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GENESIS

J

a Is 3411 Jer 4297 6 711 82 e Deut 3211+ d Cp 69 11 14 20 24

26 e Cp 7 9 11 16 24 30 fCp 10 12 18 21 26 31

Р 24 N THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS of the heaven and of the earth a 77* when they were 'created.

b 48 11 "In the beginning God 'created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was "waste and void“; and darkness was upon the face of the 'deep : and the spirit of God komoved upon the face of the waters. 3 And God "said, Let there be light: and there 'was light. 4 And God (saw the light, that it was good : and God odivided the light from the darkness. 5 And God 'called C 53

g Cp 8 10

24 It has long been recognized that the Book of Genesis is primarily based upon a document containing a series of sections introduced by the formula 'These are the generations of ...' cp P77 (Introd chap XIII 1 p 121). To this document Ewald gave the name of the Book of Origins,' and it was also occasionally designated the Grundschrift, the ground-work or foundation-document. Beginning with a survey of the creation of the heavens and the earth, it proceeds to trace the descendants of Adam through Seth to Noah 51... After narrating the Flood, it describes three great groups of nations, under the names Japheth, Ham, and Shem 101.., and then follows a special line from Shem through Arpachshad to Terah. At this point the writer's view concentrates itself on Abraham, from whom are derived Ishmael and Isaac. A summary enumeration of the tribes of Ishmael prepares the way for the division of the posterity of Isaac under the names of Esau and Jacob. The recital of Esau's marriage-alliances with their results finally enables the author to dismiss Edom from view, and limit himself to the children of Israel. At each stage of advance towards the main crisis of the narrative--the revelation of El Shaddai to Moses by the name Yahweh—the historic connexion is effected by the method of genealogical filiation, which does not wholly disappear till the family history of the founder of the priesthood has been related Num 31. The toledhoth formula of Gen 248 is not appropriate to the narrative which follows it in 34b.., for this says nothing about the creation of the heavens or the earth, but deals with the formation of the first man after they were made. On the other hand its form and substance are both congruous with the account of the creation of the universe in 11-2%. In other sections, however, the formula always precedes the matter which it designates. It is probable, therefore, that it originally stood before 11, and was transposed by the editor who combined the two documents, to serve as the link of combination. Bacon (Genesis 97) conjectures that the title originally read These are the generations of the heavens and the earth in the beginning of their creation. il God created,' &c. But the words 'when they were created' may have been added by the compiler, as other similar formulae do not present analogous expressions. Ball (in Haupt's SBOT) reads This is the book of the generations' with here as at 31 : but does not attempt to decide whether this formula originally stood also, or only, at the head of 1.'

11 The historical introduction to the Priestly Code fitly commences with a survey of the origins of the world. The account of the creation of the heavens and the earth with all the multiplicity of their contents is marked by a stately order

and precision partially reflected in the careful descriptions, the detailed enumerations, and the numerous identities of phrase. Each step in the series of creative acts is preceded by a creative utterance 3 6 9 11 14 20 24 26 in which the divine Thought at once announces and executes its purpose. The entire process is distributed into eight stages, which apparently fall into two groups of four, having a certain harmony in their constituent members (1) Light 3-4

(5) The Heavenly bodies 14-18 (2) The Firmament 6-7

(6) Fishes and birds 20-22 (3) The Earth 9-10

(7) Land animals 24-25 (4) Plants 11-12

(8) Man 26–27. It has been often conjectured (cp Dillmann, Genesis i 49-50) that an earlier story presented these two series in clearer sequence, and that they were subsequently adapted to the scheme of the creative week with its six days of work, by throwing the related pairs (3-4) and (7-8) each into a single day. It may be surmised that originally each creative utterance was accompanied by the record of its execution and of the divine approval. The corresponding formulae, however, now appear only seven times 3 7 9 11 16 24 30 and 4 10 12 18 21 25 31. The source of this representation it is difficult to determine. In many other portions of his narrative P seems to be founded on prior materials : is he wholly fresh and independent in his presentation of the creation ? Analogies with the Babylonian tablets have often been pointed out, and some eminent Assyriologists have recognized in Gen i distinct traces of the influence of Babylonian ideas (cp G Smith, Chald Genesis 73 ; Jensen, K'osmol der Babylonier 301-306; Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos 114 ; Sayce, Expos Times vii 206 ff; cp Introd 135). Was that influence exerted direct, or did it pass through other channels on the way? The question belongs rather to a commentary than to analysis, and can only be answered here on grounds of general probability. It will be indicated hereafter that the narrative of the Flood assigned to Js (cp Introd chap XI ba p 108) cannot be derived from the author of the story of Eden and the first pair. Was it, however, an isolated fragment, or was it originally part of a primaeval history, which had its own account of the origin of the world and its inhabitants ? In the latter case may not this narrative (JS) have served in its turn as the antecedent of P? The suggestion was first made by Budde, Urgeschichte 486, and has been widely adopted (cp Holzinger, Gen 23, and Encyclopaedia Biblica art Creation'). See Ex 2011N.

2 M Or, was brooding upon.

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CHAPTER IX. THE ORDER OF THE DOCUMENTS

PAGE

PAOR

The Antecedents of Deuteronomy

70

B The Priestly dnes

77

1 Dependence on JE's narrative

70

2 The Calendar of Feasts : the Jubile:

78

a The Horeb Scenes

70 ii The Testimony of History

79

B The wanderings and the Trans-jordanic conquest. 71 1 Religious usage of Israel after the settlement in Canaan

79

Y No clear proof of D's acquaintance with P

72

a Plurality of sacred places.

79

2 D's legislative scheme excludes the Sinaitic code

72

B No trace of Levitical institutions

80

a Parallels to Deuteronomic laws

73 2 The Erection of the Temple

82

B Modifications of laws in Ex 21-23

75

a Continuation of the local sanctuaries

82

7 The principle of the unity of the sanctuary

75

B Indications in JE, Amos and Hosea

83

3 Priority of D compared with the Levitical arrangements 76 ♡ Isaiah and Micah: reforms ascribed to Hezekiah : 83

a The Priesthood .

76

CHAPTER X. DEUTERONOMY

1 Indications connecting Deuteronomy with the seventh 4 Was Josiah's law-book identical with D?.

92

century

a Variety of its constituent elements .

92

2 Parallels with the language of Jeremiah

87

B Probability that even the Code in 12-26 is a growth 93

3 The first definite recognition of Deuteronomy

9 Peculiarities of distribution and amalgamation 93

a The discovery of a 'law-book’in Josiah's eighteenth 5 The original book of Denteronomy

year

91

a Possible

limits of Josiah's law-book :

B The consequent reformation founded upon Deutero-

B Reasons for placing its composition not long before

nomic demands

91

621

CHAPTER XI. THE ORIGINS OF J

1 General summary of its contents

97

a Rise of stories at local sanctuaries

104

2 Modes of historic and religious representation :

B Connexion of J with Judah

105

a Revelation and attributes of Yahweh

5 Diversity of its contents

106

B Motives and conceptions of early prophecy

99

a The systematization of tribal traditions.

106

♡ Interest in the patriarchs, their localities and wor-

B Reduction to writing between 850 and 750 BC. 107

ship

6 J represents a school rather than a single author

108

8 Significance of the Mosaic age

a Additions to the early history of mankind

3 Method and spirit of J's narration

B A secondary story in Abram's life

a Sources in oral tradition ; varied characteristics of

9 Hortatory expansions

109

reflection and poetry

8 Extensions in the style of J begotten by the union

B Places, names, sacred objects and nsages

• 103

of J and E

109

9 Large view of human affairs

103

€ Enlargements of brief collections of law.

• 109

4 Place of its composition

• 104

CHAPTER XII. CHARACTERISTICS AND ORIGINS OF E

1 Comparison with the scope and contents of J

3 Characteristics of narration

• 115

2 Divergences amid general resemblance

4 Ascription of E to Ephraim

a View of the progress of Revelation

5 Growth of E

117

B Methods of Divine communication

a General indications of date under the monarchy 117

The great personalities of the national story

113

B Opposite views of the priority of J or E.

117

The patriarchal cultus

113

Probable reduction to writing before 750 BC

118

€ The Mosaic institutions

114

8 Elements of various date

• 119

CHAPTER XIII. THE PRIESTLY CODE

1 Its significance as the groundwork of the Pentateuch

B The celebration of Booths according to P

2 Stages of its history and legislation.

Was Ezra's Law-book limited to P?

138

a View of primeval

history compared with'J

Did the Covenant of Neh 1030-39 precede or follow

B The patriarchal age

123

the promulgation of the Law?

140

y Theory of religious progression

124 7 Was Ezra's Law-book complete?

141

8 The adoption of Israel by Yahweh to be his people 124 a The Priestly Code contains various smaller collec-

€ P's definite literary method

125

tions

141

3 Advanced ritual and hierarchical organization compared

B Its groundwork, P8 :

112

with D.

126

7 Successive groups inserted into it

142

a Ezekiel's view of the cultus of regenerated Israel 126 8 The Holiness-legislation, Ph

143

B Future division of the Levite priests into two orders 127 a Characteristics of Lev 17-26

143

7 Other indications that Ezekiel did not know the

B Its composite character

14+

Priestly Law .

128

7 Traces of the Holiness-legislation elsewhere

145

8 Ezekiel's Temple and the Levitical Dwelling :

129

Elements of various age

145

€ Conceptions of the Ideal Future realized in P 130

€ Parallels with Ezekiel

147

4 Signs of the late date of the Priestly Code

131

$ Lev 269-45 probably later than Ezekiel

149

a Unrecognized in Kings, but employed by Chronicles 131 9 Priestly Teaching, P!

152

B Parallels to the theological ideas of P in Ezekiel 132

a Groups of torah independent of the wanderings 152

7 Literary affinities of P with Ezekiel and his suc-

B Anterior to the Dwelling and the Aaronic Priesthood 152

133 10 Secondary additions, Ps .

153

& The argument from proper names

134

a Supplemental narratives and laws :

153

€ Possible dependence on cuneiform data

134

B Grounds for recognition in greater freedom of style 155

5 First Traces of the Levitical Law

135 11 Place and Time of the compilation of P

155

a Unacknowledged by Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

135

a Probability that Ph and pi were united with Pi

B Parallels of phraseology amid divergences of practice 136

before Ezra's mission

155

6 The age of Ezra and Nehemiah .

137

B Post-Ezran additions

156

a The Promulgation of the Law :

137

CHAPTER XIV. UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS

157 3 The Song of Moses, Ex 152–18

a Belongs neither to J nor P

157 The Song of Moses,

321-43

161

B Peculiarities of style pointing to late date

158

a Relation to prophecies of the captivity

q Significance of cuneiform evidence.

158

B Parallels of language

162

2 The Blessing of Jacob, Gen 492-27

159 5 The Blessing of Moses, Deut 332–29 :

163

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J

1612 cp Ex 226

a Ct Deut 419 178

P
herb for 'meat: and it was so. 31 And God 'saw every thing that he had
made, and, 'behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was
morning, the sixth day.

21 And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2 And on the seventh day God 'finished his "work which he had made ; and a 177
he "rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

3 And b 1376 God blessed the seventh day, and “hallowed it: because that in it he "rested from all his work which God had created and made.

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24b *In the day that "Yahweh *God 'made earth and heaven. Js d 2125 Job 3047+ 5 And no "plant of the field was 'yet in the earth, and no herb of the field

had 'yet sprung up: for Yahweh God had not caused it to Srain upon the

earth, and there was not a man to 'till the ground' ; 6 but there went up Job 3627+

a 'mist from the earth, and "watered the whole face of the ground. g 1.19 H* 7 And Yahweh God 'formed man of the "dust of the ground, and 'breathed h 319 23 1827

into his nostrils the 'breath of life'; and man became a living soul.

8 And Yahweh God "planted a 'garden Keastward, in Eden ; and there he 1920 2233 Num 'put the man whom he had 'formed. 9 And out of the ground made ! 318

Yahweh God to 'grow every tree that is "pleasant to the sight, and good
for food; the "tree of life also in the midst of the igarden, and the tree of
the knowledge of "good and evil.

10 NAnd a river went out of Eden to "water the 'garden ; and from * 139 14 2523 cp thence it was "parted, and became four heads. 11 The name of the first

is Pishon: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where
there is gold;

12 and the gold of that land is good : there is bdellium
and the "onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon:

į 37 k 27

193 m 152

246

n 165

103 H

I

verse.

24 The story of the generations of the heaven and of the origin of the race, and traced the connexion between the first earth' is followed by a second narrative which cannot be Man and the ancestors of the people of Israel. Cp Introd XI. ascribed to the same source, and is marked by striking dif 4b M H Jehovah, as in other places where LORD is put in ferences both in substance and in style. The character of its capitals.—See vol i preface. opening is somewhat obscured by grammatical peculiarities 40 The juxtaposition of these two names, Yahweh and God which an English version cannot exactly reproduce. In 10 the (Elohim), is very rare in the Old Testament. In the Hexateuch, making of earth and heaven (this order occurs only in Ps 14813) after Gen 2-3 where it appears twenty times, it occurs only in is assumed without further description; the condition of an Ex 930 : elsewhere it is found in 2 Sam 722 25 Chron 1716 earth without vegetation or man is indicated in a series of 2 Chron 641 Ps 848 11 Jonah 48+. The combination, begun in dependent clauses 5., constituting really a long parenthesis 2+b, ceases at 323, and in 41 Yahweh' is read alone, though which might be rendered when no plant ...,' and the writer ( employs 'the Lord God' down to 821 and even in 91. It is passes on to the first main fact 7, the formation of a man out commonly supposed to be due to the compiler, who desired of the dust of the ground. The beginning of the narrative has thus to show that the “Yahweh' of the second story was apparently, therefore, been removed by the compiler in favour identical with the · Elohîm' of the first (cp Dillmann, Genesis of the tolędhoth section of P, and at the junction some com i 97). Klostermann has suggested that it was an instruction to pression may have taken place to prevent needless repetition. the reader, when 11-324 was regarded as one section, to pronounce In what follows, accordingly, there is no analysis of the parts the same divine name (Elohim) throughout, cp der Pentateuch 37. of the universe, nor any determination of their several functions, 9 Some difficulty attaches to the mention of two trees in this and the order of production on the earth is quite different.

In 33 the divine prohibition appears limited to one tree, Whereas in 126.. the creation of man, male and female together, described as the tree which is in the midst of the garden.' marks the climax of the series of divine acts, a single man From the sequel (cp 217) it is plain that the words really is formed in 27 before either trees or animals : none of the designate the 'tree of the knowledge of good and evil,' and not beasts proves a suitable mate for him; and finally a woman (as in 9) the tree of life. The permission in 32. (as in 216) really is 'built: 22 out of one of his ribs 18-25. To these diversities of extends to the tree of life, whereas in 322 the danger that its material fact correspond other varieties both in thought and fruit also may be eaten is only averted by the expulsion of the phrase. The story is distinguished by the entry of a new first pair from the garden. Budde, accordingly, has condivine name, Yahweh (on the combination • Yahweh Elohîm,' jectured that the original Eden-story contained but one tree; see below). No attempt is made to adapt the creative process a later hand incorporated the second from another source; and to a week of six days' labour followed by a seventh day of rest. he thus accounts for the somewhat awkward order of 29b. This The recurring formulae defining the divisions of the divine leads also to the suggestion that in 17 the tree was originally acts, and recording the divine inspection and approval, are all distinguished as 'the tree that is in the midst of the garden.' absent. Fresh terms are employed to describe the modes of See further on 322. production: Yahweh makes earth and heaven 4b, forms a man 7. 10 It was surmised by Ewald that the Four Rivers 10-14 had with beast and bird 19, breathes into the man's nostrils 7, plants no place in the ancient conception of Eden. At what time, & garden, takes the man, and puts him into it 15 (cp the and from what source, this passage was introduced into the * building of the woman 21., and ct the creation of male and text, it is not possible to determine. But it does not contribute female in God's image 127). These divergences can only be to the development of the story: the account of the divine explained by the assumption that a new document is here action in 9 15 is somewhat suddenly interrupted to give it room: introduced. The assumption is justified by the narratives the geographical and antiquarian details which it contains have which follow, for corresponding groups of differences may be no connexion with anything else in the narrative : and it may noted through the whole series of stories of the early history be regarded with great probability as a secondary addition, of mankind. Each document, J and P, had its account of the 12 M Or, beryl.

abc in the

to refer.

here to the

in vol i.

A, where three Lists

KEY TO THE

TO THE ANALYSIS The text is printed consecutively in one or other of two columns divided by a vertical line, JE being on the left and P on the right. Wherever JE and P are much interwoven (cp Ex 14 Num 13-16) the columns are both of the same width. Elsewhere the occupied column is widened to save space. Thus it is only the relative position, and not the width, of a column or section of a column that is significant. See also footnote on D. Left-hand J E

JE
JE Ph ort

ps

P | Right-hand margin

margin a b c in the

ge roman type on the left is used Large roman type in the centre (or text points for the main thread of J; large italic

text point

up to Ex 29 across the whole column) given here type for supplements by writers of the is used for the main stock or priestly

ences given or contrasted same school (J' cp Gen 129N); small groundwork (P*); small italics for editorial appropriate passages roman type for harmonizing additions, &c

additions by RP (cp Gen 487)

Word List I in the text by Rjo (cp 1512N) or Rd (cp 19x); small italics

Small roman type in separate paragraphs Appendix a reference for ditto by RP (cp 778).

denotes longer supplements (PS) up to Ex given here Small roman type in separate paragraphs

29 (cp Gen 34)

are given, to the Tables denotes longer and later Js supplements of Laws and (cp 12108).

Large roman type on the left is used for JE, D, Institutions

after Ex 29 for the main stock of

and Prein vol i, the Large roman type on the right is

spectively ph and P'; large italic type for suppleused for the main thread of E from covered by

ments by writers of the same school ; the reference Gen 15 €; large italics for supplebeing speci.

small italic type for editorial and other additions fied

ments by writers of the same school (E* by RP.

cp 30268); small roman type for har Small roman and italic types are used in *+ H &c monizing additions, &c by Rje (cp 31108) separate paragraphs for later strata of Pt.

or Rd (cp Josh 33N); small italic type for Large roman type on the right de-
similar additions by RP (cp 355N).

notes material in harmony with Po
Small roman type in separate paragraphs

but written later (P'); large italic
denotes longer and later E$ supplements
(cp Num 12).

type is used for supplements of the
Large italic type in the centre is used

same school, and small italic type for later

erlitorial additions. for longer harmonizing additions and

Small roman type is used in separate paraexpansions by Ro (cp Gen 2216).

graphs for supplements of a later school ; Small roman type in separate paragraphs

small italic type sometimes distinguishing the
in the centre marks longer supplements

latest strata.
by Rd (cp Josh 19); still smaller type distin.
guishes later Rd additions (cp 7N); small italics
being kept as above for RP (cp 11200N).
Up to Gen 15 large roman type on the right is used for early and substantial JS supplements to Je.

Verses

See below for

T

occurs.

Footnotes.
N in the text points to a footnote given below.

M in the text indicates that an alternative marginal rendering of the RV will be found below.

T in the text indicates that the margin of the RV, or a rendering used elsewhere for the same Hebrew word or phrase, has been adopted, and that the rejected rendering will be found below. In all cases notes are given in order under the number

of the verse in which the N M

or

Where more than one note refers to a single verse, the verse number is repeated with a b c affixed.

D The arrangement of the text of Deut is on a similar plan. The main stock (DF) is on the left in an additional central column, later supplements (Ds) are on the right, a few passages distinct from Dk but not clearly later being placed in the centre. Distinctions of type mark minor insertions or alterations.

ABBREVIATIONS (continued)

2 GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS J, the Yahwist document (Introd i 41).

|| introduces a parallel from another context. E, the Elohist document (Introd i 41).

S means in part, for details see analysis or full text.' JE, the combined document formed from these two sources. · (or ..) after a verse numeral eg 24. (or 8..) means and follow. D, the main Deuteronomic documents (Introd i 41).

ing verse (or verses).' JS E: D*, secondary elements in JE D (Introd i 108 119 92). → indicates the connexion of passages believed to have been P, the Priestly Law and History (Introd i 40).

transposed. Pe, the 'Grundschrift' or groundwork of P (Introd i 141).

mark passages transposed from their context and now ph, the Holiness-legislation incorporated in P (Introd i 143, $8). replaced

Pt, earlier and independent groups of Priestly Teaching in abc &c after numerals (eg 2a 4b) mark successive portions of corporated in P& (Introd i 152, S 9).

verses (without reference to the Hebrew punctuation). Ps, secondary extensions of Ps (Introd i 153, $ 10).

al = alibi.
Cp = compare.

Ct = contrast, Rje, the editorial hands which united and revised J and E.

() enclosing a fignre after the name of a book show the R4, the editorial hands which united and revised JE and D. number of occurrences in that book, eg Ezek (17), seventeen RP, the editorial hands which united and revised JED and P. times in Ezekiel.

JE D P before thick figures (as JE27) refer to the documentary H, the Massoretic Hebrew text, word-lists.

&, the Greek text (edited by H B Swete): (Gae &c, the codices : T, RV text. M, RV margin. Additions to the words of RVM Gl is occasionally employed to denote the Lucian recension are separated by

edited by Lagarde. ... before or after a passage in the text denotes that its original L, the Latin version of Jerome : 1, the Old Latin. context has not been preserved by the compiler.

C, the Syriac text of the Peshitta. ( enclose words printed in italics by the Revisers.

Sam, the Samaritan Pentateuch. after references, indicates all occurrences in the Hexateuch, I, the Targum of Onkelos, + all occurrences in the Old Testament,

GENESIS

J

a Is 3411 Jer 4297 b 711 82 c Deut 3211+ d Cp 6 9 11 14 20 24

26 e Cp 7 9 11 15 24 30 f Cp 10 12 18 21 25 31

P 24 NTHESE ARE THE GENERATIONS of the heaven and of the earth a 774 when they were created.

b 48 11 "In the beginning God 'created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was "waste and void“; and darkness was upon the face of the "deep: and the spirit of God "moved upon the face of the waters. 3 And God 'said, Let there be light: and there 'was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good : and God divided the light from the darkness. 5 And God 'called C 53

g Cp 8 10

24 It has long been recognized that the Book of Genesis is primarily based upon a document containing a series of sections introduced by the formula . These are the generations of ...' cp 77 (Introd chap XIII 1 p 121). To this document Ewald gave the name of the Book of Origins,' and it was also occasionally designated the Grundschrift, the ground-work or foundation-document. Beginning with a survey of the creation of the heavens and the earth, it proceeds to trace the descendants of Adam through Seth to Noah 51... After narrating the Flood, it describes three great groups of nations, under the names Japheth, Ham, and Shem 101.., and then follows a special line from Shem through Arpachshad to Terah. At this point the writer's view concentrates itself on Abraham, from whom are derived Ishmael and Isaac. A summary enumeration of the tribes of Ishmael prepares the way for the division of the posterity of Isaac under the names of Esau and Jacob. The recital of Esau's marriage-alliances with their results finally enables the author to dismiss Edom from view, and limit himself to the children of Israel. At each stage of advance towards the main crisis of the narrative--the revelation of El Shaddai to Moses by the name Yahweh-the historic connexion is effected by the method of genealogical filiation, which does not wholly disappear till the family history of the founder of the priesthood has been related Num 31. The tol®dhoth formula of Gen 244 is not appropriate to the narrative which follows it in 24b.., for this says nothing about the creation of the heavens or the earth, but deals with the formation of the first man after they were made. On the other hand its form and substance are both congruous with the account of the creation of the universe in 11-23. In other sections, however, the formula always precedes the matter which it designates. It is probable, therefore, that it originally stood before 11, and was transposed by the editor who combined the two documents, to serve as the link of combination. Bacon (Genesis 97) conjectures that the title originally read "These are the generations of the heavens and the earth in the beginning of their creation. il God created,' &c. But the words 'when they were created may have been added by the compiler, as other similar formulae do not present analogous expressions. Ball (in Haupt's SBOT) reads This is the book of the generations' with G here as at 31 : but does not attempt to decide 'whether this formula originally stood also, or only, at the head of 1.'

11 The historical introduction to the Priestly Code fitly commences with a survey of the origins of the world. The account of the creation of the heavens and the earth with all the multiplicity of their contents is marked by a stately order

and precision partially reflected in the careful descriptions, the detailed enumerations, and the numerous identities of phrase. Each step in the series of creative acts is preceded by a creative utterance 3 6 9 11 14 20 24 26 in which the divine Thought at once announces and executes its purpose. The entire process is distributed into eight stages, which apparently fall into two groups of four, having a certain harmony in their constituent members (1) Light 3-4

(5) The Heavenly bodies 14-18 (2) The Firmament 6-7

(6) Fishes and birds 20-22 (3) The Earth 9-10

(7) Land animals 24-25 (4) Plants 11-12

(8) Man 26–27 It has been often conjectured (cp Dillmann, Genesis i 49-50) that an earlier story presented these two series in clearer sequence, and that they were subsequently adapted to the scheme of the creative week with its six days of work, by throwing the related pairs (3-4) and (7-8) each into a single day. It may be surmised that originally each creative utterance was accompanied by the record of its execution and of the divine approval. The corresponding formulae, however, now appear only seven times 7 9 11 15 24 30 and 4 10 12 18 21 25 31. The source of this representation it is difficult to determine. In many other portions of his narrative P seems to be founded on prior materials : is he wholly fresh and independent in his presentation of the creation? Analogies with the Babylonian tablets have often been pointed out, and some eminent Assyriologists have recognized in Gen 1 distinct traces of the influence of Babylonian ideas (cp G Smith, Chald Genesis 73 ; Jensen, K'osmol der Babylonier 301-306; Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos 114 ; Sayce, Expos Times vii 200 ff; cp Introd 135). Was that influence exerted direct, or did it pass through other channels on the way? The question belongs rather to a commentary than to analysis, and can only be answered here on grounds of general probability. It will be indicated hereafter that the narrative of the Flood assigned to Js (cp Introd chap XI ba p 108) cannot be derived from the author of the story of Eden and the first pair. Was it, however, an isolated fragment, or was it originally part of a primaeval history, which had its own account of the origin of the world and its inhabitants ? In the latter case may not this narrative (JS) have served in its turn as the antecedent of P? The suggestion was first made by Budde, Urgeschichte 486, and has been widely adopted (cp Holzinger, Gen 23, and Encyclopaedia Biblica art Creation'). See Ex 2011N. 2 M Or, was brooding upon.

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