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Britons,' in the very time of the Romans, seems to have « been of the simplest wooden materials ;' that 'this Bede, • Ulher, and Spelman testify;' and that it is in vain then to « look for thele sculptural ornaments' among them, which

more peculiarly belong to ftone edifices * We suspected Mr. Ledwich before to be contradicting himself. We here feel the contradictoriness. It is substantial and massy. Nor is this all. The Britons, whose architecture seems to have been of • the simplest wooden materials,' had however, as we are contrarily told just afterwards, ' some poor stone-fabrics, like those • of St. Martin and St. Pancras at Canterbury t.' Though « 'tis to foreigners we are indebted for those sculptures, which • fo profusely adorn our capitals and arches I;' yet here we find reason to found a conjecture, that the Britons had an Ireum,

or Roman chapel dedicated to Isis,' with “Egyptian hierogly

phical figures' on the arches. And though we were previously informed, the stone-fabrics of the Britons had no crypts under " them;' yet now we see a conjecture concerning the undercroft at Canterbury, that this crypt was an Ireum.' -Mr. Ledwich next gives us a new specimen of the Danish • style \l. This is taken from a finall stone-roofed crypt," under the ruins of the church of Glendaloch in Ireland. "The northern nations,' we are told before, from vicinity or in

tercourse had been long conversant with the superstition of

Rome;' where a new principle of vicinity is introduced, for the Egyptian hieroglyphics pafling from the Roman builders, to nations who could not be said to build at all. So exactly did

their ideas affimilate on these heads, that Wormius declares ¢ one egg does not more closely resemble another, than the

Egyptian and Danish hieroglyphics T. Yet, to our astonishment, we find in this 'specimen of the Danish style ;' that there are

no traces of Saxon feuillage,' and that the sculptures are 6 expressive of the most favage and uncultivated state of fo

ciety **'

We are grieved to make these remarks on an author, whom we respect for his learning, his taste, and his spirit. And we are happy in being able to point out with the most unqualified praise, the concluding part of this essay; in the observations

on the Gothic style, or that of building with pointed arches.' This mode is shewn not to be derived from the Saracens, as Sir C. Wren supposed, and Bishop Warburton, Mr. T. Warton, and others have united with him in supposing. No such

P. 168–169. § P. 176. ** P. 185-186.

* P. 166. | P. 185.

f P. 167.
4 P. 1800'




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Saracenic work's exist in Spain or Sicily, or in any other place ' to which the Arabian power extended *.' Nor is it to be derived from the Goths. . In the Gothic

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and ( under a Gothic prince, Theodoric;' from his orders for repairing the edifices at Rome it appears, that the Greek and • Roman styles, and their most correct modules, were admired,

and nothing held in estimation but the antique ; an evidence for

ever fufficient, to overthrow every hypothesis on this head t.' The pointed arch was known and used by the Romans. Adrian built a city in Egypt, out of respect to the memory of Anti

· Pere Bernat made drawings of its ruins, which are in the third tome of Montfaucon's Antiquities. Among them ' is the pointed arch, not perfectly Gothic, but that called con

trafted. Another contrasted arch appears in the Syrian M. S. In Horsley are Roman sepulchral stones with pointed arches 1..' Yet this arch funk into disuse among the Romans, and was revived about A. D. 1000 g.' Mr. Ledwich finds the strait areh used in the ninth and tenth centuries; from the churches

on the coins of Berengarius, King of Italy, and Lewis the Pious; and those in the Menologiumn Græcum, Urbini, 1727.' But, on a coin of Edward the Confeffor, in Camden, is a pointed

arch. This Mr. Ledwich thinks Edward saw on the continent, and imitated in the island; from his known attachment

to the Normans, among whom he was educated.' Mr. Ledwich also notices the fanctuary at Westminster, the fupposed work of Edward, to have had ' pointed arches;' and the

church at Kirkdale, mentioned by Mr. Brooke,' to have also 'the pointed arch, and to be of the age of the Confeffor.' He observes additionally from Glaber Rudolph, a Benedictine monk and contemporary; that some architectural novelty seems 'to have made its appearance at this period.' We think this testimony, innovari ecclefiarum basilicas,' peculiarly apposite and forcible. And • I fubmit it with great deference to the judgment of the Society,' concludes Mr. Ledwich, whether

the novum genus ædificandi of William of Malmesbury, applied 'to the architecture of the Conqueror's reign, does not imply

something more than extent and magnificence; and whether, ' to complete the idea of a new style, we ought not to take in

the pointed arch and Gothic ornaments ||.' We have examined the passage in Malmesbury, and concur with Mr. Ledwich in opinion; the novum ædificandi genus having no relation to the extent and magnificence' of buildings noted before,

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these being confined to private houses, and that applied to monasteries and churches; and Malmesbury's new kind of building for such edifices; being fixed by Rudolph's innovations in building churches, to a new style of architecture for them, and equally to those in France and Italy as in Britain.

We also recommend the following remark to our readers, as settling very judiciously the point between our two rival hiftorians of music. Sir John Hawkins gives us the Giustiniani • Apollo, playing on a violin with a bow: the body of the in' ftrument is somewhat rounder than ours. This statue, Dr. • Burney informs us, has been proved by Winkelman and "Mengs to be modern: he thinks the violin and bow, which

appear on an antique ewer and balon dug up at Soissons, the coldest hitherto discovered. Le Beuf, he adds, fupposes them (to be as antient, as the year 752. To the sentiments of these ( eminent scholars and antiquaries I should most readily sub• fcribe, --could I reconcile them with Venantius Fortunatus. « This writer flourished about the middle of the fixth century, ( and mentions the Chrotta Britanna or British Crwth. From

the drawing of this inftrument in the third volume of the Archäologia, it is plain it was of the fidicinal kind; and the transition from this to the violin is easy *.'

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· XX. A Circumfiantial Detail of the Battle of Lincoln,

' A. D. 1217. By the Rev. Samuel Pegge.' This is an account, of which we can but say, that it seems to be as accurate as it is particular. We only remark, that

the king's party, in their progress to Lincoln, rendezvoused at · Newark, on Monday in Whitsun week, with white croffes on

their breasts,' and stayed there threat confefling themselves, and receiving the sacramenti'

XXI. Some Account of the Brimham Rocks in Yorkshire.

" By Hayman Rocke, Esq.'

This account, attended by two sets of views for different parts of these rocks, is very curious. But we can stay only to mark one or two points in it. One is a rocking stone, the bottom

of which evidently appears to have been cut away, to form ' two knobs, on which it reits, and moves with great ease.” Another is one of three rocking-stones, which, on examin

ing-, appeared to have been thaped to a small knob at the

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bottom, to give it motion; though my guide, who was seventy years old, born on the moors, and well acquainted with these

rocks, asfured me that stone had never been known to rock. • The astonishing increase of the motion with the little force I

gave it, made me very apprehensive the equilibrium might be destroyed; but, on examining it, I found it was so nicely ba

lanced, that there was no danger of its falling. The con"struction of this equipoised stone, must have been by artists

well skilled in the powers of mechanics. It is indeed the

most extraordinary rocking-stone I ever met with į and it is " somewhat as extraordinary, that it should never have been dir

covered before, and that it should now move so easily, after so

many ages of reft.' In a third rock, where a road appears ' plainly to have been leading to a hole,' within this is a round

hole, perforated quite through the rock;' in which aperture ' a man-is heard distinctly on the north fide of the rock, where " the hole is not visible. The voice on the outside is as dis• tinctly conveyed to the person in the aperture, as was several • times tried.'' And, upon another rock, is a very singular figure,' seemingly the buft of some person, cut in the solid rock in high relief.'

« XXII. Doubts and Conjectures concerning the Reason commonly

aligned, for inserting or omitting the Words Ecclesia and

Presbyter in Domesday-Book. By the Rev. Samuel Denne.' In this essay the author argues, and we think with reason on his side, that there were more parish-churches in England, than are noticed in Domesday.

• XXIII. Obfervations on the Origin of Printing. By Ralph

'Willett, Esq. F. A. Ř. S.' In the dispute which has arisen concerning this origin, Harlem, Mentz, and Strasburg, have respectively claimed the ho

Mr. Willet is in favour of Mentz. And we think he hath produced strong arguments for his opinion.


• XXIV. An Account of the Caves of Cannara, Ambola, and Ele

phanta, in the East-Indies; in a Letter from Hector Macneil, Esq. then at Bombay.

In this account we are surprised, we are pleased; but we are not taught. This arises from what the author juftly calls the

curiously inexplicable nature of the subject. He describes the caves. And then, for reasons seemingly good in themselves, and yet acknowledged by him to be not quite satisfactory, he afcribes them to the Gentoos of the country.

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Arr. VI. Introduction to the Knowledge of Germany; containing

Inquiries into the Disposition and Manners, peculiar Habits and Customs, of the diftinét Classes of Society ; Particularities and Anecdotes of their divers Courts, and remarkable Personages ; a View of their Literature and Learning, Improvements in Arts and Sciences, religious Opinions and fingular Notions, different Governments, Politics, and Revolutions. With a Variety of other Researches, tending to afford a complete Idea of that Country and its Inhabitants during the latter Ages, and at the present Time, 8vo. 45. boards. Hookham. London, 1789.

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HIS author sets out with reciting the opinions of Tacitus,

Bouhours, and Dacier, concerning the capacity of the Germans, and the northern people of Europe. He observes that Tacitus, in his account of their ancestors, seems to undervalue their intellectual merit; and that both Bouhours and Dacier have denied thein admittance into the province of wit. But the latter of these writers has given the like exclusion to all the 'nations lying north of France, the English themselves not ex, cepted. The truth is,' as the author now before us observes,

• That whatever ignorance or levity may have suggefted, the Ger. mans, for several ages, and especially since the extinction of their. civil feuds a century ago, have made a very conspicuous figure in the republic of letters. Of late years they have considerably improved their own tongue, which is bold, manly, and copious. In pastoral and epic poetry they have produced compofitions of prime merit. The biames of a Brocks, a Kleist, a Klopstock, and a Gessner, are abundantly fufficient, without adducing any others, to rescue them from an imputation of a defect of genius. The translation of many of their works into the languages of the principal nations in Europe, and the applause with which they are universally read, are incontestible proofs of their superior excellence.

• The force and energy of the German compositions in prose is allowed by all who have perused them. The emphatical diction of their prayers and sermons is particularly remarkable. This is a cir. cumstance which even some Frenchmen of note; well conversant in the German language, have been impartial enough to acknowledge. What was still more, they have even confessed that the style and expressions of the French were not equal, in point of weight and sublimity, to those of the German.

• In fonnets, madrigals, epigrams, and other minute parts of poetry, the Germans have not indeed been hitherto very productive; but this they need not lament, when it is reflected how little fuch performances contribute to a great reputation.

• Neither have they shone in the drama, with that splendour which they might have done had they exerted themselves to bring it to that degree of perfection of which it is evidently fusceptible in their


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