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that more wealth has been conveyed down Connecticut river, and through the Sound to New York, than down the Hudsun. New York has availed herself of these advantages to their full extent; insomuch that some of her commercial regulations have been considered as oppressive and injurious to the interest of her neighbours. There is also such a secrecy in the commercial policy of this state, that an accurate account of the annual exports and imports has never been made public. "The staple commodity of this state is wheat, of which six hundred and seventyseven thousand bushels were exported in the year 1775, besides two thousand five hundred tons of bread, and upwards of two thousand eight hundred tons of flour. The trade of New
Jersey is principally carried on with and from New York and Philadelphia, though it wants not good ports of its own. Some attempts have been made by the legislature, to secure to the state its own natural advantages, by granting extraordinary privileges to merchants who would settle at the ports of Amboy and Burlington : but the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to the markets of New York and Philadelphia, and consequently having their correspondencies established, they find it difficult to turn their trade from the old channel. Besides, in those large cities, where are so many opulent merchants, and so many wants to be supplied, credit is more easily gained, and a quicker market found for commodities than could be expected in towns less populous and flourishing. These causes, therefore, with others of a similar nature, have hitherto frustrated the attempts of the legislature.
New York and Pennsylvania, 'not content ed with the privileges of being factors and carriers for this state, charge it with the same duties they do their own citizens; which unreasonable tax upon the people, together with the loss they sustain in dealing with a depreciated paper cura reney, occasions the balance of trade to be against the state, in almost every respect. The principal articles exported are, wheat, flour, horses, cattle, lumber, fax-seed, iron, leather, and hams; the latter of which are celebrated as being the best in the world. Copper ore was formerly reckoned among their most valuable exports; but the mines have not been worked since the commencement of the revolution. The imports con sist chiefly of dry and West India goods, and teas from the East Indies.
The commerce of Pennsylvania is very considerable, and her exports are too numerous for recapitulation. We shall, therefore, only subjoin the following remarks of a well informed citizen of Philadelphia. “Much of the provisions which were, in the period antecedent to the late war, shipped to foreign markets, is now consumed by the numerous hands employed in manufacturing those articles of raw materials which were formerly shipped to Europe, and returned to us in a manufactured state. Of these may be mertioned iron, leather, barley, tobacco, and furs; which we now manufacture into nails and steel, shoes, bonts, and sadlery, porter and beer, snuff, and hats, in such quantities that they are not only sufficient for our own consumption, but form a respectable part of our exports : among these also may be enumerated, beef, pork, butter, cheese, mustard, loaf-sugar, chocolate, soap, starch, hair-powder, household-furniture, paper, and pasteboard. - From Europe we import, among many other articles, wines, brandy, geneva, salt, drugs, fruit and dry goods of every description ;-from the West Indies, rum, sugary coffee, cotton, and salt; and from the East Indies, teas, spices, dry goods, and China-ware ; all of which articles are again exported to other parts of the American continent, and the West Indies, to a very considerable amount.'
The trade of Maryland is principally carried on from Baltimore, with the neighbouring states, with the West Indies, and with some parts of Europe. To these places they send annually about thirty thousand hogsheads of tobacco, besides flax-seed, wheat, flour, beans, lumber, iron, &c. and receive in return clothing and other dry goods, wines, spirits, sugars, and other West India commodities.
The trade of Virginia, consists chiefly in tobacco, in which, previously to the revolution, more than two hundred sail of ships were constantly employed, which one with another were reckoned to carry at least three hundred hogsheads, in all sixty thousand and upwards. But let us suppose, as some do, the quantity exported to England to have been seventy thousand hogs. heads yearly, each containing four hundred weight of tobacco; and that only one half of this quăntity was consumed in England; then the duty of these thirty-five thousand hogsheads, at sl. each, will amount to 280,vool. The other half, which was exported from hence, could not bring above one filth of that sum into the exche. quer ; but if we allow no more than 50,0001. for the duty of the thirty-five thousand hogsheads: exported, the whole amount of the customs on the seventy thousand hogsheads must have been 330,000l. and so much this commodity certainly brought into the exchequer in time of peace, but in time of war our trade was more uncertain. This branch of commerce was a very beneficial one to England, for, besides all other advantages, the profit arising from the tobacco exported hence to foreign markets has been computed to increase the general stock of the nation 1 30,0001, a year : And then, as our colonies took vast quantities of English manufactures in return for the tobacco and other commodities they sent us, it was un. doubtedly our interest to give them all possible encouragement and protection. Since the revo. lution, however, this trade has been rapidly de, clining ; and even the culture of tobacco is in many parts superseded by that of wheat.
With respect to the trade of North Carolina, it appears that a great proportion of the produce of the back country, consisting of Indian corn, wheat, tobacco, &c. is carried to market in South Carolina and Virginia. The southern interior counties carry their produce to Charleston, and the northern to Petersburg in Virginia. The exports from the lower parts of the state are tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, boardis, staves, shingles, furs, tallow, bees-wax, &c. Their trade is principally carried on with the West Indies and the northern states : From the latter they receive flour, cheese, apples, cyder, iron wares, cabinet wares, hats, and dry goods of all sorts imported from Great Britain, France, and Holland. From the West Indies they obtain sugar, rum, and coffee.
In South Carolina, the little attention that is paid to manufactures, occasions a vast consumption of foreign imported articles; but the quantities and value of their exports generally leave a balance in favour of the state, except when there are, large importations of negroes. The amount of the ex. ports from Charleston, from November 1786 to November 1787, has been estimated at 505,2791: 19s. 5d. sterling. In the most successful seasons there have been as many as a hundred and forty thousand barrels of rice, and one million three hundred thousand pounds of indigo exported in one year. The average price of rice, since the peace, has been from twelve to fourteen shillings per hundred ; and of indigo, of the different sorts, three shillings and ninepence.
The principal articles of export from Georgia are rice, tobacco, indigo, sago, naval stores, bees wax, and lumber of various kinds. In return for these are imported, West India goods, teas, wines, various articles of clothing, and dry goods of all descriptions. In the year 1772 the exports from this state amounted to 121,677 1. sterling ; but it is impossible to ascertain what has been their amount in any one year since the peace, owing to the confusion into which things of this nature were thrown by the revolution.
“In reviewing our commercial and agricultural advantages,” says Dr, Morse, "those of manufac. tures must not be overlooked. Though it is confessed that the United States have full employment for all their citizens in the extensive field of agrit culture, yet since we have a valuable body of manufacturers already here, and many more will
probably emigrate from Europe, and since we have some poor citizens who are unable to make seule, ments on our waste. lands, good policy, no doubt, will encourage these men to in prove the great