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Man in the Den of Lions..... Page 743 Statue of Discobolur.. .Page 819 Syrian Carrier-dove........ .Page 877 Roman Denarii..... 7-14 Ancient Egyptian Dinner-dish. S20 Pyx in form of Dove..
STT Zodiac of Denderah. 744 Modern Oriental Dishes.. 820 Modern Persian Dove-cots.
879 Ruins of Denderah.. 7.45 Ancient Assyrian Dish.. $20 Star of Bethlehem
SSJ Map of Denmark 746 Syrian Turk's Divan.. 825 Gold Daric...
SS! Dancing Dervishe.. 751 Priest of the Christian Doctrine.. 647/Athenian Drachma
S8+ Coin of Tigranes 779 Wild Persian Dog. 852 Oriental Water-carrier.
84 Ancient Diadems 779 Ancient Egyptian Dogs 853 An Egyptian..
SSI Portable Sun-dials 780 Ancient Assyrian lluuting-dog. S53 A Bedouin ...
SS9 Dixl of Ahaz 781 Eastern Street-dogs. 893 Egyptian of the upper Class
SS Face of Bir: Nimroud. 751 Doininican Monk S59 Egyptian of the lower Class
90 Indian Sun-dials. 71 Dominican Nun...
859 Egyptian Woman. Medals of Diana 7S2 Ancient Egyptian Doors. 866 Woman of Upper Egypt.
SO Coin with Diana's Temple... 783 Ancient Egyptian Door-fixtures.... 566 Camel of the lauran...
S94 Image of Diana... 753 Modern Oriental Street-doore. 866 Saddling a Dromedary.
893 Coin of Ephesus and Smyrna. 784 Oriental Door in Interior Court..... 567 Ancient Assyrians pursuing an Arab Roman Didrachm.. 791 Common Oriental Door.. 867 on a Dromedary...
S95 Ancient Egyptian Dinner-party. 803 Modern Jewish Mezuzah..
86S Assyrians loading a Camel
25 Modern Oriental State Dinner 803 Eastern Door with Inscription... SOS Specimen of Codex Dublinensis, . ... 905 Coin of Dioclesian
805 Arab Women Grinding Grain.. $76 Model of ancient Egyptian House... 923 Coin with Dioseuri. 812 Rock-dove 877 Modern Persian Mansion..
Cab (-2, kab, a hollow vessel; Sept. váßoc), a meas- of these, orally transmitted along with them, and not ure for things dry, mentioned in 2 Kings vi, 25. The generally known to the people, but containing a deeprabbins make it the sixth part of a seah (q. v.) or sa
er or more thoroughly initiated style of instruction. tren, and the eighteenth part of an ephah. "This would It thus came ultimately to designate a particular theobe nearly tro quarts English measure. See MEASURE. logico-philosophical system, that arose and established
itself in the Losom of Judaism, yet in a measure indeCábala, the title of the celebrated system of relig- pendent of, or rather supplementary to it. ious philosophy, or more properly theosophy, which II. Original Documents.-Instruction in Judaism behas played so important a part in the theological and ing principally verbal and founded on memory, its exegetical literature of both Jews and Christians ever phases of development could necessarily leave but litsince the Middle Ages. See Philosophy. The fol- tle mark on history; and as such a philosophy would mwing account of it is partly compiled from Herzog's thus naturally, in process of time, become a mystery, Real- Enryklopädie.
at least in the view of posterity, the origin and prog1. The Name.—KABBALA (from the Heb. , ress of the Cabala are yet largely matters of conjecture, Kabbalah', the received), properly denotes reception, and it is even a subject of scientific controversy wheththen a doctrine received by oral tradition. The term is er in its speculative form it can be distinctly tracıd thos in itself nearly equivalent to “transmission,” earlier than the Middle Ages, although its leading like the Latin traditio = Massora, for which last, in- principles appear to have been derived from ancient deed, the Talmud makes it interchangeable in the documents, the nature of which is still very imperfect. statement, “Moses received (2p) the Law on Mount ly understood, such as the so-called revelations of Sinai, and transmitted (907) it to Joshua.” The dif- The Talmud, indeed (both in the Mishna and Gemara
Adam, Abraham, Moses, Ezra, etc. See APOCRYPHA. férence between it, however, and the word optom of the tract Chagiga, passim), makes mention of a doc(from 10p, to deliver) is, that the former expresses the trine imparted only to a few carefully selected persons, art of receiring, wbile the latter denotes the act of gir- and even applies to it certain fanciful names (drawn ing over, surrens'ering, transmitting. The Cabala is also from the phraseology of Gen. i, 1, and Ezek. i, 1), sigcalled by some nonos m?n, secret wisdom, because nificant respectively of a speculative cosmology and a it pretends to be a very ancient and secret tradition, speculative theology; but it is uncertain whether these and ;'-, grace, from the initials of these two words.
designate definite treatises, or, if so, whether these have The term Kalbrlah is employed in the Jewish writ- The only works which can with any propriety claim to
in any identifiable form descended to modern times. ings to denote several traditional doctrines; as, for embody these earliest views are the following two, that example, that which constituted the creed of the patri- became the acknowledged texts of the Cabala in the latarchal age before the giving of the law; that unwrit- ter part of the Middle Ages ; a third cabalistic treatise ten ritual interpretation which the Jews believe was revealed by God to Moses on the mount, and which (called the mana po, Sepher Bachir, or Chr ice Book), was at length committed to writing and formed the which is found in an edition of Amet. 1651, and attribMishna. Besides being applied to these and other uted to a rabbi, Nechoniah Ben-Hakana, of the first similar traditions, it has also been used in, compara- century, has long ago been generally acknowledged to tively speaking, modern times, to denote a singular be fictitious, although a cabalistic work of the same mystic mode of interpreting the Old Testament, title is mentioned as early as the fourteenth century. We are ruminded by this indefinite title that among
The first of these is the Book of Creation (HDD the Jews, as throughout the greater part of the East, -773?, Spher Yetsirah, often reprinted, as ed. Steph. haman knowledge, whether historical or scientific, Rittangel, Amst. 1642, with a Latin translation and rested principally on a sort of succession, and the best commentary; and the ed. of J. F. van Meyer, with a claim for its reception was an unbroken chain of tra- German translation and commentary, Leipz. 1830, 4to), dition ary evidence. Hence the care with which Juda- ascribed to the renowned rabbi Akiba (A.D. 120). It isin established the rezular consecution of the sacred is a rather short treatise, in oracular sentences, the custodians of truth, from Moses through Joshua and language of which, more obscure in import than in the so-called greater prophets, thence through Ezra : form, does not resemble the Hebrew of the Mishna. and "the Great Synagogue" to the teachers of later As a book of the same title appears to be already mentimes, snbdividing at length into the various schools tioned in the Gerrara, where wonderful power is asor periode of particular rabbis and their hereditary ad- cribed to it, and as R. Saadias is said to have comherents. While, therefore, the truth was gradually mented upon it as early as the tenth century, it is exbibited in the writings of the Law, the Prophets, and certain that we can ascend to a considerable antiquity the Talmud, the Cabala indicates the verbal exposition in tracing its authority. See JEZIRAH.
The other and more important cabalistic text is the eternity, and which became a reality by a mere act, celebruted Book of Light(977977 DO, Sepherhaz-Zohur, contained the nine other intelligences or Sephiroth. from Dan. xii, 3), first printed it Creniona and Man- Great stress is laid upon the fact that the first Sephitua in 1560, and since, often reprinted, as at Sulzbach rah was not created, but was simply in emanation in 1684, fol., with various additions. Tradition as- (2x); and the difference between creation and cribes this work to a contemporary of R. Akita, name- emanation is thus defined, that in the former a dimily, R. Simeon Ben Jochii, a teacher much praised in nution of strength takes place, while in the latter this the Talmud for his great wisdom and legal knowledge, is not the case. From the first Sephirah emanated the although nothing is there said directly of his writings. second, from the second the third, from the third the Incredulous criticism considers it as a production of fourth, and so on, one proceeding from the other, till the thirteenth century, the time of its first appearance the number ten. These ten Sephiroth form mons in the history of literature, and ascribes it to a Spanish themselves, and with the En-Soph, a strict unity, and Jew, Moses of Leon. It appears, however, to be older simply represent different aspects of one and the same than this, having probably originally appeared piece- Being, just as the fi.me and sparks which proceed meal in the East at intervals, the whole being com- from the tire, and which appear different things to the pleted in its present form about the eighth century. eye, form only different manifestitions of the same It includes certain special tracts or treatises, in which fire. Differing thus from each other simply as differthe author seems especially to develop his own sentient colors of the same light, all the ten emanations ments, and which form, so to speak, the kernel of the alike partake of the En-smph. They are boundless, science sought to be imparter. Three of these are and yet constitute the first tinite things; $o that they designated by particular names (The Book of Confidence, are both infinite and finite. They are infinite and and the Greater anil Less Collections); the popular dis- perfect, like the En-Soph, when he imparts bis fulness tinction made by the Jews, however, between a great to them, and finite and imperfect when that fulness is and a smill Zohar somatimes refers to the varying ful- withdrawn from them. The tinite side of the emananess of the clitions merely. See ZOHAR.
tion of the Sephiro'h is absolutely necessary, f r thereIII. Funilamental Doctrinas.—These are somewhat by the incomprehensible En-Soph makes lis existence differently expounded in the above-named books (to known to the human intellect, which can only grasp the separate articles on which the reader is therefore that which has measur', limit, and relation. From referred for full particulars), and most at large in the their finite side the Sphiroth may even be called bodilatter. The following, however, is a summary of the ly, and this renders it possil.le for the En-Sop h, who is cabalistic views as expressed in the general writings immanent in them, to assume a bodily form. of later authors of that school:
3. Forms of this Development. The ten Sephiroth, 1. Nature of the Deity.-God is above everything, every one of which has its own name, are divided into even above being and thinking. It cannot, therefore, three groups of three Sophiroth each, respectively opbe said of him that he has either a will, intention, de-erating upon the three worlds, viz, the world of intelsire, thought, language, or action, since these proper- lect (3=2.7 ppi), the world of souls (ona "), ties, which adorn man, have limits, whereas God is in and the world of matter (Open Dbs). Î. The first every way boundless, because he is perfect. Owing to this boundlessness of his nature, which necessarily group operates upon the intellectual world, and conimplies absolute unity and immutability, and that sists of S phiroth 1, denominated 77?, or 3? 0:17, there is nothing without him, i. c. that the tù tàv is in the crown, or the inscrutuble height ; 2, called ??, him, he is called En-Sopul = without end, boundless, and the creative wisdom ; and 3, called 7, the conceive can neither be comprehended by the intellect nor de- ing intellect. The result of the combination of the latscribed with words, for there is nothing which can ter two (as " father” and “mother") is likewise repregrasp and depict him to us. In this incomprehensi. bility or boundlessness, God, or the En-Soph (5:07"8), universe of mind, the effect of túyoç. II. The second
sented as , or kn nel dge, i. e, concrete thought, the is in a certain sense not existent (); since, as far
group exercises its power upon the moral world, and as our mind is concerned, that which is incomprehensi- consists of S-phiroh 4, called ton, intinite grace (also ble does not exist. Hence, without making himself comprehensible, his existence could never have been 7779, greatness); 5, called ;17, or 777s, divine known. He had, therefore, to become active and cre- justice, or judicial power; and 6, which is called ative in order that his existence might become percep-nh, beauty, and is the connecting link between tible.
the opposite Sephiroth 4 and 5. III. The third group 2. Development of the Deity.- But since, on the one exercises its power upon the material world, and conhand, the will to create, which implies limit, and the sists of Sephiroth 7, called 13:, firm.ness ; 8, called 7:07, circumscribed and imperfect nature of this world, pre- splendour; and 9, which is called 710", the primary clude the idea of taking it as the direct creation of him who can have no will, nor produce anything but what found itin, and is the connecting link between the is like himself, boundless and perfect; and since, on
two opposite Sephiroth, 7 and 8. Sephirah 10 is called the other hand, the beautiful design and order dis- , hingdom, and denotes Providence or the replayed in the world, which plainly indicate an intelli- vealed Deity (no, Shekinah) which dwells in the gent and active will, forbid us to regard it as the off- midst of the Jewish people, goes with them and prospring of chance, the En-Soph must be viewed as the tects them in all their wanderings and captivities. Creator of the world in an indirect minner, through the The first triad is placed alove, and the second and medium of ten “ Sephiroth" or intelligenres, which em- third triads, with the unit, are put below, in such a anated from the En-Soph. The etyniology and exact manner that the four Sephiroth called croun, beauty, meaning of the word are obscure. It is the plur. found iti in, and kingdon, form a central perpendicular nindo, sephiroth', of 177 "Do, which R. Asariel, the line denominated the middle pillar (725). first Cabalist, derives from po, saphar', to number; This division yields three different forms in which the while later Cabalists derive it from 7-Do, sappir', the ten Sephiroth are represented by the Cabalists, and sapphire, from the word * Don, “ declare," in Psa. which we suljoin in order to make the description more
intelligille. The fir:t represents an inverted tree, xix, 1, or even from the Greek ooainai, spheres.
From his infinite fulness of light the Ein-Soph sent called 072, the tree of life, while the second and forth at first one spiritual substance or intelligence; third are human figures, called ;1972 -7X, the prithis intelligence, which existed in the Eid-Soph from all/ meral mun. Yet, notwithstanding the different ap
the pious have sometimes to endure here below are simply designed to purify their souls. Hence God's justice is not to be impugned when the righteous are afflicted and the wicked prosper. This doctrine of the transmigration of souls is supported by an appeal to the injunction in the Bible, that a man must marry the widow of his brother if he died without issue, inasmuch as by this is designed, say the cabalists, that the soul of tbe departed one might be born again, and finish its earthly course. Very few new souls enter into the world, because many of the old souls which have already inhabited bodies have to re-enter those who are born, in consequence of their having polluted themselves in their previous bodily existence. This retards
the great redemption of Israel, which cannot take place 10
till all the pre-existent souls have been born upon
earth, because the soul of the Messiah, which, like all Cabalistic Di:grams of the “Sephiroth."
other souls, has its pre-existence in the world of the pearance of these three forms, the Sephiroth are so ar- spirits of the Sephiroth, is to be the last born one at the ranged i hat the three triads and the middle pillar are end of days, which is supported by an appeal to the to be distinguished in each one of them.
Talmud (Yebumoth, 63, a). Then the great jubilee 4. Pro esses of the Drine Development. These Sephi- year will commence, when the whole pleroma of souls rah, or God through them, created the lower and vis- (niet n31x), cleansed and purified, and released i'yle world, of which everything has its prototype in from earth, shall ascend, in glorious company, into the upper world. “The whole world is like a gigan- heaven. See METEM PSYCHOSIS. tic tree full of branches and leaves, the root of which is the spiritual world of the S ph roth : or it is like a
IV. Origin, Date, Design, and Relations of the Cabala. firmly united chain, the last link of which is attached
-The rise of Cabalism is involved in great obscurity. to the upper world; or like an immense sea, which is The Jews ascribe it to Adam, or to Abraham, or to being constantly filled by a spring everlastingly gush-Moses, or to Ezra, the last being apparently counteing forth its streams." "The Sephiroth, through the di- nanced by 2 Esdr. xiv, 20-48. The opinions of Chrisvine power immanent in them, uphold the world which tian writers are as variously divided ; and the Cabala they have created, and transmit to it the divine mer. is such a complex whole, and has been aggregated to
gether at such distant periods, that no general judgcies by means of twelve channels (n273). This
ment can apply to it. Iu its crude form it is undoubt. transmission of the divine mercies can be accelerated edly to be attributed to the authors of the books Jeziby prayer, sacrifices, and religious observances ; and rah and Zohar above named, and therefore cannot be the Jewish people, by virtue of the revelation, and assigned an earlier date than these writings. Its fullthe 613 commandments given to them (see Schools), er and more mature doctrines, however, as above dehave especially been ordained to obtain these blessings lineated, are due to the speculations of later masters () for the whole world. Hence the great myste- of this school. The account of this theosophy has ries of the Jewish ritual (pon nid); hence the been greatly obscured by modern writers, who, in their profound secrets contained in every word and syllable description of the Cabala, confound its doctrines with of the formulary of prayers; and hence the declara- the Jewish mysticism propounded in the works called tion that “the pious constitute the foundation of the the Alphabet of R. Ahiba (83923-77 xD3x, or world” (0519 1109 P973). Not only does the En- *3p-761718), the Description of the Body of Soph reveal himself through the Sephiroth, but he also God (170212 7:7), and the Delineation of the henrenbecomes incarnate in them, which accounts for the anthropomorphisms of Seripture and the Hagada. Thus, ly Temples (1384). Even the book Jezirah does when it is said that “God spake, descended upon not contain the doctrines of the Cabala as above exearth, ascended into heaven, smelled the sweet smell pounded. All these productions, and others of a simof sacrifices, repented in his heart, was angry," etc., ilar nature so frequently quoted by writers who give of when the Hagadic works describe the body and the an analysis of the Cabala, know little or nothing of mansions of God, etc., all this does not refer to the the Sephiroth, and of the speculations about the EnE-sph, but to these intermediate beings. These Soph, or the being of God, which constitute the essence Sephiroth again became incarnate in the patriarchs, of the Cabala. Nevertheless, these works are unquese. g. Saphira 4, love was incarnate in Abraham; 5, tionably to be regarded as hiring induced the more repre-r in Isaac; 6, beauty in Jacob; 7, firmness in Mo-jined speculations of the Cobala, by the difficulty in ses; &, splendor in Aaron ; 9. foundation in Joseph ; 10, which they placed the Jews in the south of France, bangdon in David; and they constitute the chariot and in Catalonia, who believed in them almost as much throne (779).
as in the Bible, and who were driven to contrive this 5. The psychology of the Cabala is one of its most well as to their 'assailants, the gross descriptions of the
system whereby they could explain to themselves, as important features. All human souls are pre-existent Deity, and of the plains of heaven, given in these Hain the world of the Sphiroth, and are, without an ex- gadic productions. Being unable to go to the extreme ception, destined to inhabit human bodies, and pursue of the rigid literalists of the north of France and Gertheir course upon earth for a certain period of proba- many, who, without looking for any higher import, liun. If, not withstanding its union with the body, implicitly accepted the difficulties and anthropomor, the soul resists all earthly trammels, and remains phisms of the Bible and Hagada in their most literal pare, it ascends after death into the spiritual kingdom, sense; or to adopt the other extreme of the followers and has a share in the world of Sephiroth. But if
, on of Maimonides, who rejected altogether the Hagadic the contrary, it becomes contaminated by that which and mystical writings, and rationalized the Scriptures, is earthly, the soul must inhabit the body again and it may be conjectured that Isaac the blind contrived, again (943, 325) till it is able to ascend in a pu- and his two disciples, Ezra and Azariel of Zerona, derified state, through repeated trial (restricted by Nach- veloped the modern system of Cabalism (about 1200manides and the later cabalists to three transmigra- 1230), which steers between these two extremes. By tions). The apparently undeserved sufferings which means of the Sephiroth all the anthropomorphisms in
the Bible, in the Hagada, and even in the Shiur Koma, 's account of these things in Eisenmenger's Entdec. tes are at once taken from the Deity, and yet literally ex- Judenthum, in Schudt's Jewish Curiosities, and other plained; while the sacrificial institutions, the precepts, works of the same character. Sec AMULET. and the ritual of the Bible and Talmud, receive at the The exegetical ingenuity of the Cabala is interestsame time a profound spiritual import. The Cabala ing to the theologian. The principle of the mystic inin its present state is therefore a hermeneutical sys- terpretation of Scripture is universal, not particular to tem, which, in part at least, was instituted to oppose such or such schools, as every one will perceive in the philosophical school of Maimonides (q. v.). Church history, and even in the history of Greek lit
The relationship between the Cabala and Neo-Pla-erature. We find it in Philo, in the New Test., in the tonism is apparent. The Cabala elevates God alove writings of the fathers, in the Talmud, and in the 20being and thinking, and likewise denies all divine at- har; and the more it departs from the spirit of the satributes; so does Neo-Plutonism. The Cabala, like cred text, the more had the latter to be brought to its Neo-Platonism, places intelligent principles or sub- support by distortions of its meaning. For such opcstances between the Deity and the world. The Cabala ration there are no known rules except the exigencies teaches that the Sephiroth, which emanated from God, of the case and the suljective mass of the sense. Sec are not equal to God; Neo-Platonism teaches that the MystICISM. In the mean time, the Jews had already, substances, thought, spirit, and nature (voic, túxy, and by the arbitrary character of their alphabet, arrived at quoni), which proceeded from one being, are not equal all manner of sultleties, of which we have already isoto their origin (oux inov o È TÒ Tipoiòv to privavti); lated examples in earlier writings, but wbich were esand the Cabala has adopted the very same classification pecially estal lished as a virtuosoship in post-Zobaric of the Sphiroth into the three greut spheres of intelli- times. From this arose the following species of calagence, animation, and matter. The comparison be- listic transformation : 1st. 73, Gematria (ytwuetween the emanation of the Sephiroth from the En- spia), i.e. the art of discovering the hidden sense of the Soph, and the rays proceeding from light to describe text by means of the numerical equivalents of the letimmanency and perfect unity, is the same as the Neo
For example, in the tirst and last verses of the Platonic figure to illustrate the emanations from the one Being (viov év QWTüç tiv is avtoù tepidauter). Hebrew Bille are found six x's, which, according to The doctrine of the Cabala, that most of the souls this method, means that the world is to last 6000 years. which enter the world have occupied bodies upon this The numerical equivalent of the first word of Genesis earth before, is Neo-Platonic (comp. Zeller, Gesch. der is 913, which is also the number given by the words Philosophie, III, ii, 914). See Neo-PLATONISM. 3 min (by the law He formed it, i. e. the world),
V. Later Processes of Cubalism. In the hands of from whence it follows that the law existed before the the younger disciples of the cabalistic science, the se- creation, and that the latter was accomplished through cret knowledge was not only studied in its philosoph- the former. If the second word of Genesis (77) be ical bearing, but also, and even rather, under two new added to the first, the result is 1116, which is also the aspects (which were not mentioned by their predeces- equivalent of x??? 39 WXin? (in the beginning sors, and which carried it farther than it went at first, of the year it was created), by which is known that God though by this we do not mean to say that it received created the world in the beginning of the year -- that any positively novel additions), namely, the practical is, in the season of Autumn. The antiquity of this application and the hermeneutical method. We find method is already shown in Rev. xiii, 18, where the that in olden times secret philosophical science and solution must be ciphered out with the aid of the lemagic went hand in hand. The sorcerer mentioned brew (or Greek) alphalict. It is also considered as in Acts xiii was called by the Arab name of as, the Gematria when Biblical numlichs—for instance, disecret, i. e. learned; in Acts xix we read of books of mensions of buildings-are expressed in letters, and magic which were at Ephesus; the sporadic mentions words again made of them. Still later came speculamade of the Cabala in the Talmud are accompanied tions on the greater, smaller, inverted, and suspended by descriptions of miracles. When R. Chahina and letters found in the Masoretic text; for instance, Deut. R. Oshia studied the book of Jezirah, we are told in vi, 4; Gen. ii, 4; Num. X, 35; Judg. xviii, 30, in the treatise Sanhedrim of the Gemara, they also made which some deep meaning is looked for, althou, h they each time a three-year-old cow, and lived thereon. It may perhaps have originally been but peculiar marks is no wonder, then, if the Jewish cabalists of the latter to aid memory. 20. The particularly so-called “figa part of the Middle Ages transmitted the conception of urative" (7722712) Cabala, i'P.???, Notarikon (from their science to their Christian adepts, not only as Lat. notare, to extract), consists in framing with each speculative (na), but also as practical (1-wa), letter of a word several new ones, e. g. from the first i. e. in plain English, that they connected with it the word of Genesis six can thus be framed: 47, he idea that a true cabalist must at the same time be a
It is self-evident, however, that we must made; "P7, the firmament; 7?, the earth ; opan, here distinguish between theosophic overstraining and the heavens ; , the sea ; bion, the abyss. We thus mere juggling, although in actual practice the differ- learn the correct scientific nature of the universe, beence may sometimes have been hard to perceive. sides the proper meaning of the text. Again, it con. The effects hoped for or believed in magic were sists in taking the first letters of several words to form a accordingly transmitted outwardly through amulets,
new one: e.g. Deut. xxx, 12, nnen
nang, talismans, exorcisms, images, signs, and such things, consisting of certain writings, names of angels, or who shall bring us to heaven? Answer: 615, circum. mysterious letters, whose connection, however, always cision. 30, -7772m, Temurah (permutation), the an... leads back to the name of God. This last, unpro- gram, of two kinds. The simple is a mere transposinounceable to the unconsecrated, but known to the tion of the letters of a word: e. g. we thus learn that cabalist, whether it consist of four (17177“), twelve, or the angel in Exod. xxiii, 23 (9=$32, my angel) was forty-two letters (numbers which result from combina- the angel Michael (5xşa). The more ingenious kind tions from the Sephir system), was, as such, called on is that by which, according to certain established rules, wyban, the declored name ; and he who knew how to each letter of the alphabet acquires the signification use it was a 32, or master of the name. The
of another: as Aleph that of Tau, both that of Ayin.
Then, again, the letters may well-known implements of magic, such as Solomon's backward (which constitute the alphabet of Athbash,
forward and keys, the shield of David, etc., owe their origin to this line of ideas. Amateurs will find a very entertaining wars), or the first letter that of the twelfth, the sce