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tradition among us, that this manner of eating is not onely wholesome to the body, but contributes to attain everlasting hapyness : and, on the contrary, they that make no difference between clean and unclean food shal be severely punish'd in the other world... One of our poets writes, that whoever abstains from the flesh of liveing creatures, all men and all sorts of liveing creatures regard such a man with the profoundest respect, and falute him with a thousand schalam; and it is a receive'd opinion among us, that such as kil and eat the flesh of any creature endue'd with the five senseës cannot obtain the hapyness of the other world; but his lot wil be to keep company with Olina dudakkol (the god of the dead and king of hel)."*

India, in short, of all the regions of the earth, is the onely publick theatre of justice and tenderness to brutes, and all liveing creatures ; for, not confineing murder to the kiling of a man, they religiously abstain from takeing away the life of the meanest animal, mite, or flea.f

* Ibi, p. 76.

+ Ovingtons Voyage to Surat, p. 296. See allso The voyages of Jobn Struys, p. 275. “Those,” say the bramins, “ who have forsakeën the kiling of all, are in the way to heaven.” Again: “ Behold the difference between the one


One of the greatest charitys of the Si. amese is to give liberty to animals, which they buy of those that have takeën them in the fields.

The South-Americans are a humane and amiable, but very indolent people. “Though the Indian women breed fowl and other domestick animals in their cottageës, they never eat them : and even conceive such a fondness for them, that they wil not even fel them, much less kil them with their own hands : so that if a Spaniard,

who eateth flesh, and him to whom it belonged. The first hath a momentary enjoyment, while the latter is deprived of existence.” Again : “ fellow-creature should be spare'd, even by this analogy : the pain which a man suffereth when he is at the point of death.” They even define religion, “ Compassion for all things which have life.” The Gentoos wil scarcely look upon a mangled carcase. A butcher with them is little less than a murderer, and of all vocations the most odious.: (Ovington, p. 242.)

* Louberes History of Siam, p. 116. Their talapoins or priests cannot without sin kil any liveing creature, nay it is a crime with them to go a-hunting, to Atrike a beast, and to do it hurt any manner of way. The reason they give is, that beasts, haveing life as wel as we, are sensible of pain as wel as we, and since we are not wiling that any body should hurt us, it is not reasonable that we should hurt them. Nay, they accufe us of ingratitude, because we put to death innocent creatures, which have render'd us so


services. Vorige to Siam by fix Jesuits, p. 302.


over us,

who is obliged to pass the night in one of their cottageës, offer ever so much money for a fowl, , they refuse to part with it; but this affectionate humanity is loft upon the insolent and unfeeling barbarian, who dispatches it himself, at which his landlady shrieks, dissolves in tears, and wrings her hands, as if it had been an onely fon."*

“I have often thought,” says Mandeville, “if it was not for the tyranny which custom usurps that men of


tolerable good-nature could never be reconcile’d to the kiling of so many animals for their dayly food, as long as the bountyful earth so plentyfully provides them with varietys of vegetable daintys. I know that reason excites our compassion but faintly, and, therefor, i would not wonder how men should lo little commiserate fuch imperfect creatures as cray-fish, oysters, cockles, and, indeed, all fish in general : as they are mute, and their inward formation, as wel as outward figure, vastly different from ours, they express themselves unintelligiblely to us, and therefor 'tis not strange that their grief should not affect our understanding, which it cannot reach, for nothing stirs us to pity fo effectually as when the symptoms of misery strike immediately upon our sensees, and i have seen people move'd at the noise a live lobster makes

* Juan & Ulloas Voyage to S. Anteica, I, 425.

upon the fpit, and could have kild half a dozen fowls with pleasure.* But in such perfect animals as sheep and oxen, in whom the heart, the brain, and nerves, differ so little from ours, and in whom the separation of the spirits from the blood, the organs of sense, and, consequently, feeling itself, are the same as they are in human creatures, i cannot imagine how a man, not harden'din blood and massacre, is able to feea violent death, and the pangs of it, without concern.

“ In answer to this,” he continues, “ most people will think it sufficient to say, that things being allow'd to be made for the service of

man, there can be no cruelty in puting creatures to the use they were design’d for it but i have heard men make this reply, while their nature within them has reproach'd them with the falsehood of the assertion. There is of all the multitude not one man in ten but what wil own (if he was not

* For this reason, peradventure, these very humane persons would rather boil their live lobsters : Even - the tender mercys of the wicked are cruel.”

The cry or shriek of this animal, in its last sufferings, is say'd to resemble strongly that of a human creature, whose agonys would not be greater, nor, perhaps, different, in the same situation.

The Sheep is not so much “ design'd” for the man, as the man is for the tyger ; this animal being naturally carnivorous, which man is not : but nature and justice, or bumanity, are not, allways, one and the same thing.

brought up in 'à Naughter-house) that of all
trades he could never have been a butcher; and
i question whether ever any body so much as
kil'd a chicken without reluctancy the first time.
Some people are not to be persuadeëd to taste of
any creatures they have dayly seen and been ac
quainted with, while they were alive ;* others
extend their scruple no further than to their own
poultry, and refuse to eat what they fed and took
care of themselves; yet all of them wil feed
heartyly and without remorse on beef, mutton,
and fowls, when they are bought in the market.
In this behaviour, methinks, there appears some-
thing like a consciousness of guilt, it looks as if
they endeavour'd to save themselves from the
imputation of a crime (which they know sticks
fomewhere) by removeing the cause of it as far
as they can from themselves ; and i can discover
in it some strong marks of primitive pity and in-
nocence, which all the arbitrary power of cus-
tom, and the violence of luxury, have not yet
been able to conquer.

“ What i build upon,” he says, shal be told is a folly that wise men are not guilty of: i own it; but while it proceeds from a real passion inhereënt in our nature, it is sufficient to de



* See a beautyful little anecdote to this effect in Berquins Childrens friend,

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