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natural powers which this country posseses, for carrying on the manufacturing business.

« These are the people to be employed in managing those factories which can be carried on by water-mills, windmills, fire, horses, and ingenious. ly contrived machines, which, as they require but few hands, do not divert people from agriculture and are not burdened with any heavy expence of boarding, lodging, clothing, and paying workmen. By wind and water machines we can make pig and bar iron, cannon shot, nail rods, sheet iron, sheet copper, sheet brass, and sheet lead, anchors, meal of all kinds, gunpowder, paper, snuff, linseed oil, &c. and they assist us in finishing scythes, sickles, and woollen cloths. In the European factories they also card, spin, and weave by water. By means of water likewise our bleaching and tanning businesses are carried on.

Breweries, which we cannot estimate too highly, distilleries, salt and potash'works, sugar. houses, potteries, casting and steel furnaces, works for animal and vegetable oils, sieam engines, and several other works áre, or may be, carried on by means of that powerful and useful element fire, and be attended with the same savings that liave been particularized in speaking of water machines.

" Horses grind the tanners bark and potters clay; they also work the brewers and distillers pumps and by persons of an inventive mind, might be applied as the moving principle of many kinds of mills.

" Machines ingeniously constructed will give us immense assistance. The cotton and silk manufacturers in Europe are possessed of some that are invaluable to them. One instance has been precisely ascertained which employs some hundreds of women and children, and performs the work of twelve thousand carders, spinners, and winders. They have been so curiously improved of late years as to weave the most complicated manufactures. We may certainly borrow some of their inventions, and may

strike out others of a similar nature ; for on the subject of mechanics, America may justly pride herself.

A very useful * machine has lately been invented and made in Connecticut, for the purpose of cutting and bending wire for card teeth ; which will make thirty-six thousand in an hour; and by a small improvement it may be made to cut double that number with equal ease. With this machine, a man, though blind, with a boy to tend the wire, might easily cut a hundred pounds of wire in a day, and with the proposed improvement they might cut two hundred. The inventor of this, has several other useful manufacturing machines partly completed.

“ The advantages which nature has given us for these manufactured improvements have not been neglected; but in some states, particularly in Pennyslvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, and

* This machine is put in motion by a manderil twelve inches long and one inch in diameter. Connected with the inanderil are six parts of the machine, independent of each other. The first introduces a certain length of wire into the chops of the corone ; the second shuts the chops and holds fast the wire until it is finished; the third cuts off the wire; the fourth doubles the tooth in proper

the fifth makes the last bend; and the sixth deli. vers the finished tooth from the machine. The mande. rilis moved by a hand wheel, five feet in diameter, turned by a crank, One revolution of the manderil makes one tooth; ten are made in a second, and thirty-six thou. sand io an hour.

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Massachusetts, they have been lately much improved. Still our manufactures will admit of being further pushed without interfering with the general interests of commerce or agriculture, provided they are judiciously apportioned to, and encouraged in those states, which from nature, population and their internal resources, are best fitted to pursus them to advantage. In Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas, where the people are comparatively few, tillage profitable, and provisions dear, manufactures must be carried on at an evident loss; while the advancement of this business in most of the northern states, where provisions are cheap and land dear, wiil afford the means of subsistence to many good citizens, whose occupations have been rendered unprofitable by the consequences of the revolution..

Some of our manufactories are made highly subservient to the interest of agriculture. The workers in leather of every kind, in fax and hemp, in iron, wood, stone, and clay, in furs, horn, and many other articles, employ either the spontaneous productions of the earth, or the fruits of cultivation. Malt liquors too, if generally used, and it is a happy circumstance that they are becoming fashionable, linseed oil, starch, and corn spirits, were they not a poison to our morals and constitutions, would require more grain to make them than has been exported in any year since the revolution. grapes are the spontaneous production of all the United States, and by culture might be raised in great perfection, we may anticipate the time as not far distant when we shall have it in our power to make wines of such quality and in such quanti. ties, as to preclude all foreign importations. I cannot omit to observe here, the impolicy and im.

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morality of importing and consuming such amazing quantities of spirituous liquors; which impair the estates, debilitate the bodies, and ruin the morals of thousands of the citizens of America. They kill more people than any one disease, perhaps than all diseases besides. It cannot be then but that they are ruinous to the country.

“ It appears from the best calculations that in the course of the years 1785, 1786, and 1787, twelve millions of dollars were expended by the United States, in purchasing West India spirituous liquors; and perhaps nearly half that sum for spirits distilled at home. The expenditure of this immense sum, a sum which would almost cancel our whole national debt, so far from benefiting us, has entailed diseases, poverty, debt, and wretchedness on thousands, who might otherwise have been healthy, independent, and happy.

“ Experience has proved that spirituous liquors, except for certain medicinal uses, are altogether unnecessary.

In the moderate use of wine, which is a generous and cheering liquor, and may be plentifully produced in our own country; of beer which strengthens the arm of the labourer without debauching him; of cider, which is wholesome and palatable ; and of molasses and water, which has become a fashionable drink. In the use of these liquors, labourers and other people who have made the experiment, have been found to enjoy more health and better spirits than those who have made only a moderate use of spirituous liquors. The reason for this appears obvious from a careful calcula. tion recently made, which shows that malt liquors, and several of the imported wines are much more pourishing and cheaper, than spirits. In a pint of beer, or in half a pint of malaga or Teneriffe wine:

there is more strength than in a quart of rum. The beer and the wine abound with nourishment, whereas the rum has no more nourishment in it than a pound of air. These considerations point out the utility of confining ourselves to the use of our home made liquors, that in this way we might encourage our own manufactures, promote indus, try, preserve the morals and lives of our citizens, and save our country from the enormous annual ex. pence of four millions of dollars."

Pennsylvania appears to have taken the lead of the United States in manufactural improvements. A society for the encouragement of manufactures and the useful arts, was instituted at Philadelphia in the year 1787, and several well written pam. phlets were published at the same time, representing the numerous resources and advantages of the Americans for promoting manufactures, and pointing out the principles upon which they ought to be established. These publications seem to have had considerable influence in cherishing that spirit of industry and attention to home manufactures, which has lately began to prevail in the eastern and middle states.'

A cotton manufactory has lately been established in Philadelphia, at which are made jeans, fustians, velvets, velverets, and corduroys, equal in good. ness to those imported, and considerably cheaper. There are also upwards of two hundred and fifty stocking looms in different parts of the city and state, each of which makes, on a medium, one pair and a half of stockings every day : these, deducting Sundays, will amount to 117,375 pair per an. num, which at seven shillings and sixpence a pair is 440151. 12s. 6d. These stockings are sold lower

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