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7. Because there is yet much to be learned, and deep impressions to be made, from the new revelations that are continually coming to us from these ancient and sacred localities. God has kept two copies of his historic records of our race. One was written on parchment and put into the hands of man. It has been watched over with jealous care, strangely preserved, and handed down from generation to generation. The other was written on monumental records, the sculptured tablets of now extinct nations, and buried beneath the crumbling piles and moss-grown mounds of ruined cities. The wasting ravages of war have rolled over it; the foot of the ruthless barbarian has trampled it; the elements in their fury have combined for its destruction. And yet, during the long lapse of ages, his omniscient eye has watched over it, and his almighty hand has guarded it; and lo! in his own appointed time he lifts the vail, and page after page comes up from the disentombed cities of antiquity-from Babylon, and Nineveh, and Egypt, and Syria -and the two books lay their testimony side by side, and both conspire to establish the testimony of God.

None can be too familiar with these things. The present aspects of the countries through which this book will lead the reader, the present condition of the people, the majestic ruins, the time-worn monuments, entombed cities and temples, will all speak with an instructive and impressive voice. They will talk to us of things grave and serious in antiquity; they will teach us important and interesting lessons in religious faith; they will give us visions of things majestic and glorious in promise. Some of these lessons it is the design of this book to record for the benefit of the reader.

These reasons the writer deems a sufficient apology for giving a new book to the public. In preparing it, he has had before him the works of a large number of authors who have preceded him in a similar labor. From these he has been enabled to gather many facts and hints, that have materially aided him in improving and enriching the work. He has not deemed it necessary to burden the pages by continued reference to the works thus consulted. In using them, he finds, in collating different authors, he has only done what others have done be.


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fore him. To one only would he in particular acknowledge his indebtedness-MURRAY'S GUIDE Books. His Handbooks of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine, were his constant companions in his travels, and have been used by him in the preparation of his notes for publication; and he has often been surprised at the fullness, particularity, and accuracy of the information they contain. No visitor in those lands should be without them.

The illustrations found in the work have been selected because they are illustrations. A number of them have been

prepared expressly for the work, and all of them contain accurate views of the places they are designed to represent, as the author can testify from personal observation. They have been inserted, not merely as embellishments to adorn the work, but as helps, to enable the reader to obtain correct ideas of important localities. Where maps and diagrams were necessary to illustrate the text, they have been prepared. These things have added materially to the expense of the work, but will be of great value to the reader.

For the convenience of those who wish to have the work bound in two volumes, it has been divided into two parts—one on Egypt and Sinai, the other on the Holy Land; and the paging and indexing have been made to correspond to this arrangement.

And now the journey has been completed, the laborious task of writing ended, and the work is placed in your hands. The author, in his travels and in his labors, has not been unmindful of his dependance on Him whose favor alone can give success. May His blessing attend the work, and may it prove a source of interest, instruction, and moral improvement, wherever it goes.


Egypt shall be a desolation,
And Edom shall be a desolate wilderness,
For the violence against the children of Judah,
Because they have shed innocent blood in their land."

JOEL, iii. 19.

“O, all-preparing Providence divine!
In thy large book what secrets are enrolled ?
What sundry helps doth thy great power assign,
To prop the course which thou intend'st to hold !"


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On the third of January, 1861, I left the depot at Columbus, Ohio, for a tour in Bible lands. Refreshed by a night's rest among my friends in Cleveland, at ten o'clock the next morning I was again upon the cars, whirling onward toward Buffalo.

Ι A slight fall of snow during the night had carpeted the earth, and festooned the forests, and clothed the hills in a beautiful drapery of white. Upon one side, as we passed, was first the high bluff bank crowned by the city, then the level open country, dotted over with neat farm-houses, while occasionally a thriving village nestled among its forest of shade trees, and lifted its lofty church spires toward heaven. Upon the other hand was the broad expanse of the Erie. The shore was bounded by a heavy lock of ice, reaching a mile or more from the land ; beyond that a blue line of water, then another girdle of ice; while beyond all, the white-capped waves and the fleecy clouds, wearing the peculiar blue and hazy cast of winter, seemed to meet and blend in cold and solemn grandeur. The morning was frosty but bright, invigorating, and beautiful, though all nature was girt with the sullen aspect of winter. The swift-winged cars go thundering on. I sit a stranger in the midst of strangers, buried in the solitude of my own reflections. I had left my home for a long absence and a tedious journey. The perils of the ocean, the hardships and privations of desert routes, dangers from hostile tribes, and exposure in uncongenial climes, like frightful spectres, were staring me in the face. I had just exchanged the parting tokens of affection with my family and the friends that I loved—my church and


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