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upon occasion ; at length their discourse became intelligible one to another : but being dispersed into several parts of the world, they spoke not all the same language, every one ufeing that dialect proper to the place, as his lot fel: upon which account there were various and all sorts of languageës in the world, and these associations of men first planted all the nations of the world. But forasmuch as what was useful for mans life was not allready found out, this first race of mankind live'd a laborious and troublesome life, as being as yet naked, not inure'd to houseës, nor acquainted with the use of fire, and alltogether destitute of delicacys for their food. For not knowing as yet how to house and lay up their food, they had no barns or granarys where to deposit the fruits of the earth; and, therefor, many, through hunger and cold, perifh'd in the winter: but being at length taught by experience, they fled into caves in the winter, and lay'd up such fruits as were fit to keep ; and comeing by degrees to the knowlege of the usefulnefs of fire and of other convenienceës, they began to invent many arts, and other things beneficial for mans life. What shal we say? he ads, necessity was mans instructor, which made him skilful in every thing, being an ingenious creature, assisted (as with so many servants) with hands, feet, and a rational foul, ready to put every thing in execution.*
Aristotle pronouncees the world eternal; and consequently, ingenerate and incorruptible. t
Lucretius, the poet, who adopted the opinions of Epicurus the philosopher, and made use of his writeings, extols this great master for haveing been the first who taught, that this world, and all things in it, were not made by the deity, but by a fortuitous'concourse of atoms, and for delivering, by that doctrine, the minds of men from the fear of the gods, of death, and of punishments after death: all which doctrines he explains with ingenuity of argument, and elegance of stile.
Pliny, the naturalist, would have his readers believe the world to be a god, eternal, unmeasurable, without begining, and without end.
Since, however, it is absolutely impossible to demonstrate the origin of these things by fact or argument, reafon or science, we must, of necessity, be content to embrace the sensible opinion reported by Diodorus : “ that mankind was from eternity; and that there never was a time when he first began to be."
* B. 1, C. 1. See a beautiful defcription of the creation of the world, and the origin of man and other animals, in the first book of Ovids Metamorpbofs.
+ Of beaven, B. 1, C. 12.
Naturalists distinguish most, if not all, animals, by classes or genera : as the lion, tiger, leopard, and so forth, are say'd to be of the cat. kind, from a general resemblance, in form or figure, though not in size or strength, to that individual. Man, in like manner, may, with equal propriety, be arrange’d under the monkeykind; there being the same degree of analogy between the man and the monkey, as between the lion and the cat; and there being, allso, in each of these classes, intermediate animals of different sizeës, ranks, or degrees, by which the several species, which compose it, are approximateëd or connected, like the links of a chain : thus, between the cat and the lion, are the serval, the syagulh, the lynx, the tiger-cat, the ounce, the panther, the leopard, and the tiger ; and, just so, between the monkey and the man, are the maimon, the wandrow, the mandril, the gibbon or long-arm’d ape, the pongo, and the ourang-outang :* each gradually increaseing in
* See, upon the affinity or resemblance of the man and monkey kinds, Aristotles History of Animals, B. 2. C. 13, and
size and strength. Man, therefor, in a state of nature, was, if not the real ourang-outang of the
Tysons Anatomy of a Pigmie, p. 5, &c. Man, among other attempts at definition, has been denominated a laugbing animal. Laughter, however, is not alltogether peculiar to the human species. As mifter Barrow was ascending the pass of Roode-Sand Kloef, the baboons, fays he, from their conceal'd dens, in the sides of the mountain, laugb’d, scream'd, and utter'd such horrible noiseës, the whole time, that, to a stranger, not knowing, from whence they proceeded, they exciteed no small degree of surprise, (Travels in Soutbern Africa, p. 70). The Hottentots, says captain Beeckman, are not, really, unlike monkeys or baboons in their gestures and postures, especially when they fit funing themselves, as they often do in great numbers. When they speak, they seem rather to cackle like hens or turkeys, than speak like mèn, (Voyage to Borneo, p. 187). “ The Bosjesmans,” according to Barrow, (p. 277), are amongst the uglyest of all human beings. The flat nose, high cheek-bones, prominent chin and concave visage, partake much of the apeifh character, which their keen eye, allways in motion, tends not to diminish," (Travels in Soutbern Africa, p. 277). The apes corre&t their young in the manner of good christians. I once, says Labillardiere, witness'd a singular fact, which shews what authority these animals possess over their young. A large ape, that was follow'd by a very little one, thinking himself unobserved, took it up in one of its paws, and beat it for a considerable space of time with the other. If the ape, he ads, knew how to proportion the punishment to the offence, the cub must have been very naughty, for he got a most severe beating (Voyage in search
forests and mountains of Asia or Africa at the present day., at least, an animal of the same family, and very nearly resembleing it. The formation, the anatomy, the strength, the general appear. ance, of the two animals, are much the same, or would, at least, be so in a state of nature. Each would make the like use of its hands and feet; for it can be prove'd, not onely, that man, in fuch a state, would frequently, make use of his hands for feet, and walk upon all-four; but, allso, that the ourang-outang frequently stands and walks, erect, like a civilize'd man, and occasionally uséës a staf. Their food, their habits, their employments, and mode of life, would, likewise, be precisely, or nearly similar and, in a word, without depriveing man of his preëminent situation at the head of his class, the resembleance between him and the ourang-outang is too strong to deny that they are, at least, distinct fpecies of one and the fame genus.
of La Perouse), i, 137. The natives of New Holland are cover'd with vermin. We admire'd the patience of a mother, who, like most of the blacks, crush'd these filthy insects between her teeth, and then swallow'd them. It is to be rex mark’d that apes have the same custom (which is well known to the Spanish virgins, particularly toward their sweethearts). * See doctor Tyfons Anatomy of a Pygmie, p. 92, &c.