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ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS

12a

Gen 24 (text and note) read 218.
Gen 1312 read before Abraham'P.
Page 21 line i read 12b before and moved his tent’J.
Gen 23' bracket (these were), for b 1884 read b 182.
Gen 324 removed from before sojourned.'
Ex 46h add cp Lev 142 H.
Ex 810N line 2 for 7176 read 7178.
Ex 1336 for D26b read D28b.
Ex 2228C' for P126 read P131.
Ex 3028 transfer 28 to follow and the altar of incense.'
Lev 1621 for p 45 read p 44.
Lev 202an line 5 for 177 read 178 and add (so that 2a above may be Ph').
Lev 258 margin for 8–18 read 8–17.
Lev 2640 for q 45 read q 44.
Deut 121 dele o' and 64.
Deut 10' margin for lllid read c.
Deut 17° margin for lllig read d.
Deut 229b8 for Num 1732 read 1697.
Dout 252d add Neh 5.

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THE COMPOSITION OF THE HEXATEUCH
Coper

CHAPTER I. CRITICISM AND THE OLD TESTAMENT 1 The Criticism of the Hexateuch part of a wider inquiry

8 The Diatessaron of Tatian. into the literature of Israel

€ The Books of Chronicles a The books of Psalms, Proverbs, Tsaian, Daniel : 3 Degrees of probability in critical results

13 B Application of general methods of literary investi.

a In the field of art

14 gation

B Various grounds for determining literary dates

14 2 Differences in earlier treatment of historical records

4 The Pentateuch a composite work a Asser's Life of Alfred : the Saxon Chronicle

a The course of the inquiry B Early English Laws.

B Analogy with the growth of a cathedral . g Buddhist and Brahmanical sacred literatures

CHAPTER II. THE CLAIM TO CONTEMPORARY AUTHORSHIP 1 Allusions to the record of events or laws

5 Resulting inference . a Ecodus

17

2 Growth of the conception of Mosaic legislation B Numbers

a Indications in prophetic literature . y Deuteronomy

B Allusions in Kings and Chronicles & Joshua

18

g The Synagogue and the Church € References to poeticai collections

CHAPTER III. SIGNS OF POST-MOSAIC DATE 1 Early speculations concerning Moses and Ezra

3 Catholics and Reformers in the sixteenth century. 2 The Spanish Rabbis

CHAPTER IV. Signs OF DIVERSITY OF DOCUMENTS 1 Criticism in the Seventeenth Century

2 The search for a clue a Hobbes

23

a Incongruities of dates B de la Peyrère

24

B Duplicate narratives. q Spinoza

7 Repetitions of Laws . & Simon

3 25

Inconsistencies within the same narrative € Le Clerc

26

CHAPTER V. THE CLUE TO THE DOCUMENTS 1 Astruc's Conjectures

33

B Gen 17 2 Evidence of Ex 62-8

Discovery of a tor®ahoth narrative in Genesis em:

33 3 The Revelations of El Shaddai and the use of the name

ploying the name Elohim Yahweh.

34 a Other links betwoen Ex 63-8 Gen 17 and 359–15

4 Inferences

concerning the contents of this document

34 CHAPTER VI. The COMPOSITION OF GENESIS-NUMBERS 1 Significance of duplicates when the toldhoth sections 2 Application of analytical methods to Ex-Num. are removed

a Continuation of the toledhoth document in the a Discovery of a second narrative in Genesis em:

Priestly Code .

39 ploying the name Elohim

37

B The Yahwist and Elohist is national historians B Resemblances between this narrative and the Yah:

y Deuteronomy wist

38

CHAPTER VII. THE DOCUMENTARY THEORIES 1 Eichhorn and 'the higher criticism'.

42 4 De Wette's Contributions to the Introduction to the old 2 Ngen distinguishes between El and E? in Genesis

43
Testament

45 3 Impossibility of separating Genesis and the middle books 44 a Distinction between the literary and the historical a Geddes ascribes the Pentateuch and Joshua to

problem,
Solomon's reign

44
B Deuteronomy the product of the seventh century

46 B The 'fragment-hypothesis,'J S Vater : 5 The composition of the Pentateuch according to Ewald

47 CHAPTER VIII. THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE PARTITION The different criteria available 48 iii The Argument from Language and Style.

61 i The Argument from Religious Institutions :

49 1 Contrasts of matter and terminology suggest inquiry 61 1 Sacrifice

2 Resulting indications of diversity of source

62 a The pre- Mosaic usage : the persons

a Different terms employed for the same thing . 62 B The place

50

B Differences in grammatical forms and constructions 62 y Classes of sacrifice

y Variations in religious phraseology .

63 2 Representations of the Mosaic Sanctuary

& Is Gen az a translation from a Babylonian docu: 3 The Ten Words and the Ark

ment? 4 The Ministry at the Sanctuary

€ Promises of posterity to the patriarchs 5 The Calendar of Feasts

53

Ś Two lists of the feasts in Moses' last year 6 Arrangements for the relief of the poor

54

ñ Parallel laws for asylum in case of accidental homi7 Manumission of slaves.

55
cide

66 ii The Argument from Religious Ideas

iv The Development Hypothesis

67 1 Conceptions of religious history and the Mosaic age.

1 The literary and the historic chronology of the docu2 Presentations of Divine manifestation

57
ments.

67 To the patriarchs

57 2 Relation of Deuteronomy and the Priestly Codo' B To Moses and Israel .

3 Progress of the modern view since 1833 3 Different aspects of the Divine being.

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CHAPTER IX. THE ORDER OF THE DOCUMENTS
PAGE

PAOB The Antecedents of Deuteronomy

70
B The Priestly dues

77 1 Dependence on JE's narrative

70
y The Calendar of Feasts :
the Jubile:

78 a The Horeb Scenes

70

ii The Testimony of History B The wanderings and the Trans-jordanic conquest : 71 1 Religious usage of Israel after the settlement in Canaan

79 9 No clear proof of D's acquaintance with P

72
a Plurality of sacred places.

79 2 D's legislative scheme excludes the Sinaitic code .

72
B No trace of Levitical institutions

80 a Parallels to Deuteronomic laws . 73 2 The Erection of the Temple

82 B Modifications of laws in Ex 21-23

75
a Continuation of the local sanctuaries

82 7 The principle of the unity of the sanctuary

75
B Indications in JE, Amos and Hosea

83 3 Priority of D compared with the Levitical arrangements 76

7 Isaiah and Micah : reforms ascribed to Hezekiah 83 a The Priesthood.

76

CHAPTER X. DEUTERONOMY 1 Indications connecting Deuteronomy with the seventh 4 Was Josiah's law-book identical with D?.

92 century,

85
a Variety of its constituent elements .

92 2 Parallels with the language of Jeremiah :

87

B Probability that even the Code in 12-26 is a growth 93 3 The first definite recognition of Deuteronomy

91

y Peculiarities of distribution and amalgamation 93 a Tho discovery of a 'law-book'in Josiah's eighteenth 5 The original book of Denteronomy

95 year

91
a Possible limits of Josiah's law-book:

95 B The consequent reformation forinded upon Dentero

B Reasons for placing its composition not long before nomic demands

91

CHAPTER XI. THE ORIGINS OF J 1 General summary of its contents

97
a Rise of stories at local sanctuaries

• 104 2 Modes of historic and religious representation :

B Connexion of J with Judah

105 a Revelation and attributes of Yahweh 5 Diversity of its contents

106 B Motives and conceptions of early prophecy

a The systematization of tribal traditions.

106 9 Interest in the patriarchs, their localities and wor.

B Reduction to writing between 850 and 750 B C. 107 ship 6 J represents a school rather than a single author

108 8 Significance of the Mosaic age

a Additions to the early history of mankind 3 Method and spirit of J's narration

B A secondary story in Abram's life a Sources in oral tradition ; varied characteristics of

9 Hortatory expansions

109 reflection and poetry

8 Extensions in the style of J begotten by the union B Places, names, sacred objects and nsages

103
of J and E

109 9 Large view of human affairs

103
€ Enlargements of brief collections of law:

• 109 4 Place of its composition

104

CHAPTER XII. CHARACTERISTICS AND ORIGINS OF E 1 Comparison with the scope and contents of J

3 Characteristics of narration

• 115 2 Divergences amid general resemblance

4 Ascription of E to Ephraim

116 a View of the progress of Revelation 5 Growth of E

117 B Methods of Divine communication

a General indications of date under the monarchy

117 z The great personalities of the national story 113

B Opposite views of the priority of J or E.

117 8 113

118 The Mosaic institutions

Probable reduction to make iting before 750 B © 114

119 CHAPTER XIII. THE PRIESTLY CODE 1 Its significance as the groundwork of the Pentateuch

B Tho celebration of Booths according to P

138 2 Stages of its history and legislation a View of primeval history compared with J :

Did the Covenant of Non 1990-9 precede' or follow B The patriarchal age

123
the promulgation of the Law?

140 9 Theory of religious progression 124 7 Was Ezra's Law-book complete?

141 & The adoption of Israel by Yahweh to be his people 124 a The Priestly Code contains various smaller colleo€ P's definite literary method

125
tions

141 3 Advanced ritual and hierarchical organization compared

B Its groundwork, Ps :

1-12 with D.

126
7 Successive groups inserted into it

142 a Ezekiel's view of the cultus of regenerated Israel 126 8 The Holiness-legislation, Ph

143 B Future division of the Levite priests into two orders 127 a Characteristics of Lev 17-26 y Other indications that Ezekiel did not know the

B Its composite character

14+ Priestly Law .

128
7 Traces of the Holiness-legislation elsewhere

145 8 Ezekiel's Temple and the Levitical Dwelling: 129

8 Elements of various age

145 e Conceptions of the Ideal Future realized in P 130

€ Parallels with Ezekiel

147 4 Signs of the late date of the Priestly Code

131
Lev 26345 probably later than Ezekiel

149 a Unrecognized in Kings, but employed by Chronicles 131 9 Priestly Teaching, P:

152 B Parallels to the theological ideas of P in Ezekiel 132

a Groups of torah independent of the wanderings 152 y Literary affinities of P with Ezekiel and his suc

B Anterior to the Dwelling and the Aaronic Priesthood 152 133 10 Secondary additions, Ps .

153 8 The argument from proper names

134
a Supplemental narratives and laws :

153 € Possible dependence on cuneiform data

134

B Grounds for recognition in greater freedom of style 155 5 First Traces of the Levitical Law 135 11 Place and Time of the compilation of P

155 a Unacknowledged hy Haggai, Zechariah, or Malachi 135 a Probability that Ph and på were united with Pi B Parallels of phraseology amid divergences of practice 136

before Ezra's mission

155 6 The age of Ezra and Nehemiah .

137
B Post-Ezran additions

156 a The Promulgation of the Law :

137

CHAPTER XIV. UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS 1 Gen 14 : • 157 3 The Song of Moses, Ex 152-18

160 a Belongs neither to J nor P 157 4 The Song of Moses, Deut 321-43

161 B Peculiarities of style pointing to late date 158 a Relation to prophecies of the captivity

161 y Significance of cuneiform evidence.

158
B Parallels of language

162 2 The Blessing of Jacob, Gen 492-27

5 The Blessing of Moses, Deut 332-29

163

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CHAPTER XV. CRITICISM AND ARCHAEOLOGY (contributed by Rev. Prof T K Cheyne DD) PAGE

PAGE 1 Need of more carefully tested Assyriological evidence 164

6 Gen 14

167 2 Narratives of the Creation of the world and man 165 a Controversy and criticism

167 a Babylonian culture in Palestine

165

B The Babylonian Inscriptions
B The narrative in Gen 1-348

165
g The name Chedorlaomer

169 3 The Story of the Deluge

7 The Exodus.

169 4 Periods of Israelitish interest in Babylonian myths 166 8 Modifications of older traditions

170 5 Personal names in P.

CHAPTER XVI. THE UNION OF THE DOCUMENTS 1 The fasion of J and E

171 8 Combination of JED with P a Editorial activity in the patriarchal narratives

171

a The Scribes at Jerusalem. B Traditions and laws of the Mosaic age

• 172
B Illustrations of the conservative method of RP

176 y Employment of JE by D.

173 3 Transpositions and efforts

at harmonizing • 177 2 Incorporation of D in JE.

174

Different process in the compilation of Joshua 198 a Traces of Rd in Gen-Ex

174

€ Amalgamation of JEDP probably completed by B Elements of E preserved in D.

175
400 BC

: 179 g Wide range of time-limit.

175

.

170

• 176

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TABULAR APPENDICES

A. SELECT LISTS OF WORDS AND PHRASES Introductory Note .

183 II. The Deuteronomic School, D. I. The Prophetic Narrators, JE

:

185 III. The Priestly Law and History Book, P. 11-93 594-119 JE 120-237

Pgtel-191 Ph192-220

B. LAWS AND INSTITUTIONS (1-16 Introductory Note

6a-n Clean and Unclean

• 231 | 12a-m The Sanctuary in P. 18-o The Family

• 223
78-8 Sacrifices

• 234 13a-g Conspectus of Codes .
2a-k Persons and Animals
• 224 88-i Sacred Dues

240 14d-1 The Codes compared . 3a-1 Property 225 9a-k Sacred Seasons

243 18a-g Statistics of usage 48-w Judgement and Rule 227 10a-e Sacred Places

247 | 168-b Contents and Index, 5a-k Idolatry and Superstition 229 | lla-q Sacred Persons

250 C. ANALYSIS AND SYNOPSIS OF THE HEXATEUCH Genesis. • 272 Leviticus

277 | Deuteronomy Exodus. 275 | Numbers

277 | Joshua .

255 · 256

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CONTENTS OF VOLUME II GENESIS-DEUTERONOMY.

I-302 Introduction to Joshua . 1 Indications of diversity of authorship

303 3 Supplemental character of Ra's work

313 1 Duplicate accounts of the same events

304
a Deuteronomio additions not all of the same age

313 2 Incompatibilities within the same narrative

304

B They imply the historic and hortatory settings of D 314 2 Continuation of previous documents

304 3 The Conquest of Canann according to JE:

y Phraseological indications

• 314 305 Approximations to the language of P :

314 i Can J and E be distinguished ? 305 5 Character and Place of P.

315 a Signs of the general scope of J

1 Not adopted as the literary groundwork of Joshua

315 B Probability that the J sections are of various dates 306 2 Secondary character of much of its materials 2 Characteristics of E.

308 3 Relation to other documents: priority of JE 3 The union of J and E

a Is P earlier or later than Rd?. 4 The Deuteronomic revision of JE

310

B Indications of RP's revision of Rd 1 Addition of homiletic and other passages

317 9 Supposed signs of Rd on RP

317 2 Expansion of the earlier narratives

311
6 Continuous process of redaction

319 Joshua ,

320

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ABBREVIATIONS

I ABBREVIATED TITLES OF Books OFTEN CITED COT, Schrader's Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament. It has not been thought necessary to supply any complete list DB, Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.

of the modern literature upon the Hexateuch. The references DB4, Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, vol i, 2nd ed.

in the following work will, it is hoped, enable the reader to ICC, International Critical Commentary.

identify the authorities cited without difficulty. In a few cases JQR, Jewish Quarterly Review.

the views of scholars have been mentioned without direct quotaLOT, Driver's Introduction to the Literature of the OT, 6th ed. tion. A short list of the least obvious of these is here appended. NDJ, Dillmann on Num-Deut-Josh in Kurzgef Hdbuch (1886). Baudissin, Die Geschichte des Alttest Priestertums (1889). NKZ, Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift.

Giesebrecht, Jeremia, in the Handkommentar (1894). OTJC, W. Robertson Smith, The Old Testament in the Jewish Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testamentes (1894). Church, and ed.

Kautzsch and Socin, Die Genesis mit äusserer Unterscheidung PSBA, Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology. der Quellenschriften (2nd ed 1891). RUR, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions.

Meisner, Der Dekalog, Teil i (1893). RS, Badde, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel (1890).

Montet (F.), Le Deuteronome et la Question de l'Hexateuque (1891) RV, Revised Version,

Oettli, Deut and Josh in the Kurzgefasster Kommentar (1893). SBOT, Sacred Books of the Old Testament, edited by Prof Paul Strack, Gen-Num in the Kurzge fasster Kommentar (1894). Haapt.

Wildeboer, Die Litteratur des Alten Testaments (German TransZATW, Zeitschrift für Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft.

lation) (1895). ZDMG, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.

be in the

here to the

in voli,

a reference

and Pre

KEY TO THE ANALYSIS
The text is printed consecutively in one or other of two columns divided by a vertical line, JE being on the left and
P on the right. Wherever JE and P are much interwoven (cp Ex 14 Num 13-16) the columns are both of the same
width. Elsewhere the occupied column is widened to save space. Thus it is only the relative position, and not the
width, of a column or section of a column that is significant. See also footnote on D.
Left-hand J
E
JE

J E
ph or
ps

Ps | Right-hand margin

margin abo in the Large roman type on the left is used Large roman type in the centre (or

text point to references for the main thread of J; large italic up to Ex 29 across the whole column)

to refer given here type for supplements by writers of the is used for the main stock or priestly

ences given to parallel or contrasted same school (J' cp Gen 129N); small

groundwork (P); small italics for editorial appropriate passages roman type for harmonizing additions, &c

additions by RP (cp Gen 487)

Word List L in the text by Rjo (cp 1512N) or Rd (cp 19x); smal italics

Small roman type in separate paragraphs points to

Appendix for ditto by RP (cp 778).

denotes longer supplements (PS) up to Ex A, where given here Small roman type in separate paragraphs

29 (cp Gen 34)

three Lists to the Tables denotes longer and later JS supplements

are given,

Large roman type on the left is used of Laws and

for JED, Institutions (cp 1210N).

after Ex 29 for the main stock of in vol i, the Large roman type on the right is

spectively ph and P'; large italic type for suppleused for the main thread of E from covered by

ments by writers of the same school; the reference Gen 15 ; large italics for supplebeing speci.

small italic type for editorial and other additions ments by writers of the same school (E' by RP.

cp 3026N); small roman type for har Small roman and italic types are used in *+ H &c monizing additions, &c by Rje (cp 31108) separate paragraphs for later strata of Pt.

or Rd (cp Josh 33N); small italic type for Large roman type on the right de-
similar additions by RP (cp 350N).

notes material in harmony with PR
Small roman type in separate paragraphs
denotes longer and later ES supplements

but written later (P'); large italic
(cp Num 12).

type is used for supplements of the Large italic type in the centre is used

same school, and small italic type for later

erlitorial additions. for longer harmonizing additions and

Small roman type is used in separate para-
erpansions by R" (cp Gen 2215N).

graphs for supplements of a later school ;
Small roman type in separate paragraphs
in the centre marks longer supplements

small italic type sometimes distinguishing the

latest strata.
by Rd (cp Josh 19); still smaller type distin.
guishes later Rd additions (cp 79); small italics
being kept as above for RP (cp 11200N).
Up to Gen 15 large roman type on the right is used for early and substantial J& supplements to J$.

verses

fied

See below for

Footnotes.
N in the text points to a footnote given below.

u in the text indicates that an alternative marginal rendering of the RV will be found below.

T in the text indicates that the margin of the RV, or a rendering used elsewhere for the same Hebrew word or phrase, has been adopted, and that the rejected rendering will be found below. In all cases notes are given in order under the number

of the verse in which the N N

or
T

occurs. Where more than one note refers to a single verse, the verse number is repeated with a b c affixed.

D The arrangement of the text of Deut is on a similar plan. The main stock (DE) is on the left in an additional central column, later supplements (D%) are on the right, a few passages distinct from De but not clearly later being placed in the centre. Distinctions of type mark minor insertions or alterations.

ABBREVIATIONS (continued)

2 GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS J, the Yahwist document (Introd i 41).

1| introduces a parallel from another context. E, the Elohist document (Introd i 41).

$ means in part, for details see analysis or full text.' JE, the combined document formed from these two sources. (or ..) after a verse numeral eg 24. (or 8..) means and followD, the main Deuteronomic documents (Introd i 41).

ing verse (or verses).' J: E' DS, secondary elements in JE D (Introd i 108 119 92). → indicates the connexion of passages believed to have been P, the Priestly Law and History (Introd i 40).

transposed. Pe, the 'Grundschrift' or groundwork of P (Introd i 141).

mark passages transposed from their context and now Ph, the Holiness-legislation incorporated in P. (Introd i 143, $8). replaced.

Pt, earlier and independent groups of Priestly Teaching in ibo &c after numerals (eg 2a 4b) mark successive portions of corporated in P& (Introd i 152, $ 9).

verses (without reference to the Hebrew punctuation). Ps, secondary extensions of P (Introd i 153, $ 10).

al = alibi.
Cp = compare.

Ct = contrast,
Re, the editorial hands which united and revised J and E. () enclosing a figure after the name of a book show the
R, the editorial hands which united and revised JE and D. number of occurrences in that book, eg Ezek (17), seventeen
RP, the editorial hands which united and revised JED and P. times in Ezekiel.

JE D P before thick figures (as JE27) refer to the documentary H, the Massoretic Hebrew text. word-lists.

G, the Greek text (edited by H B Swete): GAB &c, the codices : T, RV text. M, RV margin. Additions to the words of RVM GL is occasionally employed to denote the Lucian recension are separated by

edited by Lagarde. before or after a passage in the text denotes that its original L, the Latin version of Jerome : 1, the Old Latin. context has not been preserved by the compiler.

C, the Syriac text of the Peshitta. ( enclose words printed in italics by the Revisers.

Sam, the Samaritan Pentateuch. * after references, indicates all occurrences in the Hexateuch. T, the Targum of Onkelos, + all occurrences in the Old Testament,

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