebec, in 1607. Another in 1615, under the auspices of John Smith, familiar already to our readers in the history of Virginia, both of which were afterward abandoned.

In 1620, the old patent of the Plymouth company, before referred to, was revoked, and on the third of November, in the same year, King James issued to forty of his subjects, some of whom were of the highest nobility in England, a patent which has but one parallel in the history of the world. "The adventurers were incorporated as “ The council established at Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering, and governing of New-England, in America.” The territory thus granted, extended in breadth from the 40th to the 48th degree of lat. itude; and in length, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, or as it was then called, to the South Sea. Absolute property, with unlimited jurisdiction; the sole power of legislation, and the appointments of all offices was thus given in perpetuity to forty individuals, of a territory, equal in extent to one-half of Europe ;, containing more than a million of square miles, and capable of sustaining in ease and affluence 100,000,000 of people. And all this by the mere signature of an English monarch, without even the assent of Parliament. .

Nearly all the inhabited British possessions north of the United States, all New England and New York, two-thirds of New-Jersey and Ohio, about half of Pennsylvania, half of Indiana and Illinois, the whole of Michigan and Wisconsin, a part of Missouri, and all the territories of the United States, west of the Mississippi, on both sides of the Rocky Moun. tains, including a part of the Mexican dominions, and from a point within the same, northerly almost to Nootka's Sound, was thus granted in fee, " to the council established at Plymouth, in the county of Devon.”

No regard was had for the rights of those who might hereafter inhabit this “proud domain.” They were to be ruled by a company in England. Reference, it would seem, was merely had to the cupidity of its forty propri. etors. And like a former patent, issued by the same monarch, to the Vir. ginia company, it contained the very worst, the most obnoxious features

of a commercial monopoly. Its object, no doubt, was to encourage zemi. gration Adventurers refused, however, to embark, lest they should, in- . fringe the privileges of a powerful company. Those privileges, at least some of them, were questionable ; and while the English monopolists were disputing about their validity and extent, a permanent New-Eng. land colony was settled at Plymouth without their knowledge, and without assistance from the king.

The opinions of Wickliffe had prevailed in England to a considerable extent, and his followers, known and distinguished by the appellation of Lollards, were considerably numerous, before Luther commenced preaching upon the Continent against the sale of indulgences. Luther, finding his opinions greedily sought after, and his disciples daily increasing, was roused to extraordinary efforts, and all Saxony, Germany, and indeed the whole of Europe in a short time, were filled with the opinions of this daring innovator. Those opinions were speedily wafted across the Channel, and the new doctrines gained partisans in England among the laity of all ranks and denominations. Luther in his writings had spoken with great severity of Thomas Aquinas, a favorite author of the king. Henry the Eighth, reckless of consequences, breasted himself immediately to the shock, and among other things, wrote a book in Latin against the principles of Luther, to which the latter replied; and without regard to the dignity of his royal antagonist, treated the king as he had other and more humble individuals, with all the acrimony to which this daring reformer had been accustomed. The public, who naturally took sides with the weaker party in this dispute, awarded to Luther the palm of victory. The king, however, sent a copy of his work, elegantly bound, to Leo the Tenth, who, in testimony of his regard for so magnificent a present, conferred on the English monarch the title of “Defender of the Faith.” The character of the disputants gave importance to the cause, and Luther obtained numerous converts in every part of Europe. “ Adopting an enthusiastic strain of devotion, and placing great merit in a mysterious species of faith, inward vision, rapture, and ecstacy,” his followers, indefaiigable in the propagation of his doctrines, set at defiance all the anathemas and punishments with which the Roman pontiff endeavored to over. whelm them. .

Calvin, a man of extraordinary learning, and one of the best writers of the age, soon followed in his wake, and the Reformation, from humble beginnings, acquired power and influence, and soon thereafter entered the courts and palaces of kings.

While it was thus progressing in England and Europe, an event transpired in the former, which influenced for a long time, either for good or ill, a large portion of the civilized world.

Anne Boleyn, a maid of honor to Catharine, Queen of England, having had frequent opportunities of being seen by the king, (Henry VIII.) acquired in a few months entire control of his affections. Young, handsome, and accomplished, both in person and mind, and being con

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