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tian Ministers and Missionaries have not in every age imitated these eminent servants of God; but have sometimes been silenced by the attentions, flatteries, and favours of immoral men possessing wealth or power; they have entered into a sort of compromise with the world: The church shall receive contributions, and external respect, and reverence, and dignity; but on condition that the patrons of the church must not be offended by uncourteous censures for their vices, their vanities, and their idols. The world is very willing to have a religion, if it may have its vicious indulgences passed over in silence. It will idolize for a while even Christ's Ministers, whether Bishops, or Presbyters, or Apostles, on these terms.

But neither fear, nor flattery, nor ridicule, could silence Paul. The scoffing philosophists of Athens might call him "a babbler," and "mock" him and his doctrine; he bore his testimony against them, and for the truth faithfully; and then left them that he might go and address others on the same grand and awful subjects. May all Ministers and Missionaries be enabled to follow his example when assailed in these several ways.

On this Mission Barnabas and Paul addressed all classes of people, and used a variety of means, exhortations, and arguments. They went first to the lost sheep of the house of Israel who were scattered abroad. In the Jewish Synagogue at Antioch, Paul reasoned out of the Scriptures, proving that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, who had in his death and resurrection perfected the work of redemption, and had sent the word of salvation to them; and he declared that through Christ they now had preached to them the forgiveness of sins, but they who despised the work of God should perish.

At Lystra he reasoned against hero-worship and idolatry, from the principles of natural religion, and exhorted the people to turn from these vanities unto the living God, who made heaven and earth, the sea, all things that are therein.

• Σrepμoλoyos. "Vulgar prater."

At Thessalonica Paul's manner was to go every Sabbath day into a Synagogue of the Jews, and reason with them out of the Scriptures, opening and alleging that Christ must needs have suffered and risen again from the dead, and he declared that this Jesus whom he preached was the Christ.

At Athens he disputed in the Synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout or religious people; and he disputed in the market-place daily with those that met him, which roused the attention of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers, who led him to Areopagus, where, in the midst of Mars' hill, he declared to them the God that made the world, who was to them unknown. He insisted on the doctrines of Providence, man's accountableness, repentance, and a future judgment, to be executed by Christ Jesus, whom God raised from the dead.

At Corinth, during the week-days, Paul worked at a mechanical trade in Aquila's house*, and reasoned in the Synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks-and subsequently in a private house he remained a year and six months teaching the word of God.

At Ephesus, he spake boldly in the Synagogue for the space of three months, disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God. And here also he disputed daily in the school of one Tyrannus.

These labours were not always efficacious, for many op. posed and blasphemed, and divers were hardened and believed not; but his efforts were not wholly in vain, for in almost every place there were some who believed and turned to the Lord.

From the example here exhibited to us, it may be fairly inferred that the Scriptures warrant a variety of means to be employed in propagating the Gospel. One means should

* The duties of a Minister or Missionary are generally more than enough for any man's qualifications and strength; but if Paul worked at a trade, he might with equal propriety have traded for his support; and if such secular employments were lawful in him, I know not why a Missionary may not attend to secular affairs for his own support; nor can I see the principle on which the Jesuits' trading for the support of their missions is censured, provided they traded honestly.

not be exclusively employed, nor only one manner of exhibiting divine truth be used. Some Christians say that preaching is the great instrument of spreading the Gospel, and despise other means. Some have noticed the silent efficacy of the Sacred Scriptures, and do not allow weight enough to oral instruction. Some declaim against arguing and disputing, and insist that a simple declaration of, or testimony to the truth is best. Now it appears to me a mistake, to exalt one means above another, for they all have their use in different times, places, and circumstances; and christian wisdom consists in rightly timeing the means, not relinquishing any for an exclusive adherence to one favourite method. Knowledge, and prudence, and piety, and the hand of the Lord, going together, will effect the work. Worldly wisdom consists in the employment of insincere specious means, or crafty arts, and implies the exclusion of divine aid. But knowledge and prudence, learning and talents, of every sort, exerted to the utmost, being accompanied with a simple-hearted sincerity, and unintermitted reliance on the Almighty arm, should not be called "worldly wisdom." The wisdom of this world, which the Bible condemns, consists in a self-sufficient employment of human means and crafty devices, accompanied by a neglect or contempt of the Holy Spirit. To employ ignorance, rashness, and a froward furious zeal, under an idea of avoiding "worldly wisdom," is a great error; and, therefore, we conclude no means, whether consisting of oral instruction, preaching, teaching, reasoning, and disputing; or of written or printed communications, the Sacred Scriptures, essays, circular letters, and so forth, should be neglected. The modern method of teaching children, although perfectly justified on principle and by precept, is the only means that I know of which is not sanctioned by express example; for academies or colleges, where a select number of persons are constantly with preceptors, are justified by the example of our Saviour himself; and also by the Apostolic Missionaries, who took young men under their care to assist, and to be instructed and fitted for the work. That these had no fixed abode, or stationary build

ing in which they taught, appears to me a mere circumstance, which does not affect the principle. Modern Missionaries have foreign languages to study, which the Apostles had not; and it is absolutely necessary for them to be stationary whilst learning, and whilst teaching heathen youths.

Translations of the Scriptures are sanctioned by the constant use made of the sacred writings, by our Lord and the Apostolic Missionaries; and their references are generally made to a translation of the Old Testament into the Greek tongue. For it is the meaning, the sense of the Scriptures, that is to be regarded as sacred, not the Hebrew or Greek words. It is the superstition of the Romish Church in China and other countries, to consider the Latin words, "Pater, Filius, Spiritus Sanctus," &c. as sacred, and not to be translated. The Budh Priests, in China, do the same with many of the Sanscrit words of their superstition, and do not translate them. Perhaps Bishop Lowth's idea, (which is adopted in the practice of some Missionaries,) that the word Jehovah is not to be translated, partakes of the same superstition. In the New Testament, the word Jehovah is never used, but is translated as our translators in the English Bible have generally done, by a word corresponding to Lord.

The employment of the pen, in narratives, memoirs, letters, &c. for the diffusion of divine truth in the earth, is fully justified by the sacred writings themselves; and these writings authorize the use of the pen and the press, as a very eminent means of preserving and diffusing the Gospel. If any comparison were to be drawn, (a proceeding which I do not advise,) I know not but writing would appear the most efficient means. How great has been the effect upon the human mind produced by the Gospels, or memoirs of our Saviour, written by the Evangelists, and the epistles or letters written by Paul and the other writers of the New Testament!

But although this be admitted, preaching, that is, testifying to men by the living voice, the gospel of the grace of God; opening and expounding the Scriptures, teaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, reasoning from

principles of natural religion; persuading, and if necessary, disputing with the opponents of the truth, is never to be disused. And as we have apostolic example for preaching viva voce, so we have apostolic example for publishing and defending divine truth by means of written essays or letters. If we take into account the permanent utility of Paul's letters for eighteen centuries past, it would probably appear, that he converted and edified more persons by means of his letters, than he did by all his preaching, and his miracles, and his sufferings put together. If it be objected that the writings of Ministers and Missionaries, and private Christians can never be compared to the inspired Gospels and Epistles, it is granted. No more can the preaching of uninspired ministers be compared to the divine sermons of Jesus, and the inspired preaching of the Apostles; and, therefore, when we argue about the comparative use of means, the argument still holds good: inspired letters being compared with inspired sermons; and uninspired translations and essays, compared with uninspired preaching. An induction of particular facts, as given in church history, from the days of the Apostles to the present time, would, I doubt not, confirm what has been now advanced in favour of a variety of means, viz. colleges or schools of the prophets, translations of the Bible and religious writings, preaching and oral teaching. The admirable Luther used all the three means: he was professor of divinity at the Wittemberg University, a preacher in the same city, and an assiduous writer of religious essays and expositions of sacred writ, by all of which means he converted many individuals, and reformed the religion of nations. But there are not many persons competent to employ all these means; if a man excel in one, the churches should be satisfied. The object to be attained is the communication of truth to the human soul, that it may be enlightened, purified, and saved; and whether this be done to children or adults, by means of a school, or hearing the word preached, or reading the Scriptures, or religious books, containing the sense and meaning of the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures-let God be praised for giving efficacy to the means, and let them be

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