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equal number of votes, the house of representatives shall choose, by ballot, one of them for president ; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest, on the list, the said house shall in like manner choose a president. Each state shall have one vole, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. After the election of the president, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be vice-president: but if two or more have equal votes, the senate shall fix their choice by ballot.
“ No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of this consiitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; nor any person who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident in the United States. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability, it shall devolve on. the vice-president, and the congress may by law provide for such a case, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, until the disability be removed, or the vacancies properly filled. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensa-; tion, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation : "I.. do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States."
The president shall be commander of the army and
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states when called into actual service :' he may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall also have power, with consent of two thirds of the senate, to make treaties, and to nominate consuls, ambassadors, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the
congress may vest the appointment of inferior" officers in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. The president shall have power to fill up
all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session. He shall give congress in. formation of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge expedient. He shall also receive ambassadors and other public ministers ; and on extraordinary occasions he may convene both houses, or either of them. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office, on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
" III. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as congress may establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts,
shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made under their authority. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the crime shall have been com. mitted ; but when not committed within
state the trial shall be at such place as congress may direct. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and assistance. No person shall be convicted of trea. son, unless on the testimony of two witnesses, or on confession in open court. Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the
“ IV. Full credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state ; and congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the everal states. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or any other crime, who shall fiee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he Hed, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. No person held to service in one state,
under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
New states may be admitted by congress into this union, but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other ; nor shall any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the congress. The congress shall have power to dispose of the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state, The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of govern ment, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature or of the executive against domestic violence.
“ V. The congress, whenever two thirds of both houses deem it necessary, shall proposeamendments to this constitution ; or on application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, they shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatives of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the "congress.
• VI. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under
this constitution as under the confederation. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers shall be bound by oath, or affirmation, to support this constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
" VII. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution, between the states so ratifying the same.”
The above constitution was signed by General Washington as president, and the delegates from twelve states, on the 17th of September 1787, and received the approbation of all the states. Some amendments have since been enated, respecting the free exercise of religion, the freedom of the press, the right of the people to assemble and petition for redress of grievances, and to keep and bear arms: also respecting security against unwarrantable seizures or searches, trials, and indictments, quartering of soldiers, excessive bail, and other rights preserved to the people.