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situated in sixteen degrees, fifty minutes north latitude, and in sixty-one degrees west longitude; having Antigua on the north east, St. Christopher's and Nevis on the north west, and Guadaloupe on the south-south-east. It is about twenty-seven miles in circumference, and is supposed to contain between forty and fifty thousand acres.
This island is very mountainous, but its valleys are well watered and fruitful. The mountains are covered with cedars, cypresses, iron-trees (so called from the hardness of the wood) and variety of shrubs and plants. In short, it is a well-planted island, and pretty much frequented by shipping, but it is so surrounded with rocks, that the riding before it is unsafe, and it has no place that can properly be called a haven.
We find nothing more remarkable relating to Montserrat, than the dreadful hurricane which happened there on the 29th and 30th of June 1733, and blew down three fifths of the houses in the island. On the 29th there were thirty-four windmills going, many of which were entirely destroyed. A large copper, that held two hundred and forty gallons, was carried over a high wall, and beat close together by the fall. An empty sugarhogshead was lifted off the ground by the wind, and carried thirty or forty yards over a dwellinghouse. But, what is most surprising of all, a cattle-mill-house, weighing at least twenty thousand pounds, was carried some distance from its situation, and by the force of the fall was broken into innumerable pieces. Such havock was made among the sugar-canes, that some planters, who had a prospect of making two or three hundred hogsheads the next year, would gladly have compounded for sixty or eighty. In a word, the
whole damage, exclusive of the shipping, was reckoned not less than fifty thousand pounds of their currency...
Anguilla, the most northerly of the Caribbee: Islands, derives its name from its snake like form, and is about thirty miles in length and nine in breadth. It was first discovered by the English in. 1650, when it was filled with alligators and other noxious animals, but finding the soil fertile, they settled a colony on it, and imported live cattle,: which have since multiplied exceedingly. But the colony not being settled under any public encouragement it soon became a prey to rapacious invaders; other settlers, however, thought proper to remove thither from the adjacent islands, and by their industry the island is now tolerably, cultivated.
Barbuda, situated in eighteen degrees thirty minutes north latitude and in sixty-one degrees fifty minutes west longitude, consists principally of low land, but is fruitful and pretty populous. Most of the inhabitants are employed in agricultural pursuits, always finding a ready market for their corn, &c. in the sugar islands. This island is the property of the Codrington family, who have given large benefactions to have their slaves instructed in the doctrines of the Christian religion,
Tobago, the most easterly of the Caribbee islands lies in eleven degrees ten minutes north latitude, aud fifty-nine degrees forty minutes west longitude from London. According to the latest accounts, it is rather more than thirty miles in length, be tween eight and nine in breadth, and from twenty three to twenty-five leagues in circumference.
The climate, notwithstanding its vicinity to the line, is so tempered by the sea breezes, as to be
1 very supportable even to Europeans, and it has also the advantages of having regular seasons and being exempt from hurricanes.-There are throughout the island many rising grounds, though, except at the north-east extremity, there is no part of it that can be properly called mountainous; and even there the country is far from being rugged or im. passable. The soil is as fertile and luxuriant as that of any of the islands; and it is well watered, by rivers that fall into the sea on both sides; by many smaller streams, and by fresh springs in almost every part of the island. The sea coast is indented by ten or twelve spacious bays, and there are among these one or two ports capable of rea ceiving large vessels.
Dominica, so named by Columbus, from his hav ing discovered it on a Sunday, is situated about half way betwixt Guadaloupe on the north west, and Martinico on the south east. It is about twentynine miles long, and sixteen broad, and contains 186,456 acres of land. It has many high and rugged mountains, interspersed with fertile valleys, and is watered by upwards of thirty rivers, besides a great number of rivulets. Several of the mountains contain unextinguished volcanoes, which often discharge vast quantities of burning sulphur. Here also are several warm springs, said to he efficacious in removing tropical disorders, and some of the waters are hot enough to coagulate an egg. The best eye-stones that are known, are found on the shores of this island. They are shaped like a ientil, smooth and sleek, but much smaller and of a grey colour; and they derive their name from the use which is made of them for clearing the eyes of any dirt.
St. Lucia was thus called from its being disco
vered on the day dedicated to the virgin martyr of that name. It is about six leagues south of Marti nico, and twenty-one miles to the north-west of Barbadoes. The soil is tolerably good, even at the sea side; and is much better the farther one advances into the country. The whole of it is capa ble of cultivation, except some high and craggy mountains, which bear evident marks of old volcanoes. In one deep valley, there are still eight or ten ponds, the water of which boils up with great violence, and retains some of its heat at the distance of twelve hundred yards from its reservoirs. The air in the inland parts is unwholesome, but it be comes less noxious as the woods are cleared and the ground laid open. On some parts of the coast, the air is rendered very unhealthy, by the waters of some small rivers, which spring from the foot of the mountains, and not having sufficient slope to wash down the sands with which the influx of the ocean stops up their mouths, stagnate, and spread into unwholesome marshes on the neighbouring grounds.
St. Vincent, which received its name from being discovered on the feast of that saint, is situated in thirteen degrees of north latitude and in sixty-one of west longitude; being twenty-four miles long, eighteen broad, and between sixty and seventy in circumference. The climate is very warm, at least in the judgment of Europeans. The country is in general hilly, and in some parts mountainous, but interspersed with a variety of luxuriant plains and pleasant valleys; and the high grounds are, for the most part, of easy ascent. Few islands of its extent are so well watered; for several rivers run down from the mountains, and smaller streams from almost every hill, and there are likewise
several fine springs at a little distance from the
The volcanic mountain on this island called Morne-gurou is too remarkable to be passed over in a work of this nature. It was visited in the` year 1784 by Mr. James Anderson, surgeon, who is the only person that ever ascended to its summit, and from whose account in the seventy-fifth voJume of the Philosophical Transactions, the following particulars are taken.
The mountain in question is situated on the north-west part of the island, and is the highest in it. It is constantly reported to have emitted volcanic eruptions; and the ravines at the bottom' seem to corroborate the traditions of the inhabitants in this respect. The structure of it, when viewed at a distance, appears different from that of any other mountain in the island, or that Mr. Anderson had seen in the West Indies. He could perceive it divided into many different ridges, separated by deep chasms, and its summit appeared quite destitute of every vegetable production. Several ravines, that run from the bottom a great way up the mountain, were found quite destitute of water; and pieces of pumice stone, charcoal, and several earths and minerals of a particular quality, found in them, plainly indicated some very great singularity in this mountain. Some very old men also informed our author, that they had heard it related by the captain of a ship, that between this island and St. Lucia, he saw flames and smoke rising from the top of the mountain, and next morning his decks were covered with ashes and small stones.
Mr. Anderson's curiosity was so much excited by these circumstances, that he formed a resolu