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oves were too weak to be used, and his works were Hebrews worked in the desert for the tabernacle were principally written by an amanuensis. His principal separately blue, scarlet, and white (Exod. xxvi, 1). works published under his name, besides those which The last was probably the effect of bleaching; Lut the have been already mentioned, were Theology explained whole of the colors and cloth so dyed have been found, and defended (Middletown, Conn., 1818, 5 vols.; and as well as the yellow, to evince chemical knowledge. in a multitude of editions afterwards in 4 vols., both It appears that the linen-printers and dyers used the in the United States and England) :— Travels in New carthumus tinctorius, which grows in Egypt, for red, England and New York (New Haven, 1821, 4 vols., woad for blue, and the reseda lureola, also a native of which contained the record of journeys on horseback Egypt, for yellow. Now none of these operations undertaken for his health during vacations), and Ser- could have been effected without a practical chemical mnons of an occasional character (New Haven, 1828). knowledge. The system of bleaching now practised See Life prefixed to his Theology, and Dr. Sprague's in this country, but recently introduced, has been used life of him in Sparks's American Biography, vol. xiv, from time immemorial in the East, and doubtless, or new series, vol. iv.

therefore, in ancient Egypt, viz, by immersion in orrDwight, William T., D.D., a Congregationalist genated muriate of lime, after subjection to the action minister, was a son of President Dwight, and was born of steam or boiling water. The three other colors, at Greenfield Hill, Conn., in 1795. He graduated at blue, red, and yellow, are adjective colors, i. e. fugiYale College in 1813, and was distinguished for his tive without the use of mordants. They could not be scholarship in a class of many able scholars. From fixed, as we find them fixed, without their proper mos1817 to 1819 he was a tutor in the college, and then dants, namely, oxides of tin, arsenic, and iron. removed to Philadelphia, where he practiced law until casionally the muslin, beautifully dyed and patterned, 1831. In that year he was awakened under a lecture was interwoven with silver and gold thread, some of Dr. Skinner, and, abandoning the law, he was li- specimens of which can be traced up to the early pecensed by the Third Presbytery of New York, and ac- riod of Thothmes I, and even of Osirtasen. Indeed, cepted a call to the Third Church in Portland, Maine. the richly-painted walls and palaces, as well as the onHis ministry of above thirty years was eminently suc- matched gilding, as fresh as when first laid on, show cessful. He was an overseer of Bowdoin College and

a perfect familiarity among the ancient Egyptisos, president of the Maine Missionary Society. In 1852 not with mineral and vegetable colors only, but the he was president of the Albany Convention of Congre- perfect use of the metallic oxides in their coni position. gational churches. “As a preacher he is entitled to

The colors of the Egyptians were principally blue, a foremost rank among American divines for sound red, green, black, yellow, and white. The red was an and varied learning, clear and polished diction, grace earthy bolo; the yellow an iron ochre; the green was ful and effective delivery, and eminent success.'

He a mixture of a little ochre with a pulverulent glass, died at Andover Oct. 22, 1865. He published a life made by vitrefying the oxides of copper and iron with of Sereno E. Dwight, with a Selection from his Dis- sand and soda ; the blue was a glass of like cumparsicourses (1851).

tion with the ochreous addition; the black was bone Dye (27ş, adam, in the phrase "rams' skins dyed They were mixed with water, and apparently a little

or ivory black, and the white was a very pure chalk. red,” Exod. xxv, xxvi, xxxv, etc., to be ruddy,

gum, to render them tenacious and adhesive. Witb Lam. iv, 7, or “ red," Nah. ii, 3 ; Isa. i, 8; Prov. xxiii, the Egyptians, the favorite combination of color was 31; yon, chamets, brilliant in color as wine-stained red, blue, and green ; when black was introduced, yel. garnients, Isa. Ixiii, 1). The art of dyeing is undoubt- low was added to harmonize with it; and in like man. edly of great antiquity, and is, perhaps, nearly coeval ner they sought for every hue its congenial companion. with that of weaving. The Egyptians particularly They also guarded against the false effect of two col. excelled in the brilliancy of their dyed stuffs; and ors in juxtaposition, as of red and I lue, by placing befrom them the Ilebrews, while dwelling among them, tween them a narrow line of white or yellow. They learned the art of dyeing. This is evident from the had few mixed colors, though purple, pink, orange, curtains of the tabernacle and the sacerdotal robes and brown are met with, and frequently on papyri. which were manufactured in the desert (Exod. xxvi, The blue, which is very brilliant, consists of fine par1; xxviii, 5-8). The skill of the Egyptian linen-man- ticles of blue glass, and may be considered equivalent ufacturers in employing the metallic oxides and acids, to our smalt; it seems to be the same that Vitruvius or mordants, is placed beyond dispute by ocular proof, describes, which he supposes to have been first made The various processes of dyeing and printing, or im. at Alexandria ; and it also agrees with the artificial parting the pattern, by blocks (the origin of calico kyanus of Theophrastus, invented in Egypt, which he printing), are exhibited in Rossellini's plates in all says was laid on thicker than the native (or lapis latheir minute details; and even the printing-blocks zuli). The thickness of the blue on the ceilings in engraved with phonetic letters, and with the dye upon Belzoni's tomb) confirms his remark. The green is them, may be seen in the British Museum. Pliny's also a glass in powder, mixed with particles of colortestimony is interesting as illustrating, though not less glass, to which it owes its brightness (Wilkinson, wanted to corroborate the fact. “They dye cloth," Anc. Eg., abridgm., ii, 292). he says, “in an extraordinary manner.

It appears

The following statements are more in detail. There quite white before it is dipped; they then imbue it are many kinds of hues, both natural and artificial, with drugs (mordants), which do not alter its appear- mentioned in the Bible as fashionavle or known ance, but which absorb and retain a new and perma- among the Hebrews; besides white () and black nent color, varied according to the application of the drug.” This is the modern process." Experimental (or -7A), there were : 1, principally red (= investigation and chemical analysis have shown dem- brownish-red), crimson (m, Samaz), purple or violetonstratively that in the dyes which the linen and cot- red (3x), orange or vermilion (); 2, next ton manufacturers employed to produce certain results green (P); 3, pale yellow (PPI); 4, azure or braof which the relics are extant, they must have em, cinthine (purplish) blue (50m); 5, broun or fox-col. I loved acetates of alum and of iron, and vegetable and nineral dyes, both substantive and adjective, as they ored (PT). Many of these are no doubt properly, or ure termed by the modern dvers. It is as easy as in- at least originally, the designation of the coloring masidious to ascribe these applications to accident rather terials. See (RIMSON; VERMILION; Preple. It is than to chemistry. Evidences drawn from all the evident that ench of these principal colors had a speother arts and trades prove that the Egyptians were cial significance among the Israelites, according to good chemists. The long stripes of linen which the I which it would be selected whenever there was an or

tion; and it could not but be that some colors would | Rom. 98), this color was not only selected for its bril.
be preferred to others, e. g. wbite garments as the liancy, but as that with which even the Romans, in
clothing of the respectable (as among us black is the early times, decorated their triumphant warriors (Plin.
clerical color), but dignitaries were arrayed in purple xxxiii, 36). Hence purple robes were used for robing
(Judg. viii, 26; Esth. viii, 15; Dan, v, 7, 16, 29; comp. the statues of the gods (Jer. x, 9; Creuzer, Symbol. i,
Cant. vii, 6), which hue was probably so appropriated 126; ii, 358). In the Israelitish cultus the four prin-
on account of its costliness (comp. the purple sails of cipal colors occur: dark (or purplish) blue, purple-red,
the Syrian ships, Ezek. xxvii, 7). See APPAREL. crimson, and white (the three essential colors, white,
Bright, dazzling colors (7997) further indicated, as blue, and red, also occur in Rev. xviii

, 16); they ap-
might naturally be supposed, hilarity and joy (2 Sam. pear connectedly in the decorations (tapestry and veils)
i, 24; comp. Jer. iv, 30), while dark (black) and dull of the tabe. nacle (Exod. xxv, 4; xxvi, 1, 31, 36;
hues were expressive of grief and dejection (Mal. iii, xxxv, 6 sq.; xxxvi, 8 sq.), and in the sacerdotal gar-
14; Zech. vi, 2, 6; comp. Plutarch, Pericl. 38; Mish- ments (Exod. xxviii, 5 sq., 15; xxxix, 1). Moreover,
na, Midd th, v, 3; Apulei Metam. ii. p. 40 Bip. ; see scarlet and deep blue cloths are prescribed for the
generally Götze, De vestium nigrar. usu, Helmst. 1726). transportation of the sacred furniture (Num. iv), and
Youth and age also constituted a distinction in this scarlet wool for certain purificatury purposes (Lev.
respect. White, moreover, was assumed as the color xiv, 4, 6, 51 sq.; Num. xix, 6); and the tassels to the
of whatever form came from heaven (as being that of four corners of the covering, which had a religious
the purest light); hence angels were clad in glittering significance, were to be made of dark blue materials
wbite robes (Mark xvi, 5; John xx, 12, etc.). The (Num. xv, 38). Perhaps these four colors were se-
symbolical use of colors is clearly exhibited in the lected not merely on account of their beauty and cost-
prophetic visions. In Rev. vi, 2 sq., the rider upon liness (God demands the best that man has), but with
the white horse is emblematical of one bringing pros- reference to their special mystical import, which in the
perity like victorious champions, the red horse signi- last instance (the ritual of purification) is more evi-
ties bloodshed, the black denotes the distress of dearth dent. Philo (Opp. i, 536; ii, 148) and Josephus (Ant.
and scarcity, the pale one (xwpóc) death. So when iii, 7, 7) too have already an explanation of the four
(Rev. xii, 3) the great dragon (Satan) is depicted red, ! sacred colors (comp. Stud. u. Krit. 1844, ii, 315 sq.).
it appears altogether congruous with the character of the See Friederich, Symlol. d. mos. Stifftshütte (Leipz. 1841).
originator of death and of every ruin (Isa. i, 18; comp. Comp. Color.
ver. 18; see Bähr, Symbol. i, 335 sq. ; also Rev. xvii, DYED ATTIRE stands in our version of Ezek. xxiii,
3). More difficult of interpretation are the colored 15, as a translation of D137 (tebulim', usually re-
steeds of Zech. i, 8; vi, 2 sq., which passages certain. garded as from bae, to dip, and so to dye with colors ;
ly served as a model to the revelator. In matters of
worship (Krause, De colore sancto, Viterb. 1707), color- verb signifying to vind or wrap around, and so giving

but Gesenius prefers the derivation from an Ethiopic
symbols take a wider range (Creuzer, Symbol. i, 125 the sense of), head-bands or tiaras. The Sept. and
sq.). The priests in general wore white vestments, to Vulg. combine both significations (rıápai Pantai, tóc
indicate the purity of the divine Being whom they

ra tinctao). See PAINT.
served. When idols were painted with vermillion
(Wisd. xiii, 14 ; Ezek. xxiii, 14; see Plutarch, Quast. Dysentery. See FLUX.

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Criticism, The Higher, is a phrase or title which of Profs. McCheyne, Driver, and Robertson Smith, with has lately come into use, or rather been assumed by a their followers in this country, the most noted and certain class of critics, to designate a peculiar form or outspoken of whom is Dr. Briggs, of the Union Theotheory in the treatment of the text of the Bible, es- logical Seminary. We have room for a summary only pecially with reference to the authorship of the several of their different principles, purposes, and processes. books composing the sacred volume. Under the arti- The object of these critics is not only a literary one cle Criticism, BIBLICAL., we have seen that it is the beyond the scope of the ordinary “ Introduction," quesparticular province of that science to ascertain what is tioning the authority of tradition, and seeking a more the genuine original of the text itself by means of a exact solution of difficulties, but it is also historical, aprecourse to the written or printed copies which are ex- plying the same ru as are usual with other docutant; while a determination of their value as religious ments. This would be perfectly fair, if a sufficient rerauthorities belongs to the title of Canon of SCRIPT- | erence were maintained for the sacred sources, themes, U'RE, and the settlement of their peculiarities of diction, and conservators of revelation; but the standpoint of dates, and writers is more properly treated under the faith and spiritual experience is too much neglected, head of INTRODUCTIox or Eisagogics. It is rather a and thus a merely secular spirit is encouraged, which usurpation, therefore, in the promoters or adopters of is not favorable to the apprehension and appreciation this new term to claim for themselves the province par of divine truth. Even those who study from more reeminence of “higher critics,” inasmuch as the topics ligious motives do not ask, How came the Bible here? which they discuss have always been recognised as they forget that it is not simply a record of human exlegitimate to other departments of sacred literature, and periences and beliefs like ordinary books, whereas it is hare in fact been substantially treated there. Further the product of supernatural inspiration, and is therefore more, they do not claim to have found any fresh sources to be understood and interpreted accordingly. Espeof information, or to have discovered any really new cially is the history full of miraculous interventions and facts or principles; there is nothing truly original even anomalies, which are not to be judged or accounted for in their processes of investigation; they have merely on purely naturalistic and political principles. The followed up more closely certain hints and speculations Bible is not a mere human production, nor are its conof earlier disputants, and have evolved a more formida- tents to be regarded as unauthoritative. ble system of conjectures and presumptions on the In like manner the methods pursued by these critics grounds already controverted. It is proper, therefore, are not only linguistic in the ordinary sense and appliat the outset to understand that this so-called science is cation, but they are hypercritical and infected with the not truly information, nor even a consistent and clearly- latent suspicion of a want of originality in the writings detined classification of well-founded and generally ad- thus scrutinized, which warps the judgment and foremitted knowledge; but simply a dexterous manipula- : stalls the conclusion desired. Especially is this the case tion of a few phenomena, long ago fully known and when a comparison is instituted between the chosen often considered, in accordance with the subjective people and contemporary nations, where any apparent opinions of individual minds, and therefore resulting in discrepancies are seized upon and magnitied to the widely discrepant conclusions among themselves. In prejudice of the sacred narrative. The anachronisms nothing do they actually agree except in a spirit of thus produced and displayed are really insignificant, denial of views current among orthodox students hith- and the tables have fairly been turned upon the oberto, and in a wholesale scheme of dissection and redis- jectors by the remarkable coincidences so recently tribution of the contents of the books of Scripture which brought to light by Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian they have criticised, with a view to assign them in explorations, strikingly confirming the minutest details fragments to other unknown and even now nameless of Scripture history. On the contrary these sceptical authors. In short it is but another phase of the ra- investigators seem to make an effort to array Biblical tionalistic attack upon the genuineness, authenticity, statements against each other, instead of pursuing the and integrity of the Bible as a total or in its parts, for course of harmonizing usually adopted in reconciling the purpose of rendering a verdict against it as being profane historians with each other. The same perver“unhistorical," and therefore untrustworthy.

sity is especially exhibited in considering the origin This assault upon the traditional authorship of the and establishment of theological tenets and institutions, canonical books of Scripture began with the Pentateuch, where the critics unwarrantably assume that these which has still been the chief arena of contest; and may must have been the result instead of the cause of long be said to have been inaugurated by the suggestion of years of culture and usage; thus reversing the normal Astruc, the French physician of the early part of the last and historical order of events. If any moral or religious century, concerning the Elohistic and the Jehovistic sec- sentiment of their own appears to be violated by what tions of Genesis (q. v.), which was afterwards taken up, they discover in the record, the latter is furthwith reespecially by the destructive school of German scholars. pudiated as unworthy and therefore false, and is sumhearled by Eichhorn and others, and lately extended marily rejected as a spurious interpolation from some to other portions of the Bible; the most violent of the extraneous source or age; a manifest petitiv principi, aspersions being by Colenso and his admirers, but the which does not seem to occur to these critics as illogical. more keen and learned by Kuener, Wellhausen, and In addition to these defects in the procedure of the their associates, and at length largely adopted, with crities in question, they fail to remember that the difgreat variety in details, by the English latitudinarians, ferent books and chapters of the Bible are not isolated coming down to our own day in the persons specially productions, cach to be judged alone, but they form parts of a homogeneous and related unit, so that one portion 36. Now there was nt Jop- 36. (Al certain disciple or statement is to be interpreted and harmonized by woman (thai) was named Tabitha, which liv others in order that the whole truth may be fairly and deeds which she did.

full of good works and alms- interpretation is called Dur.

cas. llihis))... consistently elicited. Especially do they ignore the 37. And it came to pass in 37. ... [[and]] died: whom fact that the entire volume was not written from the those days, that she was when they had wished, ibey


laid her in an upper challmodern standpoint of exact science, for then it would

ber. have been unintelligible to its first readers. In short 38. And forasmnch as Lyda just system of exegesis is not applied to it, and con- da was nigh to Joppa, and fusion and misunderstanding of course result. On the Peter was there, they sent

the disciples had heard that contrary, the assumption being once made that even into him two men, deeiring each book is the product of several authors, and that him that he would not dewithout concert or unity of plan—a theory flatly op

lay to come to them.

39. Then Peter arose and 39. ... When he (Peter) posed by the evident order and congruity of the whole went with them ;

was come, they brought hit when fairly expounded—it is easy to find and multiply

into the upper chamber: and discrepancies, which would otherwise appear simply

all the widows Bundly bim,

weeping, and shewing the differences arising from the dislocation and partial

coats and garment: which exbibit of the passages out of their context and pur

Dorcas made, while she was

with them. pose. Besides this are the native repugnance to the preternatural, the asserted improbability of the mirac- down, and prayed: ... And forth,

40. . . . and (he) kneeled 40. But Peter put them all

and turuing tim ulous, the presumption against prophecy, and the innate she opened her eyes ; avd to the body said, Tabitha, rebellion of the heart at unwelcome doctrines, with its when she saw Peter, she sat arise.


41. And he gave her his blindness of spiritual truths-in a word, the materialis

hand, and lifted her up, and tic or naturalistic tendency to measure divine things

when he had called the saints by human, whether in objective statements or internal

and widows, he prescuied

her alive. experience; and we have a sufficient explanation of the

42. And it was known 42. ... and mauy believed rationale or rather irrationale of “higher criticism." throughout all Joppa;... in the Lord.

The results of this criticism may be illustrated by 43. And it came to pass the treatment of the Pentateuch (or as these writers that he tarried many days in

Joppa with One Simon a usually prefer to call it, the Hexateuch, including the

tanner. book of Joshua), of which the following is Strack's

In this specimen the reader will observe that the theory, but it is not altogether coincided in by Dillman, two imaginary sources or documents give each a coWellhausen, Socin, and others. The four principal nected and distinct account of an event, the former liesources are supposed to have been as follows: 1. The ing the cure only, and the latter the rerirification of Priestly Code (otherwise called the “ First Elohist,” the the patient; the former exclusively giving the place “ Foundation Document,” the " Book of Origins," or the of its occurrence and certain other particulars (ench as the " Annalistic Relator"); 2. The Second Elohist (other. messengers on the occasion, her sitting up of her own wise called the “ Younger Elohist," the “ North Israel- accord, etc.), and the latter her name (together with the itish Relator," the “Third Relator," or the “ Theocratic apartment, spectators, Peter's help in arising, etc.). A Relator”); 3. The Jehovist or "Jahvist” (otherwise few unimportant connecting words are omitted or supcalled the “ Additor,” the Fourth Relator," or the “ Pro- plied (in brackets or double brackets respectively) by phetic Relator"); 4. The Deuteronomist

. These are that convenient personage the so-called " Reriactor." substantially reckoned in that chronological order, al- 'In sober truth, the whole theory and process are simply though widely separated in point of time; and the ridiculous, for any reritable paragraph of undoubted books in question are distributed among them in a most history is capable of being travestied in a similar manner. intricate and minute manner, but with little agreement

The literature of the subject is already considerable, among the several critics as to the precise adjustment although chiefly scattered in sporadic articles throagbor authorship even of these fragments. All of them, out periodicals or more extended works. A copios however, in general agree that the very earliest sources, exhibit of the particulars both pro and con is giren in with but few unimportant exceptions, are the product the Hebraica for 1891-93, and the book of Genesis as thus of a comparatively late age; and they all deny the au- dismembered has been printed in German in different thorship of the Pentateuch as being of Moses. The sorts of type for the eye, by Kautsch and Scin (Freischeme in detail, as wrought out by them, is too com- burg, 1891, 8vo), reproduced in English in different col plicated and various to be reproduced intelligibly here, ors by Bissell, with just comments (Hartford, 1892, 870). We can only exemplify it by a parody upon an un- The latter author has admirably reviewed the whole questionably historical, authentic, and coherent passage scheme iri his work on the Pentateuch (Lond. and N.Y. from the New Testament, namely, the account of the 1885, 8vo). Two excellent works on the subject are, restoration of Dorcas by Peter (Acts ix, 36-43), which, The Irigher Criticism, by Rev. C. W. Rishell (Cincinfor the purpose of a reductio ad absurdum, we treat in nati, 1893, 12mo), and Anti-Higher Criticism, edited by the same fashion,

1 Rer. L. W. Munhall (N. Y. 1894, 8vo).

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