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“ The form of the orang-outang," says the ingenious Smellie, “ makes the nearest approach to the human; and the arts he employs for his defence, the actions he performs, and the fagacity he discovers, are so astonishing, that some philosophers have consider'd him as a real human being in the most debase'd stage of society.”* Man, indeed, by fome singular and unaccountable accident or event, has acquired the art of forming articulate founds, and applying them to the expression of ideas and things, which, aded to his social intercourse, and the habits of civilize'd life; has raised him to a far superior and more elevateëd rank': but this can be no folid objection to the present fystem, as language is no more natural to man than to many other animals, which actually make use of it: as the parrot, for instance, the raven, the magpie, the jack-daw, and the starling; and, possiblely, even, the ourang-outang, and the rest of the monkey tribe.
where he gives the several and refpective instanceës in which * his "orang-outang or Pygmie (not the best or neareft fpecies) more resemble'd a man than apes and monkeys," and vice versa. Compare, likewise, the engrave'd figure of the skeleton of this animal with that of a human being, and see how much or little difference there is between them. * Pbilosopby of nalural bistory, i, 53.
The negros Say, of the monkeys, that they can speak if
No man, left to himself from the moment of his birth, would ever be able to utter an articulate
they wil, but are afray'd to confess it, left they fhould be made to work : and Goldsmith, from Buffon, gives a curious account of the Ouarine, a species of monkey remarkable for the loudness and distinctness of their voice, and stil more fo for the use to which they convert it. I have, frequently, been a witness," says Morgrave, “ of their assemblys and deliberations. Every day, both morning and evening, the ouarines assemble in the woods, to receive instructions. When all come together, one among the number takes the highest place on a tree, and makes a signal, with his hand, to the rest to fit round, in order to hearken. As soon as he sees them placed, he begins his discourse, with so loud a voice, and yet in a manner so precipitate, that, to hear him at a distance, one would think the whole company were crying out at the same time: however, dureing that time, one onely is speaking, and all the rest observe the most profound filence. When this has done, he makes a sign, with his hand, for the rest to reply; and, at that instance, they raise their voiceës together, until, by another fignal of the hand, they are enjoin'd filence. This they as readyly obey ; til, at last, the whole assembly breaks up, after hearing a repetition of the same preachment." (History of the eartb, iv, 226). This kind of monkey seems to be of the presbyterian or methodist persuafion, which enthufiafts, at least, they appear to imitate in their religious exbortations. He, allso, proves
" that articulation is not natural to man;" and that language was the invention of society, and rose from natural inarticulate crys.
Doctor Tysons Pygmie was “the most gentle and loveing creature that could be. Those that he knew a ship-board he would come and embrace with the greatest tenderness, opening
found ; language or speech must be taught to (as it
was, most probablely invented by) young children, and is the effect of education, not of nature: but of this more hereafter.
The translator of The history of voyageës, as citeëd by Rousseau, tels us that there is found in the kingdom of Congo a great number of those large animals call'd in the East Indies ourangoutang; forming a kind of middle order of beings between men and baboons.* Battel relates, that, in the forests of Mayomba, in the kingdom of Loango, there are two forts of monsters the bigest of which are calld pongos, and the other enjokos. The former, says he, are exactly like men, but much largeër and taller. Their face is human, but hath very hollow eyes. Their hands, cheeks and ears, are quite bare of hair to their eye-brows, which are very long. The other parts of their bodys are pretty hairy, and the hair is of a brown colour. In fine, the onely thing by which they can be distinguish'd from the human species is the form of their legs, which have no calves. * They walk ereat, holding the hair of their neck in their hands. They reside in the woods, where they sleep in the trees, makeing a kind of roof over them, to skreen them from the rain ....They march, sometimes, in
their bosoms, and clasping his hands about them; and, though there were monkeys abroad, 'twas observe'd he would never associate with them, and, as if nothing akin to them, allways avoid their company." (Analomy, &c. p. 7.)
* Notes on Inequality of mankind.
companys, and kil the negros who traverse the forests; and even attack the elephants that come to feed near their haunts, which they belabour, with fifts and sticks, and put to flight. When ful-grown, they are never takeën alive ; being so robust that ten ordinary men would not be able to manage one of them. When one of these animals dyes, the others cover its body with a heap of leaves or branches of trees. Purchas ads, that, in the conversation he had with Battel, he was told by him, that a pongo carry'd off from him a little negro, who stay'd a whole month among these creatures.
Battel has not described the second kind of monster. Dapper confirms that the kingdom of Congo is ful of those animals, which, in India, are call'd ourangoutang, or the inhabitants of the woods, and which the Africans call quojas morros (r. quoias.
* This is the case of many a man. In our own country, “ You have fent your calves to grass” is a proverbial pun. Doctor Tyson, however, expressly says “ Our pygmie bad calves in his legs." (Anatomy, &c. p. 23.)
morrou]. This creature, he says, bears so near a resemblance to man, that some travelers have been foolish enough to think it might proceed from a woman with a monkey, a chimerical notion, explodeëd, even, among the negros;... who tel very strange storys of this animal; asfureing us that the male wil not onely ravish women and girls, but that he hath the courage to attack men though they are arm’d. *
“ The monkeys, apes, and baboons (of the iland of Borneo]," says captain Beeckman,“ are of many different shapes; but the most remarkable are those they call oran-ootans, which, in their language, signifys men of the woods. These grow up to be fix feet high; they walk upright; have longer arms than men; tolerablely' good faceës (handsomeër, i am sure, than some Hottentots that i have seen); large teeth, no tails nor hair, but on those parts where it grows on human bodys. They are very nimble-footed, and mighty strong. They throw great stones, sticks, and billets at those persons that offend them. The natives do really believe that these were formerly men, but metamorphose’d into beasts for their blasphemy. They told me many strange story's of them. I bought one, out of
* Rousseaus Notes to his Inequality of mankind.