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island besides. Scarcely a planting-house, or su gar-house, was left standing in all Jamaica. A great part of them were swallowed up, houses, penple, trees, and all, in one gap; in lieu of which, alterwards appeared great pools of water, which, when dried up, left nothing but sand, without any mark that ever tree or plant had grown thereon. It was a remarkable circumstance, that although some houses were thrown several yards out of their places, yet they continued standing; and one plantation was actually removed half a mile from the place where it originally stood, without any considerable alteration. All the wells in the island, as well as those of Port Royal, from one fathom to six or seven fathoms deep, threw their water out at the top with great violence, Above twelve miles from the sea, the earth gaped, and spouted out vast quantities of water into the air, yet the greatest violences were among the mountains and rocks, and it is a general opinion, that the cause of the earthquake lay among them. Most of the rivers were stopped up for twenty-four hours, by the falling of the mountains; till at length they formed new channels, tearing up in their way, trees, &c.--After the great shock, those people who escaped got on board ships in the harbour, where many continued above two months; the shocks all that time being so violent, and coming so frequently, accompanied with frightful noises, and sulphureous blasts, that they durst not go ashore. The consequence of the noisome vapours attending the earthquake was a general sickness, which swept away upwards of three thousand people.
Bridge-town, the capital of Barbadoes, is situated in the innermost part of Çarlisļe Bay, which is.capable of containing five hundred ships. This was originally a most unwholesome situation, and was chosen entirely for its convenience for trade; but
is now deemed as healthy as any place in the island. The town, which contains about filieen hundred houses, would wake a figure in any Eur
ropean kingdom, and some coniend that it is the finest the British possess in America. The houses, for the most part, are well built, and their rents, are as high as those of such houses in London,
The wharts and quays are well defended from the sea, and very convenient; and the basbour is shellered from the north-east wind, which is the constant trade wind there. But what renders Bridge-town the most desirable situation in the West Indies, is its security against attacks from
foreign enemies. It is defended on the west by James fort, which mounts eighteen guns. Near this is . Willoughby's fort, which is built upon a tongue of land running into the sea, and mounts twelve
guns. Needham's fort has three batteries, and is mounted with iwenty guns; and St. Ann's fort which is the strungest on the island, stands more within land. In short there is all along the leeshore a breast work, and a trench, in which at - proper places, are twenty-nine forts and batteries, having three hundred and eight cannon niounted; while the windward shore is secured by high-rocks, steep cliffs, and foul ground.
The cliurch of St. Michael in this town exceeds many English cathedrals in beauty, ex ent, and conveniency; and has a fine organ, bells, and clock. Here also are a free school for the instrucs tion of poor boys, an hospital, and, college. The latter was erected by the society for propagating, the Christian religion, in pursuance of the will of Colonel Cordingion who left about two thousand pounds a year for its endowinents for maintaining professors and scholars, to study and practise divinity, surgery, and playsic.
The town of St. Peter's, in Martinico, notwithstanding the fires which have four times reduced it to ashes, still contains about seventeen hundred houses. It is situated on the west coast of the island, on a bay or inlet which is almost circular. One part
of it is built on the strand along the sea side, which is called the inchoragg; and is the place destined for ships and warehouses. The other part of the town stands upon a low hill; and is cailed the fort, from a smali fortification that was erected there in 1665, to check a sedition of the inhabitants, but it now serves to protect the road from foreign enemies. These two parts of the town are separated by a rivulet,and the Anchorage is at the back of a pretty high and steep hill. Shut up as it were by this hill, which intercepts the easterly winds, the most constant and most salubrious in these parts, exposed, without any refreshing, breezes, to the scorching beams of the sun, reflected from the sea, and the black sand on the beach, this place is excessively hot. Besides there is no barbour ; so that the ships which cannot winter safely on the coast are obliged to take shelter at Fort Royal. These disadvantages, however, are compensated by the conveniency of the road . of St. Peter's for loading and unloading goods; and by its situation, which is such, that ships may go in and out at all times, and with all winds.
THE principal produce of Cuba is cotton ; but this commodity, through neglect, is now become so scarce, that sometimes several years pass without any of it being brought into Europe. In lieu of cotton, coffee has been cultivated ; but by a similar negligence, that is raised in no great quantity; the whole produce not exceeding thirty or thirty-five thousand weight; one third of which is-exported to Vera Cruz, and the rest to Madrid. The cultivation of coffee naturally leads to that of sugar; and this, which is the most valuable production of America, would of itself be sufficient to give Cuba that state of prosperity for which it seems peculiarly designed by nature. The astonishing fertility of its new lands, if properly managed, would enable it to surpass every other nation, however they may have now got the start of it; yet such is the indolence of the Spaniards, that to the present time they have but few plantations, where, with the finest canes, they make but a small quantity of coarse sugar at a great expenee. This serves partly for the Mexican mara ket, and partly for the mother country; while the indolent inhabitants are content to import sugar for themselves at the expence of -nearly 220,0001. annually. It has been expected with probability that the tobacco exported from Cuba would-compensate this loss'; 'for after furnishing Mexico and Peru, there was formerly sufficient, with the Jittle brought from Caracca and Buenos Ayres, to supply all Spain. But even this trade has declined through the negligence of the court of Ma
drid, in not gratifying the general taste for tobacco from the Havannah. - The Spanish colonies have an universal trade in skins; and Cuba supplies annually, ten or twelve thousand, and the number might be easily increased in a country abounding with wild cattle, where some gentlemen possess large tracts of ground, which, for want of population, can scarcely be applied to any other purpose than breeding cattle. The hundredth part of the island is not yet cleared; the true plantations being all confined to the beautiful plains of the Havannah. "
All the plantations together are supposed to eniploy about twenty-five thousand male and female slaves ; the number of whites, mestees, mulattoes, and free negroes upon the whole island, *amounts to about thirty thousand. The food of these differe ent species consists of excellent pork, bad beef,and cassava bread. The .colony would be more flourishing, if its productions had not been made the property of a company, whose exclusive privilege operates as a constant and invariable principle of discouragement. If any thing could supply the want of an open trade, and atone for the grievances occasioned by this monopoly at Cuba, it would be the advantage which this island has long enjoyed, in being the rendezvous of almost all the Spanish vessels that sail to the New World. This practice commenced almost with the colony itself. Ponce de Leon, Iraving made an attempt upon Florida in 1512, became acquainted with the new canal of Bahama. . It was immediately discovered that this was the best-route, the ships bound from: Mexico te Europe could possibly take; and to this the wealth of Cuba, is principally, if not altogether, owing.