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returned, the hunter cuts the string under the bear's tongue, and on his return to the village, throws it into a fire, when its crackling and shrinking up are regarded as infallible tokens that the spirit of the animal is appeased.
In hunting buffaloes various methods are adopted by the Indians; but the greatest number of these animals are taken in pounds, which are either of a square or circular form, according to the fancy of the tribes by whom they are constructed. The square ones are composed of trees, laid one upon another to the height of about five feet, each square side being fifty feet long. On that side where the animals are to enter, a bank of earth is raised with an easy descent, so as to be on a level with the top of the enclosure, or the other side of the square.
Several branches of trees are then placed, in a straight line, from the raised bank to the distance of a hundred and ten feet, the lines spreading continually from each other, so as to be two hundred feet apart at the distance of one hundred feet from the pound. These lines of trees are lengthened out by a number of poles about fifteen feet long, with a piece of buffalo dung on the top of each, whilst a certain number of men lie concealed in buffalo skins, to drive the animals in a straight direction to the pound.
Every preparation being made, three or four men set off on foot to find a herd of female buffaJoes, and having discovered them, they drive them along to the neighbourhood of the pound ; when the other Indians assemble on horseback, but keep at a proper distance so as not to frighten the animals. Thus they are conducted within the poles, and when any of them attempt to
run out, the men who are placed at the bottom of each pole shake their skins, and frighten them back, till at length they are driven up the bank into the pound; where, falling headlong, some break their necks, some their backs, and others their legs, and the confusion within becomes so general, that none of them can make an escape.
There are few people that have less need of physic than the Indians of North America ; for they are not only, for the most part, of a healthy vigorous constitution, but the gout, gravel, stone, apoplexy, and many other European diseases are totally unknown to them. If they are at any time indisposed they apply to their jugglers, who are, at best, no better than quacks, and have a singular method of not being answerable for events. As soon as they perceive a patient has any symptoms of death, they never fail to prescribe things too difficult to be put in execution ; so that they can always excuse themselves by saying, that their orders were not punctually followed.-Some persons forsake the diseased when the doctors give them over, and let them die with hunger and thirst; and there are others who to hinder the distortion of the features in dying persons, close their eyes and mouth when they see them in the last agonies.
Notwithstanding these people show so little judgment in their manner of treating the sick, they behave towards the dead with a degree of tenderness and respect which cannot be too much admired.--Some mothers have been known to keep the bodies of their children for years, frequently opening their collins to change their dress, and even depriving themselves of food to
carry it to those places where thei spirits are supposed to walk.
As soon as a sick person expires, the place is filled with hideous cries and lamentations, which are continued as long as the family can afford to keep open table ; and in the mean time, the dead body, finely drest and painted, is exposed at the cabin door, in the posture it is to be laid in the tomb. The custom of some tribes is, for the relations of the defunct to fast till the end of the funeral: and all this interval is passed in lamentations, in treating the visitors, and in mutual compliments.
The body is carried to the place of sepulture without much ceremony, but it is deposited in a little caye, lined with skins, and much better adorned than any of the cabins, and especial care is taken to cover it in such a manner that the earth shall not touch it. A post is then erected over the grave, and a number of things hung upon it, in token of esteem for the deceased. Fresh provisions are also brought to the spot for several mornings, and are supposed to be eaten by the spirit of the deceased; though in reality they are devoured by dogs and other animals,
When any one dies in hunting, his body is exa posed on a high scaffold till the departure of his companions, who carry
it with them to the vilLage: and the bodies of those that fall in'war are burnt, and their ashes brought back, to be deposited in the burial place of their ancestors. In some places they observe a very singular ceremony for those that are drowned, or frozen to death. The preliminaries of tears, mournful dirges, &c, being ended, they carry the corpse to the place of interment, where they dig a large