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quite exhausted by what he had been witness to at Masuah and Dixan; and if now Saloome, or any other man belonging to the Naybe, offered to pass that mark, he would bind him hand and foot, and carry him to a place where he should be left tied to a tree, a prey to the lion and hyæna. They all returned, and there our persecution from the Naybe ended. But it was very evident, from Achmet's behaviour and discourse, had we gone by Dobarwa, which was the road proposed by the Naybe, our sufferings would not have been as yet half finished, unless they had ended with our lives.

We remained under this tree the night of the 25th; it will be to me a station ever memorable, as the first where I recovered a portion of that tranquillity of mind to which I had been a stranger ever since my arrival at Masuah. We had been joined by about twenty loaded asses driven by Moors, and two loaded bulls, for there is a small sort of this kind called Ber, which they make use of as beasts of burden. I called all these together to recommend good order to them, desiring every one to leave me that was not resolved to obey implicitly the orders I should give them, as to the hours and places of encamping, keeping watch at night, and setting out in the morning. I appointed Yasine the judge of all disputes between them, and, if the difference should be between Yasine and any one of them, or, if they should not be content with his decision, then my determination was to be final. They all consented with great marks of approbation. We then repeated the fedtah, and swore to stand by each other till the last, without considering who the enemy might be, or what his religion was, if he attacked


The 26th, at seven in the morning, we left our most

pleasant quarters under the daroo-tree, and set forward with great alacrity. About a quarter of a mile from the river we crossed the end of the plain Zarai, already mentioned. Though this is but three miles long, and · one where broadest, it was the largest plain we had seen since our passing Taranta, whose top was now covered wholly with large, black, and very heavy clouds, from which we heard and saw frequent peals of thunder, and violent streams of lightning. This plain was sown partly with wheat, partly with Indian corn; the first was cut down, the other not yet ripe. Two miles farther we passed Addicota, a village planted upon a high rock ; the sides towards us were as if cut perpendicular like a wall. Here was one refuge of the Jesuits when banished Tigre by Facilidas, when they fled to the rebel John Akay, We after this passed a variety of small villages on each side of us, all on the tops of hills; Darcotta and Embabuwhat on the right; Azaria on the left.

At half an hour past eleven we encaped under a mountain, on the top of which is a village called Hadawi, consisting of no more than eighty houses, though, for the present, it is the seat of the Baharnagash. The present Baharnagash had bought the little district that he commanded, after the present governor of Tigre, Michael Suhul, had annexed to his own province what he pleased of the old domains, and farmed the other part to the Naybe for a larger revenue than he ever could get from any other tenant. The Naybe had now no longer a naval force to support him, and the fear of Turkish conquest had ceased in Tigre. The Naybe could be reduced within any bounds that the governor of Tigre might please to prescribe him ; and the Baharnagash was a servant maintained to watch over him, and starve him into

obedience, by intercepting his provisions whenever the governor of Tigre commanded him.

This nobleman paid me a visit in my tent, and was the first Abyssinian I had seen on horseback; he had seven attendant horsemen with him, and about a dozen of others on foot, all of a beggarly appearance, and very ill-armed and equipped. He was a little man, of an olive complexion, of rather darker; his head was shaved close, with a cowl, or covering, upon it ; he had a pair of short trousers ; his feet and legs were bare ; the usual coarse girdle was wrapt several times about him, in which he stuck his knife ; and the or. dinary web of cotton cloth, neither new nor clean, was thrown about him. His parts seemed to be much upon the level with his appearance. He asked me, If I had ever seen horses before ? I said, Very seldom. He then described their qualities in such a manner as would never have given me any idea of the animal if I had seen it seldom. He excused himself for not having sent us provisions, because he had been upon an expedition against some rebellious villages, and was then only just returned.

To judge by his present appearance, he was no very respectable personage; but in this I was mistaken, as I afterwards found. I gave him a present in proportion to the first idea, with which he seemed very well content, till he observed a number of fire-arms tied up to the pillar in the middle of the tent, among which were two large ship-blunderbusses. He asked me if there was no danger of their going off? I said, that it happened every now and then, when their time was come. A


little after this, he took the cushion upon which he sat, went out, and placed himself at the door of the tent. There the king's servant got hold of him and told him roundly, he must furnish us with a goat,

Vol. IV.


a kid, and forty loaves, and that immediately, and write it off in his deftar, or account-book, if he pleased. He then went away and sent us a goat and fifty cakes of teff bread.

But my views upon him did not end here. His seven horses were all in very bad order, though there was a black one among them that had particularly struck my fancy. In the evening I sent the king's servants, and Janni's, for a check, to try if he would sell that black horse. The bargain was immediately made for various pieces of goods, part of which I had with me, and part I procured from my compa. nions in the caravan. Every thing was fashionable and new from Arabia. The value was about L. 12 Sterling, forty shillings more than our friend at Dixan had paid for a whole family of four persons, The goods were delivered, and the horse was to be sent in the evening, when he proved a brown one, old, and wanting an eye.

I immediately returned the horse, insisting on the black one ; but he protested the black horse was not his own; that he had returned it to its master; and, upon a little further discourse, said, that it was a horse he intended as a present for the king

My friends treated this with great indifference, and desired their goods back again, which were accordingly delivered. But they were no sooner in the tent, when the black horse was sent, and refused. The whole, however, was made up, by sending us another goat, which I gave to Yasine, and two jars of bouza, which we drank among us, promising, according to the Baharnagash's request, we would represent him well at court. We found, from his servants, that he had been upon no expedition, 'nor one step from home for three months past.

I was exceedingly pleased with this first acquisition.

The horse was then lean, as he stood about sixteen and a half hands high, of the breed of Dongola. Yasine, a good horseman, recommended to me one of his servants, or companions, to take care of him. He was an Arab, from the neighbourhood of Medina, a superior horseman himself, and well-versed in every thing that concerned the animal. I took him im. mediately into my service. We called the horse Mirza, a name of good fortune. Indeed, I might say, I acquired that day a companion that contributed always to my pleasure, and more than once to my safety; and was no slender means of acquiring me the first attention of the king. I had brought my Arab stirrups, saddle, and bridle, with me, so that I was now as well equipped as a horseman could be.

On the 27th we left Hadawi, continuing our journey down a very steep and narrow path between two stoney hills ; then ascended one still higher, upon the top of which stands the large village of Goumbubba, whence we have a prospect over a considerable plain, all sown with the different grain this country produces, wheat, barley, teff, and tocusso ; simsim (or sesame), and nook; the last is used for oil.

We passed the village of Dergate, then that of Regticat, on the top of a very high hill on the left, as the other was on our right. We pitched out tent about half a mile off the village called Barranda, where we were overtaken by our friend the Baharnagash, who was so well pleased with our last interview, especially the bargain of the horse, that he sent us three goats, two jars of honey-wine, and some wheatflour. I invited him to my tent, which he immediately accepted. He was attended by two servants on foot, and some horsemen with lances and shields ; he had no arms himself, but, by way of amends, had two drums

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