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but the currents being repelled by these ridges of mountains, eddies and smooth water will be produced where they meet and oppose, and therefore the earthy particles would subside and form banks of mud, and, by fresh accumulations, would soon form dry land : and from these causes it is evident such a tract of country as Trinidad must be formed, But these causes siill exist, and the effect from them is evident; for the island is daily growing on the leeward side, as may be seen from the mud beds that extend a great way into the gulf, and these constantly increase. But from the great influx from the ocean at the south end of the island, and its egress to the Atlantic again, through the Bocas, a channel must ever exist between the continent and Trinidad."
Margarita, or the Pearl Island, is situated in eleven degrees thirty minutes or north latitude, and in sixty four degrees two minutes of west longitude. It was discovered by Columbus and is about thirtys five leagues in circumference. The soil is very fertile in maize and fruits, and abounds in pasture and verdant groves; yet is totally destitute of fresh water, which the inhabitants are obliged to bring from the continent. The Spaniards were induced to take possession of it, on account of the valuable pearls found in the oysters abounding on ils coast. They built a castle called Monpadre, and employed prodigious numbers of negroes in the pearl fishery ; cruelly forcing them to tear up the oysters from the rocks to which they stuck, although the coast abounds with sharks, which des voured many of them. In 1620, this island was invaded by the Dutch, who demolished the castle; since which time it has been almost abandoned. by the Spaniards. It is now principally inhabited by the natives, to whoin particular indulgences
were granted by the court of Spain, on account of their ready submission to Columbus.
Terra del Fuego, separated from the southern extremity of America by the straits of Magellan, consists of a chain of stupendous mountains; but those writers who have represented it as perpe. tually covered with spow, and destitute of woor, are evidently mistaken, and their error must have arisen from having visited it in winter, for the crew of the Endeavour, commanded by captain Cook, perceived trees when they were at a considerable distance from the island, and on a nearer approach, they found the coast and the sides of the hills clothed with an agreeable verdure. The summits of the hills are barren, but the valleys are rich, and a brook is to be found at the foot of almost every hill. The water has a reddish tinge, but is not ill tasted.
The climate is intensely cold, and in January 1768, (which was the summer season in tliis part of the world), two persons who went on shore with Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander, and others, perished by sleeping one night on the island. The lol. ļowing account will set this matter in a clearer fight, and may probably be acceptable tv most of pur readers. " Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Mr. Buchan, and several other gentlemen, accompanies by servants, went a considerable way into the country, where they had marshy ground, and very cold blasts of wind and snow to contend with ; however, after great fatigue, they at last attained ' a considerable eminence they had in view ; and here they found a great variety of plants, that gratified their curiosity and repaid them for their toil.
* It was now near,eight o'clock in the evening, and Dr. Solander, who knew from experience, that extreme cold, when joined with fatigue, oo casions a drowsiness that is not easily resisted, intreated luis friends to keep in motion, however disagreeable it might be to them:-his words were, & Whoever sits down, will sleep; and whoever sleeps, will wake no more. Every one seemed accordingly armed with resolution ; but on a sudden, the cold became so very intense, as to threaten the most direful effects. It was very reinarkable, that Dr. Solander himself who had so forcibly admonished and alarmed his party, should be the first who insisted upon being suffered to repose. In spite of the most earnest inireaties of his friends, he lay down amidst the snow, and it was with great difficulty they kept him awake. One of the black servants also became weary and faint, and was upon the point of following the doctor's example. Mr. Buchan was therefore detached with a party to make a fire at the first commodious spot they could meet with. Mr. Banks, with four more, remained with the doctor and Richmond the black, who, with the utmost dilticulty, were induced to come on ; but after walking a few miles farther, they expressed their inability of proceeding. When the black was informed, that if he remained there he would soon be frozen to death, he replied, that he was so exhausted with fatigue, that death would be a relief to him. Dr. Solander said he was not unwilling to go, but that he must first take some sleep, notwithstanding what he had previously declared to the company.
". Thus resolved, they both sat down, supported by bushes, and in a short time fell fast asleep. Intelligence now came from the advanced party, that a fire was kindled about a quarter of a inile farther
way. Mr. Banks then waked the doctor, who had almost lost the use of his limbs already, though it was but a few minutes since he sat down; he nevertheless consented to go on. Every measure taken to relieve the black proved ineffectual he remained motionless, and they were obliged to leave him to the care of the other black servant and a sailor, who appeared to have been the least hurt by the cold ; and they were to be relieved as soon as two others were sufficiently warmed to supply their places. The doctor was with much difficulty got to the fire. Those who were sent to relieve the companions of Richmond, returned in about half an hour, without being able to find them. There was a fall of snow which continued for nearly three hours, and there remained no hopes of seeing the absentees again, at least alive. About twelve o'clock, however, a great shouting was heard at a distance, which
gave inexpressible satis. faction to every one present. Mr. Banks and four others went forth and met the sailor, who bad just strength enough to walk; he was immediately sent to the fire, and they proceeded to seek for tlie two others. They found Richmond upon his legs, but incapable of moving them; the other black was lying senseless upon the ground. All endeavours to bring them in the fire were fruitless, nor was it possible to kindle one upon the spot, on account of the snow that had fallen, and was still falling; so that there was no alternative, and they were compelled to leave the two unfortunate negroes to their fate, after making them a bed of boughs, and covering them very thick with the
“ As all hands had been employed in endeavouring to carry the two blacks to the fire, and
had therefore been exposed to the cold for near an hour and a half, some of them began to be afflicted in the same manner as those they went to relieve. At length, however, they reached the fire, where they passed the night in a very disagreeable man ner. The party that set out from the ship consisted of twelve, of whom two were already judged to be dead: it was doubtful whether a third would be able to return on board; and Mr. Buchan, a fourth, who had just recovered from fits, seemed threatened with them again. They had also wandered so far into the interior of the island, that the ship was a long day's journey distant, and they had not provisions left sufficient to afford the company a single meal.
" Next morning, at day-break, nothing presented itself to view all around but snow, the trees being equally covered with it as the ground, and the blasts of the wind were so violent and frequent, that their journey was rendered impracticable, and there was much reason to dread perishing with cold and famine. However, at about six o'clock; they were flattered with a dawn of hope of being delivered, by discovering the sun through the clouds, which gradually diminished. Previous to their setting out, messengers were dispatched to the unhappy negroes, who returned with the melancholy news of their death.
“ About ten o'clock, they set out on their jour. ney to the ship, and in about three hours, to their great astonishment and satisfaction, they found themselves upon the shore, much nearer to the vessel than their most sanguine expectations could have flattered them. The congratulations every one on board expressed at their return, can better be imagined than described.”