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General Rules for the Preservation of Health. middle track? We may enjoy pure air innumerable distempers lying in ambusand yet not live in tents. We need only cade among the dishes."** to make a point of frequently opening Our forefathers subsisted like our priour windows to allow the escape of un- soners upon bread and water, or at least wholesome exhalations. We need only their fare was little better. To their to avail ourselves of the fine weather to temperance and sobriety is ascribed the go abroad. We need only avoid filling longevity which they attained : at any our apartments unnecessarily with coal- rate it is certain that very few addicted damp, aqueous vapours, and a thousand to intemperance live to be old. Some smells, which though ihey belong not to solitary instances to the contrary might cleanliness, are universally met with indeed be adduced. Thus about the even among the higher classes. The middle of the last century a village barber pure sweet air is the cordial of life and in Gascony, named Espagno who never a refreshinent to the soul: it braces the went to hed sober, was never ill, never body and cheers the spirits. Our fore- lost blood, never took physic, and who fathers enjoyed another advantage, for married a second wife in his 90th year, they were compelled by necessity to live died at the age of 112, leaving behind a tenperately. A good táble, as we call it; daughter of 20, the issue of this union. is one of the most dangerous of tempta- Thus too I have heard of a drunkard tions: for our appetites are never silent, who lived to be 100 years old, though and if they even would be so, wine during the last fifteen years he swallowed renders them clamorous. We eat to three quarts of spirits every day. But gratify the palate, and this we might such examples are of rare occurrence, certainly do without danger, were we not and afford no ground on which we can accustomed to load our stomachs with rely, since it must be admitted that they such an endless variety of heterogeneous are extraordinary deviations from the substances. Now the stomach is sooner usual and established course of nature. satisfied than the palate, and the former Exercise is an essential requisite for may be satiated before the longing of the bealth. The body must be exercised, or latter is appeased. In this manner we it will not thrive. It is true indeed that derange the functions of this important we cannot all be farmers and soldiers. organ, the source whence issue all the We must have students and literary men; juices destined for the nourishment of we must have sedentary females and arthe body; and it is evident that the pu- tisans; we must have people of distincrity of these must be influenced by the tion who sacrifice their personal welfare vigorous or oppressed state of the digeso' for the good of the community, and who tive powers. On this account I com- while they keep their coachmen, footmen mend Diogenes who stopped in the and horses in motion, cramp themselves street a young man going to an enter- up till they become crooked and deformtainment, and conducted him back to his ed. All these classes, however, and the friends in the same manner as if he had literati in particular, might obtain exerrescued him from an imminent dangercise enough, if they were seriously intent into which he was about to rush. Ou upon it and deemed motion to be as nethis sally of Diogenes, Addison makes cessary as it really is. On this subject these pertinent observations :-"What I cannot forbear quoting a passage of would that philosopher have said, had he Athenæus. The Areopagites summoned been present at the gluttony of a modern before them two young men who were meal? Would not he have thought the very poor and studied philosophy, and master of a family mad and have beuged asked them by what means they kept his servants to tie down his hands, had themselves in such good condition.he seen him devour fowl, fish, and flesh; “ You have nothing to do,” said they to swallow oil and vinegar, wines and them,“ you spend the whole day withspices; throw down sallads of twenty out employment, and pass it in listening different herbs, sauces of an hundred in- only to the lectures of the pluilosophers.” gredients, confections and fruits of num- The young men, whose names were Asberless sweets and favours? What unna. clepiades and Menedemus, appealed to tural motions and counter-fernients must a miller wbo was immediately sent for. such a medley of intemperance produce He attested that they came every night in the body? For my part when I be- to his mill, and there worked till they hold a fashionable table set out in all its bad earned two tracbns. The assembly, magnificence, I fancy that I see gouts and pleased with their industry, ordered dropsies, fevers and lethargies, with other

* Spectator, No. 195.

catena,

1816.) General Rules for the Preservation of Health.

3 them a gratuity of two hundred drachms, may study till he makes either a sage or but they had in fact already obtained a a fool of himself. There are many spemore valuable reward in the preservation cies of insanity which are to be ascribed of their health. Exercise therefore may solely to the abuse of the intellectual serve as an antidote both to poverty and faculties; and if there be any persons leanness, two qualities which might with who consider sound reason as noi essenfew exceptions almost constitute the de- tial to health, they can scarcely take it finition of a man of letters.

amiss of us if we in our turn regard then To be masters of our passions, or as unfortunately labouring under a sperather to have no passions, which is cies of disease. nearly the same thing, is a rule for pro- Society belongs also to the medicinal moting health, which very few have regulations of life. It serves to cheer firmness and perseverance enough to the spirits, gives occasion to exercise, follow. The most unfeeling and thought- affords useful recreatio!, excites mild less persons enjoy cæteris paribus, the and wholesome passions, and is attendlongest life and the best health. But it ed with many other advantages which I is a disputed point among the learned, shall not here enumerate:- but then it whether such people actually live; for must be of the right kind. There are some maintain that they only vegetate. societies in which none of these advanThis is certain that the passions are the tages is to be expected; company withsprings of most human actions; I would out conversation--conversation without say of all if there were not some mora- ideas-visits without variety-assemblies lists by whom it is denied. For this which benefit nobody but the cardreason I shall not insist upon their ex- maker--and amusements which, while tirpation, but shall say with Horace : they last, almost force you to regret the Animum rege, qui nisi paret

prostituted employment of the intellecImperat; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce tual faculties.

The position and clothing of the body Let us only be vigilant over ourselves : are important points. All positions are let it be deeply impressed upon our not equally adapted to the human frame; minds that the passions are a pleasing but as different occupations require very poison which insinuates itself to the different attitudes, we must not suppose heart; and their sweetness will not then that every person can continually keep allore us to cloy ourselves with them. in the most suitable posture, which is

Sleep is not less essential than food to when the body is straight, and all the repair the daily waste of the animal spi- muscles are allowed perfect freedom for rits. This temporary death prepares us their proper actions. Particular care for a new life, and we must submit to it, must above all be taken not to compress otherwise our machine would speedily the abdomen, as must be the case when become deranged and be rendered in- a person sits in a bending position. Recapable of performing its proper mo- spiration and the free motion of the tions. We have moreover to attend to intestines are thus impecled, and hence the promoting of all those evacuations arise evils of the utmost importance. As by which nature discharges such matters experience teaches that artisans, artists, as are of no farther use to the system, and men of letters, sometimes become and would but too soon become trouble- deformed, or contract diseases peculiar some to us. If therefore we have any to themselves, in consequence of the unregard for our health we must pay the natural positions which they are obliged strictest attention to these evacuations, to assume in their daily avocations; so some of which, as the insensible perspi- we may assert that different kinds of ration of the skin, must be incessantly dress interrupt health in various ways. kept up; whilst others recur daily, and How many females conceiving a small others again at longer intervals." As I waist to be essential to a handsome shall probably avail myself of soine fu- shape, brace themselves so tiglit as to ture opportunity to treat this subject leave the lungs and the intestines no more explicitly, I shall here only sub- room to play! How oiten is the coxjoin a general sketch of the rules by comb who carries his hat under his arm which our way of living ought to be go- lest lie should derange bis elegant locks,

laid up with colds and the complainis The use of the understanding and of which they bring in their trai! Puffenall the other mental faculties requires dorf would not have died from the effect limits which are often over-stepped of a corn, had it been customary for

а to the great injury of health. A man people to carry their shoes as well as

verned.

4

General Rules for the Preservation of Health. [Feb. 1, their hats under their arms; and thou- good care not to injure his health by resands might have avoided the most dan- signing the reins to his passion. But gerous and painful diseases and a pre- where shall we look for the stoic who is mature grave, had they not dressed too not absolutely beside himself, and does lightly, too airily, or too fashionably. not snatch up a pistol or a horse-whip All these are subjects that fall within at every affront from a poltroon or a dothe province of the physician, and are mestic? Self-love would impel the most too important to be passed over without effeminate of loungers to sacrifice bis discussion.

luxurious repose, to quit bis soft couch Pure air, temperance, bodily exercise, with cheerfulness and ramble over hill goverument of the appetites, attention and dale, that he may share with the to the economy of nature, a judicious rustic the inconveniences of the most use of the understanding, social inter. healthy of lives. But no! we deem ourcourse, dress, and a proper position of selves the more fortunate the less we the body, are the chief points which I have occasion to employ the muscles bare here recommended. Each of these which Nature has given us for labour topics, however, embraces a multitude and exercise. We desire not to be inof others, all of which will hereafter structed in the rules of health, that we require particular consideration, may benefit by thens, because our perPOSTSCRIPT.

sons, our lives, our health, our welfare I have heard with considerable plea- are dear to us; but it is from a very difsure of the frequent inquiries that have ferent reason that we are anxious to been made concerning the GuardIAN become acquainted with all the salutary OF Healtu during the temporary sus- rules which we have no intention of ob-, pension of this series of papers, which serving. I hope in future to be able to submit to Curiosity to learn what is for our bethe readers of this magazine with more nefit cannot be the motive of this desire regularity. I am, nevertheless, far from any more than self-love. We are not regarding the interest with which the curious respecting things which do not generality of mankind listen to every interest us; and what seemingly interests thing relative to their health as the effect a man less than his health? For a very of self-love or curiosity, but as the result trifle the pearl-fisher dives to the bottom of that anxiety which each individual of the sea, regardless alike of the confeels to observe how another will per- sequent spitting of blood, and the feroform a part of which he fancies himself cious shark by which he is every moment to be a perfect master. If people read liable to be devoured. How willingly medical works out of self-love, they would many a fair lady plunge to the would endeavour to follow the precepts depth of many fathoms for the sake of a contained in them. How rare, on the pearl necklace! For a paltry pittance contrary, are such examples! Who is the squalid miner descends into the there but knows that temperance, regu- bowels of the earth, braving the suffocalarity, tranquillity of mind, and occupa- ting choak-damp and the most deleterition, contribute more than anything ous vapours. He sees his fellow-labourers else to longevity and the preservation of mangled and swept away; he regards it health? A man so fond of himself as not, and defies for a niere nothing the inost people are said to be, would with most hidtons of dangers. What is the pleasure conform to all these, and even reward that tempts the seaman to trastill more difficult duties, to promote verse the ocean in a frail vessel? and his own well-being. He would regard what is the pay for which he ventures another as his enery, who should serive his life, and, like Horace, represents to by savoury dishes and palatable beve- bis messmates the perils he undergoes rages to seduce him beyond the bounds as unworthy of notice? of tenperance. But what is the course O fortes pejoraque passi pursued at every table? The bust makes Mecum sæpe viri ; nunc vino pellite curas ; a thousand apologies because he cannot Cras ingens iterabimus æquor. set double the number of dishes before How many hundreds of thousands are his guests, and the guests seize their ready to cut one another's throats for a glasses and drink bumpers to the health few pence a day? Who would not rather of the founder of the feast. A man expire on the bed of honour than grow taken with his own dear self would' grey in the bosom of tranquil pleasure? look with composure at his enemy or his What merchant would spare his health, servants who should endeavour by their if by risking it he stood a chance of ill trealment to rouse his rage, and take making an extra profit of a few pounds

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1816.) Query suggested by the Mosaic History of Cain.
per cent.? What literary man would of the moralists, or as they go to hear
not rather stick to his writing-table till an eloquent preacher, not for the sake
he grew as crooked as a ram's horn, than of improvement, but to see how a man
relinquish the hope of having it said acquits himself-to make him their au-
after his death that he had written some thority for following such ot his precepts
thing? Who would not willingly sacri- as they approve, and to laugh at the
fice happiness, health, and the fairest
prospects of life, lo gain possession of a Such is the idea I have formed of the
beauty, though he may perhaps know office which I have undertaken, and it
beforehand that ere a year has elapsed, would totally discourage me, were I not
he will wish that he had rather drowned sensible that it is wrong to fret if we
himself? Who refuses any desire, any cannot make the world better than it
appetite, any passion, access to his heart, chooses to be. As long as my papers
though well aware that after the gratifi- continue to be read, let the motive for
cation of a few moments it will render reading then be what it will, I shall be
bim miserable ?

satisfied, adopting the coaxim of the ho-
I need not appeal to the consciences nest monk :-
of my readers." They have seen in this Semper bene parlare de Domino Priore ;
paper a sketch of the duties which are Facere suum officium taliter qualiter,
subservient to the preservation of health. Et sinere mundum vadere ut vadet.
I insist not that health be made the sole
and primary object of all human actions.

MR. EDITOR,
I am even ready to admit that we ought to

BY the insertion of the underwritten
sacrifice part to the welfare of the whole; in your widely circulated miscellany you
but let the benefit of the community at
large be left entirely out of the question.

will greatly oblige your's, &c. C. E. B. We will take only a paltry gain, a transient gratification, an empty honour, an agree- sis, that the Lord set a murk upon Cain,

We read in the 4th chapter of Geneable folly, a favourite notion. would have the courage to sacrifice any and he went oui from the presence of the

Who lest any finding him should kill him! one of these trifles to his life and health? Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on I have a right to ask the question, and I the east of Eden, and there had a wife, read the answer in the conduct of the and a son, named Enoch, who builded a world. What is it then that can render people

whole city, &c. &c.

Query.-What need had Сain to fear, disposed to read with pleasure and avi- there being only his aged parents existdity a work which treats of a subject so ing? And how came he by his wife? We uninteresting as health? I fancy I have find in the sacred volume no mention of discovered the secret in this, that the any female but Eve, of the human spemajority imagine the mode of life which cies then living ? best suits their convenience, and which is most flattering to their passions, to be good enough, and merely read the works MR. EDITOR, of physicians to confirm themselves in FROM the attention which you have this notion. When they see how “ doc- uniformly given to every thing connected tors disagree," how one declares that to with the fine arts, I am induced to hope be a deadly poison which another pro- that you will indulge me with a portion nounces a panacea; when they see some of your truly useful and entertaining guilty of those excesses which are for- magazine, for the purpose of requesting bidden by physicians living notwithstand- from some of your intelligent corresponing to a healthy old age, while others dents an answer to the following queswith the most rigid observance of diete- tions:- On what principle are engraders tic precepts are continually ailing; when prohibited from exhibiting their works at they see physicians imposing duties which the Royal Academy ? and on what acit is impossible to perform, and them- count are they disqualified from becoming selves violating the rules which they en. Royal Academicians ? On looking over join the rest of mankind as they value the names of the members of the Royal iheir lives to follow; they find in these Academy I was surprised to find profescontradictions quite sufficient to satisfy sors in almost every branch of art except the scruples that may have arisen in that of engraving. A satisfactory reason their minds, and to confirm them in their for a circumstance apparently so extrairregularities and excesses. They read ordinary, and so opposite to the laws of medical directions as they do the works all foreign academies, would be to me

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6 On the Exclusion of Engravers from the Royal Academy. [Feb. 1, very acceptable ; for I confess myself ig- abroad. In Italy, in France, in Ger. norant of the scale by which merit is many, the professors of engraving are demeasured, or the qualifications that corated with the highest honours of the are necessary to entitle a candidate to academy. They there classed the honours of a seat in our academy. amongst the most intelligent and the It is true engravers are admitted to no- most favoured of the members; and the vitiates, but by their not being allowed reward they receive is in some degree to advance beyond thai rank, I pre- commensurate with their merits. As sume that they are not considered wor- knowledge and science advance, prejuthy of higher honours. If that is the dice and illiberality recede : and as the -case, I am naturally induced to ask, laws of our academy are not so inflexible whether the art of engraving is less meri- as not to bend occasionally, I am inclined torious or less worthy of encouragement to hope that those who have the power than either miniature-painting, enamel will not be behind our neighbours in lipainting, or even portrait-painting. Is berality, in policy or in justice, but that the painter of still life, or even the land- as we have on some occasions heen bescape-painter, a more meritorious artist nefited by their example, so I trust that than the historical engraver ? If the value our academy will see the necessity of of any thing is estimated in proportion protecting and encouraging every departto its utility, or in proportion to the plea- ment of art, and that the avenues which sure which it produces, or to the talent lead to honours, wealth, and fame, will required to produce it, then I think en- not here alone be closed against the hisgraving will rank much higher than the torical engraver.

T. F. legislations of our academy have thought Paddington, Dec. 27, 1815. proper 10 admit. When I see a fine print executed with the most careful at- MR. EDITOR, iention from a most interesting picture, AT the time I received the following I feel a pleasure that few works of art letter I little thought it was the last I can produce. The gratification is height should ever have from one who was so ened from knowing that what I am en- dear to me. It was just a year and two joying with so much satisfaction can be months after that I got the account of niultiplied to thousands, and that more his decease, and the impression it fixed than thousands can share the pleasure at on my mind is at this moment as fresh the same moment. To enumerate the as when I first received it. I remain, advantages of engraving either to the

W. Burdon. mau of science, the scholar, or the artist, Welbeck-street, Dec. 12, 1815. is I presume quite unnecessary; though I cannot avoid saving that the fame of

Worlowka in the Ukraine, the greatest painiers would have been

jun. 1798. but very imperfectly known, and the I have now been here a month at the works of the most eminent architects house of the Duke of Polignac, and prowould have remained comparatively un- pose to pass here at least a month more. thought of and unseen but for the en- By that time the Black Sea will be again graver. To draw a comparison between navigable, and I shall thus have avoided the works of living artists would be in- a tedious, expensive, and dangerous vidious and improper; but to compare journey by land. The countries between the productions of those who are beyond the Ukraine and Constantinople are inthe reach of praise or censure, cannot fested with the plague, robbers and redisturb their fáine. The works of Wool- bels, so that many arguments are not lett, Strange*, Vivares, and Rooker, will wanting to induce me to protract a visit remain imperishable monuments of legi- of a few days to one of as many months. timate art, and will be regarded as trea. The society of this family is bighly insures when many of the pictures that teresting in many points of view, and I were coeval with their productions will have now been intimately connected with be forgotten. In an institution avow- it for so long a time that I live in it as edly established for the promotion of the

one of its natural and constant members. arts, and in a country where genius and As for you my good friend, you have no liberality are proverbial, it is reniarkable that they were not admitted as members hibiting engravings at their exhibitions, ac

* The French academy, so far from proof our academy, and that engraving is tually received the works of the British arnot allowed the reward which it receives tists, and on a very recent occasion voted

Strange was a member of several foreign their gold medal to an eminent English enacademies.

graver,

MY DEAR BURDON,

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