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received its last polish and roundness in They were eager to be acquainted with its the hands of some French philosophers, shape and figure, or at least with the place as Condillac, and others.
where it was lodged. Without sonte senHaring thus explained in a general siblé token, or the testimony of persons way the grounds of my dissent from the who had inquired into the fact, they could system here spoken of, and sliewn that not be certain whether they had a soul or they do not militate against the crtie basis not. Accordingly, many voyages of disof all philosophy, experience, in the only covery were made for this purpose alon rational sense of the word, I shall pro- the nerves, and the conduits of the aniceed to state (as briefly as I can) the out- mal juices. Some thought they had lives of a system, which I should wish to found it seated on the top of the pineal see established in its root. The princi- gland, and others traced it to the cellular pal points which I shall attempt to make and membranous substance of the brain, out are, that the mind is something dis- where all the nervės terminate. Howetinct from matter; that the thinking prin- ver this might be, it was agreed on ail ciple is one, or that thought is the result hands that the last agent in inatter was of the impression of many different ob- the true seat or cause of thought and conjects on the saine conscious being; that sciousness, because we had no right to sup. this faculty of perceiving different imprese pose the existence of a principle beyond, sions at once, of combining, comparing, of which we could have no positive eviand distinguishing them, is the great in- dence. But we might with just as much strument of knowledge and understand. propriety insist on seeing the very ing; that it is a totally distinct thing from thoughts themselves lying naked in this sensation, Inemory, or association, that brain, or deny that they had ever existed, abstraction is the limitation of this faculty, as conclude that we have got at the seat srimmediately follows from our imperfect of the soul, because we can go'no farther conception of things, since, if we were with our dissections and experiments. to wait till we had a perfect knowledge The argument is a good one, if we supof all the parts of any object, we could pose tlie mind to be one department of never have any conception of it what- matter; when we can trace the natural erer; that reason is the power of disco. connection of causes and effects no furvering truth by means of certain neces ther, there we ought to stop. But if sary connections between our ideas; that there is reason to believe that the mind the mind of inan is active both in thought is not material, then, by the nature of the and volition; that motives do not deter- supposition, it must lié out of the reach inine the will mechanically, that self- of all such experiments. The argument love is not the sole spring of all our at in favour of the materiality of the mind tachments and pursuits; and that there from the want of anatomical experiments are other principles in our nature (as the to prove the contrary, therefore, first Jove of action or power, and the love of of all supposes that the mind is inaterial, truth) which are necessary to account for and the subject of such experiments, the passions and actions of men, besides Thé simple argument by which I satisfy the love of pleasure, and aversion to myself that mind is not the same thing pain. C o
m e as matter is this, that there is something And, first, I shall endeavour to shew in the nature of thought essentially disthat the mind itself is not material, or tinct from any idea we have of the com that the phenomena of the mind or think mon properties and operations of matter, ing principle do not originate in the com- and that something so distinct in essence mon pruperties of what is called matter. And in kind, cannot be resolved into The advocates for the doctrine of mate- any combination or modification of sinha fave been generally persons of other properties which in themselves
o nes understanding and clear heads, are allowed to have nor sort of relation who could not bear for a inóment the or affinity to it.", The jumbling of these least uncertainty in any thing which was together in different forms and quantities the otect of their inquiries. The obscure may produce an interinediate result dif. endent range and mysterious opera- fering from them all, and yet partaking
sormehe therefore, puzzled them of the nature of all, but it cannot proa nd her wished to tmnslate them duce a result, of which there is not the
e nerd uphical language. slightest trace or resemblance to be found o d see how the mind act in any of them. There is in matter how
treg like to look into's watch thing at all like thought, or that ever
the most distant approaches to it: the in a very ingenious and elaborate way to two ideas are utterly irreconcileable. account for the sense of pain by suppo
To suppose that thought and feeling sing it to arise froin the solution of conti. are only matter and motion disguised in a nuity, or violent separation and straining particular way, is, as if we were to bclieve of the parts of which the nerves are that a circle may be composed of straight composed, which communicates the like lines, or that a tune may be reflected disorder to the brain. Now this separafrom the colours of the rainbow. This tion of parts or solution of physical conte argument has been often insisted on, but tinuity does not give me the smallest inI do not think it has ever been satisfacto- sight into the nature of pain. I cannot torily answered. The only answer which understand what there is in common behas ever been attempted is an appeal to tween the two things. It might as well, our ignorance, which comes a little awk- I conceive, be said that the tearing asunwardly from those who would give an der the limbs of a wax doll gives one account of every thing. They say that the idea of pain ; or that the trunks of matter in itself undergoes many changes the enchanted trees in Tasso or in Virgil and modifications; and produces miany might have felt the same grief and reresults, altogether unlike any thing that morse when their branches were lopped we could predict beforehand, and that off, though they had not been inhabited mind may be one of those remote and sub- by a human soul. As far as matter and tle modifications, in other words, that it motion are concerned, it must be quite inis matter so organized as to produce the different whether certain parts of a body finer, moreetberial, operations of thought. are in one position or another, whether But I would ask, whether by a modificn- they are in a state of separation or tion of matter, be meant any thing more union, or violently thrust backwards and than a certain combination of the pro- forwards from one to the other. As mere perties of matter, and whether any com- dull inanimate matter, they can neither bination of these can represent the na- know nor feel any thing of the jerks, the ture of thought? In all the changes pro- twitchings, the jostlings, or blows they duced by matter and motion, there is encounter in these sudden commotions. nothing but matter and motion still: di- Nor does it alter the case or advance vide, sub-divide, multiply them how you the argument one jot to say that the sub. will, you get nothing but some modifica- stance of the brain or nerves is of a finer tion of the same qualities; the form, the and subtler texture, that it is curiously orarrangement, the degree, the quantity, ganized, or endued with wonderful actiand direction are different, but the vity. Let us suppose the arrangement of things themselves are just the same. the parts to be as exquisite as it will, still All the experiments that have been it is only an arrangement of unfeeling tried on various substances have never matter. This arrangement may produce discovered them to be any thing else an infinite difference in its mechanical but the old original properties of mat- motions, but what you want to produce ter, such as extension, figure, soli- is the power of distinguishing pleasure dity, motion, &c, combined under differ- and pain where there was none. It is a ent circumstances. There is some ana- transition from insensibility to sensation, logy still left, which determines the class frorn death to life, that is to be accounted to which they belong; indeed, if it were for; and a change of place, size, or forin, not for something of this sort, it would in a parcel of physical atoms does not be hard to say, in what furnace or alem- make the least alteration in this respect. bic they could be found. When an in- In short, we can never conceive of stance is met with of inatter having by thought or feeling as implied in any of its compositions and decompositions re. the simple, known properties of matter; fined itself into any thing which was not and this being granted, as I think it inust, matter, or of its having acquired any other it seems very unphilosophical to argue, real distinguishing properties besides that mind is notwitlistanding only some those which it had at first, it will ihen be modification of matter, since no modi, time enough to consider whether thought fication of matter can entirely change and conceptiou may not be among the its nature, or produce a distinct result, number. It is perhaps easicr to explain from a ridiculous combination of a numa this distinction in matters of feeling, ber of particles, not one of which could than with respect to our ideas. Thus contribute any thing twards it. There the sense of pain is surely very different is not, as it seems to ine, the same absure from the prick of a pio by which it may dity in supposing the mind to be united beoccasioned. Hartley bus endeavoured to matter, or to bc acted upon by it, as
in supposing that it is matter. For the
For the Monthly Magazine immaterialist, in saying that the mind is LYCAEUM OF ANCIENT LITERAnot matter, does not pretend to under
TURE.-No. XX. stand its nature thoroughly, or to know
LYRIC POETRY. what relations it may have to other THE most just and comprehensive things : whereas, the materialist undera i definition which can, we think, be takes to define what it is, and in saying given of Poetry, is, that it is the language that the mind is nothing but matter, and of passion, or of an eolivened imaginatbar thought is motion, affirms not only tion, formed most commonly into regular what is unintelligible, but what is contra- numbers. The historian, the orator, the ry to the fact. In the one case we are philosopher, address themselves for the considerably at a loss to know how the inost part primarily to the understandthing can be; in the other, we have suff- ing: their direct aim is to inform, to incient evidence to believe that it is not so. struct, to persuade. But the first aim There is one other view of the subject of the poet is to please, and to move; which I shall just mention. It may be and therefore, it is to the imagination said that thought itself is a simple body and the passions, that he speaks. He * of matter, an original attribute with may, and he ought to have it in his which it is endowed, or the result of the view, to instruct and reform--but it is sune ultimate principle or substance in indirectly, and by pleasing and moving, which the other properties of matter, as that he accomplishes his end. His mind hard and soft, round and square, are is supposed to be animated by some insupposed to inhere. But this is not the teresting object which fires his imaginanotion of materialism. It is not account- tion, or engages his passions and which, ing for mind from the vulgar and known of course, communicates to his style a properties of matter, but from an en- peculiar elevation suited to his ideas; tircis unknown and undefined principle, very different from that mode of expreswhich may be called spirit as well as sion which is natural to the mind in its malter. , For we have only to reverse calm and undisturbed state. The Greeks, the reasoning, and say that the common fond of attributing to their own nation properties and operations of matter orl the invention of every art and science, ginate in the same power or substance, have ascribed the origin of poetry to of which thought is a characteristic pro- Orpheus, Linus, and Musæus. There perty, ibat is, in an intellectual or spiri- were perhaps such persons as these, who tual substance, and that they ought there were the first distinguished bards in their fore to be called spiritual. It is only en own country. But long before such larging the sense in which we use the names were beard of, and among nations word mutter, and making it stand for God where they were never known, poetry or nature, or substance in general. The certainly existed. It is a great error to question is, whether thought is a primary, imagine, that poetry and music are arts distinct, essential, quality of some sub- which belong only to polished nations. stance, or, whether it is merely a second. They have their foundation in the very ary, artificial result of the known proper-. nature of man, and belong to all nations, ties of matter organized in a particular, and to all ages, though, like other arts manner. We can only say, in propriety founded in nature, they have been more of speech, that mind is the same thing with cultivated, and, from a concurrence of famauer when we mean that its laws and, vourable circumstances, carried to greatoperations are the same with those of gross er perfection in some countries than in Intter, as these are cognizable to our others. I bordenat a senses, and the objects of physical sci- These general observations upon the ace. Otherwise we come to no expla-r nature of poetry, in its first acceptation, mation at all but are left as much in the lead us to the consideration of the Ode dark as ever, and very iinproperly apply a word, which in itself signifies song. It to an arbitrary abstraction of our own, a is not, however, our intention to enter ter, whicho never used but in connection into a lengthened discussion upon the sub certain definite idens, or the known - Iyre of the ancient Greeks—the associnmasure of matter. This letter has run to tion of music and dancing among that
near lagts than I intended, and I people, their Strophe, Antistrophe, and or resume in subject in another letter, Peristrophe, which marked the move 1 paphould dcem what I have already ments adapted to accompany the person
b e attention of your read who held the instrument the freedom : chaus How W. H.with which they ran from one strophe ta
another, so that the sense by which they temporary execution, nor were they combegan the first, was completed only in pelled to the adoption of a subject steril, the second---nor upon the possibility of uninteresting, or frivolous. They mediaccording these suspensions of the poet's tated, beforehand, the subject of their meaning with the measure of the music songs; they proposed to themselves the and the steps of the dancers. All these most grave and sublime compositions; dithculties have sufficiently exercised the their enthusiasm was not excited to please learned; and many are yet unexplainedl. a circle of idle auditors; but, in the midst The history of the arts and sciences of armies, to the sound of warlike instruamong the ancients, may be compared ments, they sang of valour, the love of 10 an inmense country, overspread with their country, the charms of freedom, the monuments and ruins—with specimens hope ot' victory, or the glory of dying in of the most finished architecture, inter- battle. It was among a people to whoin miogled with every symptom of decay they celebrated the majesty of laws and and fallen splendour. The ancients them the empire of virtue-in funereal games, selves have left us no traditions, by which where, before a tomb covered with trowe can ascertain the history of the origin plies and decorated with laurels, they reand progress of art among them. They commended to posterity the memory of appear to have taken no precaution some personage who had lived and died against time or future barbarity. It in the service of his country-in feasts, would seem, that they dreaded neither where, seated by the side of kings, they the one nor the other; and when we applauded the deeds of heroes, and sticonsider the long and brilliant part they mulated the inovarch to the laudable deacted in the annals of mankind, we can sire of being celebrated in his turn by readily excuse their having been lulled future poets equally eloquentaor in a into security, by this bigh opinion of temple, where the sacred bards seemed their glory, and the iminortality of their inspired by those gods whose power they works.
exalted and whose goodness they proWhen, in Italy, we hear a skilful Im- claimed. In a word, the idea that we provisatore, preluding upon an instru- are to form of an ancient lyric poet in ment, siny a prolusion of verses exten. the highest elevation of the ode, is that poraneously upon a given subject--when of a virtuous enthusiast, who, with the we perceive hiin, as be advances, become lyre in his hand, endeavoured to allay more animated, and accelerate the move- sedition-who, in a period of public pient of the air upon which he composes, disaster, gave hope to those who deand then produce ideas, images, senti- spaired, and courage to those who were ments, and long strains of poetry and ready to sink-wbo, in the hour of suceloquence, of which he would have been cess, recorded the exploits of his counincapable in moments of greater calm. trymen who, in the solemnity of a ness, and sink at last into a state of ex- feast, auginented its interest and splenhaustion similar to that of the Pythian dour-or who, in the games and exercises goddess, we recognize that principle of peculiar to his nation, excited the emuinspiration and enthusiasın common to lation of the candidates, by the hope of the ancient poets; and are, at ouce, victory, and the certainty of reward. filled with astonishment and pity. With Such was the ode among the Greeks, astopishinent, to find those emotions real. With a people who worshipped their heized, which once were deemed fabulous roes, even more than their gods, the -aud with pity, to behold these efforts character of a lyric poet could not fail of nature employed upon a futile and to be highly important. lle was revered evanescent art, from which the Improvj- as the friend of the Muscs and the favousatore can claim no other success than rite of Apollo. The enthusiasm of the the pleasure of having amused a few cu- people stimulated that of the bard-and rious auditors while all the pictures, all the genius of the country was devoted sentimcuts, and beautiful verses, which to this divine art. But what contributed escaped him in the rapid moments of bis still more to the character of grandeur delivery, are gone, and leave no other which it assumed, was the use which was impression but the vibration produced by made of it for political purposes, by coitthe sound of his voice. It was thus, no necting it with the establishment of laws, doubt, that the ancient lyric poets were and the reformation of manners. If we animated; but their inspiration was more could suppose in the middle of Rome, worthily and niore usefully employed. Pergolese or Somelli, a lyre in his hand, They were not exposed to the hazard ofex with the voice of Timotheus and the clo.
quence quence cf Demosthenes, recalling to the “All otles," says Dr. Blair, “ may be Inemory of the inodern Romans the splen comprised under four denominations, dour of their ancient city, and the virtues First, sacred odes; hymns addressed to of their ancestors, we inight form an idea God, or composed on religious subjects, of the lyric poet, among the first inlabi. Of this mature are the psalms of David, tants of Greece. Such was Epimenides which exbibit to us this species of lyric in the middle of Athens, Thersander or poetry, in its highest degree of perfecTyrtæus in Sparta, Alceus in Lesbos. Not tion. Secondly, heroic odes, which are that the lyric bard always maintained this employed in the praise of heroes, and in serious character-but his language, in the celebracion of martial exploits and every variation of his style,
grent actions. Of this kind are all Pin. From grave to gay, from lively to severe,
dar's odes, and some few of llorace's.
These two kinds ought to have sublimity was always the language of nature, and and eleration for their reigning character. adapted to the dignity of his subject, or Thirdly, moral and philosophical odes, suited to the peculiarity of his own feels where the sentiments are chiefly inspired ing and situation. Anacreon sang the by virtue, friendship and humanity. Of joys of wine and pleasure, because he this kind are many of Horace's odes, and was a wine-drinker and a voluptuary. several of our best modern lyric producSappho was the poet of love, because tions; and here the ode possesses that she was herself the slave and the victim middle region, which it sometimes occuof love.
pies. Fourthly, festive and amorous orles, We have said, that the word ode is calculated merely for pleasure and amusesynouitous with song. It is from this ment. Of this nature are all Anacreon's; circunstance, of the ode's being supposed some of Horace's; and a great number to retain its original union with music, of songs and modern productions, that . that we are to deduce the proper idea, claim to be of the lyric species. The and the peculiar qualities of this kind of reigning character of these ought to be poetry. Music and song naturally add elegance, smoothness and gaicty." to the warmth of poetry. By them we . A principal object in the consideration can express all the various feelings ot' of the ode, will be an inquiry into that the soul. The enthusiasm of admiration, species of enthusiasm, which is supposed the delirium of joy and love, the agony to be essential to its composition. An of grief, or the milder emotions of inelan- ode, professedly so, is expected to be choly, are all equally within the power of written in a higher degree of elevation song to delineate. In common life, the and spirit than soy other. If the poet sharpness of anguish may be softened, as be possessed of genius, he is allowed to well as the transports of joy exalted, by indulge it, in all its warmth and sublisinging and though the grief which is mity. He is not checked by those severe more fised and settled in the mind, would principles of correctness and propriety appear to betray repugnance rather than which other poems demand. He may inclination for inusic, we know that it is give free vent to all the fire and impetu
often sootbed by the same effects--as osity of his ideas, not controuled by the • Orphews is said to have calmed his sor- laws of metre, or restrained by the appasow for his loss, by the sound of his lyre: rent incoherency of the thoughts. Thus,
te solo in litore secum, Boileau, speaking of the ode, has obIe, reaiente die, te decadente, canebat. .. Sarrea u ., u selo 2009 ou nou you want my It is ease therefore to distingu: sh what Sonstyle impétueux souvent marche au
t are the subjects which more immediately
LTD belong to the ode. Whatever raises on
Chez ele, un beau désordre est un effet de
l'art. - L - exalls the soul above itself, whatever
PA va b o excites it to heroisin, or depresses it into But this observation can be true with
guar: whatever has a tendency to in- respect to very few, and can be excused are emotione spirited, melancholy, or only by genius. What is inspiration in alapous: the interesting dreams which one, may be extravagance in a thousand the tangiantion, and the variety othors. The freedom of writing without
which at summons to its order, method or connection, has infect m o nd, all the emotions of ed the ode more than any other species-
od is susceptible and is ca- of poetry. It is inconceivable to what doctibus are favourable to pitch of absurdity this licenciousness has
been carried. The self-created Pindar