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tense dry frost, hardly any snow on the the last fortnight, howerer, we had a ground; 14th to 26th, cloudy, and often great deal of rain, frequently accompaHazy and foggy, air coldish, but little nied with thick mist, wind rather easterly, frost; 26th, to end, fine mild weather, often calm. The rain proved favourable Wind westerly almost the whole of the to the grass fields, which by the end of month; barometer, on the 24tls, higher the month recovered their verdure, also than for several years before.
to the late corn as yet light in the ear, March. During the first five days we but rather retarded the ripening of the had fine mild spring weather, wind west ; forward and heavy crops in the low all the rest of the month the wind being comtry. unifornily easterly, the wcather proved dugust.We had a great deal of rain cold and dry, with the exception of the the first ten days, but the weather after24th, and part of the 25th, when we had wards gradually improved, and the last a fall of snow, though it dissolved imme. fortnight was favourable, both for ridiately after. The hills, however, c01). pening and cutting down the corn. This tinued very white, vegetation made hardly month has been uniformly warm, with any progress this month, but the ground the exception of the 26th, 27th, and was dry, and in good condition for agri- 28th, which felt rather cool. Till the cultural labours.
13th, we had eitlier easterly winds or April proved an uncommonly severe calms, but after that the west wind premonth. First three days rather clear vailed till near the end of the month, and sharp. On the 4th we had a violent when it veered rather to the south. Harstorm of wind and rain from the south. vest commenced in this neighbourhood west, which was followed by ten days of about the 15th, and got by degrees more fair moderate weather, wind west and general to the end of the month, when north-west. The next ten days resem- the greater part of the crop of the counbled the middle of winter, having heavy try adjacent, was actually cut down, falls of snow on the 17th, 18th, and 21st, Crop in general good, except wheat, air feeling very cold, with northerly which has suffered by the blight. winds : 26th to 29th, cold rather abated, September.-First fortnight, weather shifting from north to east, and shifting rather unsettled, frequently rain; but to the west on the 29th, the air turned from the 15th to the end, in general fair, sensibly milder. Vegetation as yet very and favourable for the conclusion of harbackward, and grass made little appear. vest, which even in late and remote parts ance.
of the country, was pretty well advanced May.-During the whole of this by the 30th; 1st to 8tb, wind was wese month, the weather was mild and favour- terly, thence to the 15th, east and worthable to vegetation, and in a great mea. east, and often misty; 13th to 22d, winds sure compensated for the backwardness rather variable, hitherto the weather had of the former part of spring. We had continued mild, some days quite warm, not many, either very cold or warm days, but after the 22d (autumnal equinox), but always moderate and agreeable wea- we had a sudden change from heat to ther, with frequent refreshing showers. cold; from that time, to the end of the On the 7th and 9th, we had thunder- month, west and north-west winds prestorms, accompanied with hail of an un- vailed, and felt very sharp. Potatoes, by usually large size. Winds this month this tiine, ascertained to be an abundant rather variable, mostly inclining to the and excellent crop. south of east and west. Swallows ap- October --First six days serene and peared the first week.
pleasant, wind westerly 7th and 8th June.-- First three days agreeable were very stormy, wind shifting from enough, brisk wind froin south-west, south 10 north. Next four days were 4th to 10th, coldish weather, often cloudy tolerably agreeable, but weather getting and misty, with a good deal of rain; colder, wind north-west. 12th to gotti. wind rather easterly, 10th to 30th. In air exceedingly cold, with north and general, serene, agreeable, and mo- north-west winds; snow lying on the derately warm; soinetimes clear, but of- ground on the 14th. A storm of wind tener cloudy and hazy; no rain except on and rain on the 20th, brought about a the 14th and 22d, when we had some milder temperature; wind changing to heavy showers, wind rather westerly. south-west ; but till the 29th, we had a
züly proved very warın throughout. great deal of windy, showery weather, First half was quite dry, so that the pase barometer keeping very low. The last lure was looking rather brown; during three days vere sercne and pleasant,
barometer rising very quick. This month quently, the mean heat of each month has been distinguished by frequent high is the result of riearly a hundred different winds and showery weather. On the observations, yet it is astonishing how 7th, 8th, 14th, 20th, and 25th, we had nearly the monthly and annual mean of heavy gales which did a good deal of the thermometer, at Edinburgh, agrees mischief at sea.
with that at Carlisle, though the latter November -To the 5th, mild weather, lies about ninety iniles due south from often quite clear; thence to the 15th, the former, and in a different situation. dark and gloomy, sometimes incliving to Edinburgh being contiguous to the east wet, but upon the whole, very little either coast of Scotland, and Carlisle to the of rain or evaporation; hitherto wind west coast of England. was easterly, often calm, cold, though but The barometer is higher at Carlisle little frost, and barometer kept up. On than at Ediuburgh, but this may be acthe 15th, wind shifting to south-west, we counted for by the different elevation of had three days of windy showery weather, the two; tire place of observation, at quite mild. On the 18th, we had a gale Carlisle, being only seventeen yards and from the north-east, but on the 19th, fifty feet higher than the sea, while the wind shifted to due west, and continued greater part of Edinburgh, though less so till the 27th, weather sometimes clear, than two miles distant from the sea, is and sometimes cloudy, with slight show- more than three hundred feet elevated
ers, coldish, but not frosty. On the 27th above its level. The variations of the ya frost set in, wind north, but only con- barometer, however, at the two places,
tinued to the 29th, when a storin of bear a pretty exact proportion to each wind and rain from the south hrought us other. soft weather again. Upon the whole, Edinburgh,
. ..G.W. this month has been tolerably agreeable Feb. 24, 1809. no severe cold, and only two or three days of high wind. ******
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine December. First fortnight, in general SR, soft, mild weather, wind westerly. Heavy TT is, I think, much to be regretted showers on the 1st, 2d, 6th, and 9th, 1 that, amongst all the modern discos barometer rising. On the 15th, wind veries and improvements, no method has shifting to north, weather grew sensibly yet been put in practice for communi. colder. On the 17th, we had a heavy cating the exact degree of time in which gale from north, accompanied with a a composer of music would have his lale snow, and a most intense frost set works performed. Dr. Crotch, indeed, in which continued till the 24th. On and perhaps one or two others, have sug' the 93d snow began to fall, and con- gested a method by which this difficult tioned without intermission till the mid-'- may be surmounted, but I fear the plan dle of the next day, when it lay about is not likely to be generally adopted. Me inches deep; that afternoon a thaw Nevertheless, for want of some such commenced, which dissolved the snow in expedient, it is no uncommon thing to the low country in four or five days, bear composers complaioing of the inthough the hills were still spotted. On justice done to their music, even at the she 30, wind shifted from north to east, principal concerts in London, by its being and sooth-east, in which quarter it re- performed either too fast, or too slow, faimad all the rest of the month, weather although in other respects it may brave ren doomy and disagreeable, with a every possible advantage. hand deal of nin nud sleet. Barometer, And not only new music, but the * hall of the month very steady. more ancient is also affected by this Rare The above Abstract and want of a criterion for judging of the emer is for the sake of a comparison exact time in which it ought to be per
nd, as penrly ne possible, in the fimined, to give it proper effect. na matter na similar communication. This must be obvious to any person
predpondent at Carlisle, inserted who occasionally frequents different ca dne for February.
thedrals, and pays the least attention to h a nd lowest of thermo this subject, as he will find a cmisider a n derstood the mem heat able variation in the time of performing
pued bol dost days of each the same "services and authems; and S e dar iroscere le see the Monthly Magasine for January
conser 1000, p.941.
even in the same choir, he will hear them by the terms adagio, allegro, and others, played faster or slower, by different per- inseinuch that although in the Time sons at the organ,
Table, one miniin is said to consist of And althongh most of these times inust, four quavers, yet these are played in an of course, be wrong (as there can be but adagio movement, much slower than one proper time strictly belonging to any even minims in allu-breve time. Were composition, or movement), yet every indeed these vague terms abolished, and one will justify his own measure. The a standard framed and adhered to for the advocate for slow time, for instance, will semibreve, minin or crotchet, then slow say he disapproves of hurrying the solenin music might be written in breves, and compositions for the church; whilst an- semibreves; andantes in minims and other will be no less offended by the crotchets; allegros and prestos in qua. dragging, languid style, in which they are vers, semiquavers and demiseiniquavers; sometimes performed, as though dulness and the analogy would be preserved were a necessary characteristic of church throughout, so that the degrees of mu. music.
sical time might be regulated by the geIn concerts too, one leader will play all neral divisions of minutes and seconds, quick movements with such rapidity, with as much certainty and precision as that half the orchestra are puzzled to the measures of length or weight are by keep up with him, and nothing is dis- the foot or the pound. But as matters tinctly articulated; whilst another, by stand, all that can well be done is, to fix falling into the opposite extreme, will separate standards for the different mea. mar the effect of the performance, and sures of udugio, largo, andante, allegro. communicate to it a languor and want of and presto, wbich are all that I think energy, which does not belong to it. necessary to be particularly defined and
And although it is by no means to be ascertained; the terms, larghetto, ailes supposed, that leaders' will always be in grello, prestissimo, and the rest being extremes, yet the precise medium is difheither diminutions, or accelerations of cult to bit; and as where matters are left their principals. And this order, or ar. to the opinions of individuals, such opin rangement of them, appears to me to nions will always vary; leaders and con- be the most generally acknowledged; it ductors will in general be inclined, in being the general rule to reckon the time some degree, to lean towards one extreme in adagio movements by quavers (that or the otber.
is, 8 in a bar in cominon time, or 6 in It is true that nothing can be more triple) and in largo movements by clearly laid down, than the proportion of crotchets (or 4 in a bar in common , the different notes to each other, in the time, or S in triple). As for the others, Time Table. But yet, if neither of these presto is universally allowed to denote be fixed as any standard, the only end the greatest degree of quickness, and that can be answered by this accuracy, andante forms the medium between is to enable the performers to keep lo largo and allegro. There is one more such time as the leader bappens to set terın sometimes used as a mark of time, out with
namely, vivace, which however seeine In the general divisions of time, into more properly to relate to the manner years, inonths, or days, the greater die of touching the instrument, or of bowing; visions being axed, and exactly ascer- as music may be played, spirituoso, (or tained by the motions of the sun and with spirit) without accelerating the earth, the smaller ones are accurately time. subdivided from them.
Although I am far from presuming to Also in all measures of length, weight fix this point myself, or absolutely to de or quantity, there are fixed standards for termine any standard for the 5 degrees of the pound, or gallon, or yard; so that it time before-mentioned, yet by way of is not left to opinion to decide how much doing something towards it, and exciting ought exactly to constitute any particu- others better qualified ļo set about it, lar weight, or measure, that may be re. I venture to suggest the following scale, quired.
which may be observed by means of the It will, however, probably be observed, pendulum proposed by Dr. Crotch, in that the analogy between the tables just the paper of the Monthly Magazine be. alluded to, and the Musical Time Table fore olluded to will not hold good; because, while the Let there be, for adagio timne, a ponforiner are subject to po varintion what dulum of 30 inches, to vibratr the quaver; ever, the latter is so essentially altered or s uld one of that length be found
inconvenient, it may be shortened to 7 tion was insensibly drawn to the many inches and a half, and every other vibra. coincidences, in the accoger given by tion reckoned.
him, concerning the creation and priniIn laruo movements, one of 24 inches tive ages of the world, and that of Moses to vibrate the quaver.
in the Book of Genesis. It may not, Andante ditto 16 2 inches, tn vibrate përhaps, be entirely without interest to Allegro ditto 45 the crotchets. some of your readers, if I present you Presto disto, 10 inches to vibrate the with some sentences of the greatest simiminim: from the strictness of which rule, larity, and by juxta-position make the however, some deviations may be made, coincidences appear the more conclusive. according to the respective meaning of They will be strongly demonstratire, that the words larghetto, allegretto, allegro, the ideas, imbibed by the Roman poet assai, and prestissimo.
respecting these priinitive times, sprang In the cathedral full-services, and in originally from the Hebrew source; and anthems, consisting chiefly of semibreves hence they will tend to evince, without and minims, perhaps about 100 miniins, adducing any other proof, that a know50 semibreves, or 25 bars in alla-breve. ledge of the Hebrew Scriptures extended, time in a minute, may be considered as and that their contents were, in some ayood standard. In triple time, how-' degree at least, accredited beyond the ever, the minims, &c. should be played liinits of the Jewish nation, rather slower, or not so many in a mi. In the beginning, God created the nute.
heaver and the enrth; and the earth was With regard to the manner of using, without form and void; and darkness was tins pendulum, it certainly may be ma- upon the face of the deep. And the naged by the person at the piano-forte, spirit of God moved upon the face of the immediately previous to the perforinance. waters, And God said, let there be light of apy new ylee, or piece, without being and there was light.." Gen, ia 1. 2. 3. observed by any of the audience. ', AL. « Ante mare et tellus, et, quod tegit omnia, leasly at rehearsals, it may be used for cælum, ctory different movement in new music, Unus erat toro naturæ vultus in orbe," according to the general rules, proposed, Quem dixere chaos; rudis indigestaque Tec according to any particular one that
moles." "Ov. Mer, 1, 5, 6; 7. may be appointed by the author, as is the
** «Hane Deus, et melior litem natura dires case in Dr. Crotch's publications. S om
mit." . ...Men 1017 In cathedrals too, a pendulum may be in this last sentence too, it is worthy suspended upon a lipok in the organ lofts of remark, that the word « Deus," does at the side of the keys, so as to be set in not seem, as it intended to be applied to mation whenever required, immediately any headlien deicy, but rather as'alluding before beginning a service or anthem, by to the one supremne God; altliongh the which means the length of the pendulum poet, in a subsequent verse, appears at a being marked in the organ book, at the loss to what deity he ought to ascribe bu nine of each composition, ditferent the great work of creations since he.. Organ players may be able to accompany speaks of him thus, in be gane pieces without varying the Quisquis fuit ille deorum.****
Ov. Met. 1, 32 Mer all: however, the retarks here. This circumstance brings to my recole
i nna only as I said before, suggeselection, the inscription on the altar ne chans and should they excite the at Athens, «Ayvadlw @sw," as mentioned by Bentide of my of the more eminent pros St. Pauls and they both together clearly factors of music, my end will be fully demonstrate, to what a pitch of igno Lautreck whether they agree with me in rance, with respect to the divinity, ido
to the proche asumber of vibra- latry hnd reduced two of the most refined
be determined upon the sub- face of the enrth. But to proceed.
that what ought to be matten ottago God created man in his dyn
image in the image of God created h
him. Gen. i. 27 b
a Fiaski in eligiem modaranta cuncta de
part of the golden age of the poet depia
e r in local colore the innocence and
happiness in which the scriptures repre- " Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra
duobus, sent our first progenitors to have lived in
Nomine Parnassus, superatque cacumine Paradise :
nubes : u Aurea prima sata est ætas, quæ, vindice Hic ubi Deucalion (nam cætera , texerat nulio,
Ov. Met. 1, 316, et seqa
Again; “And Noah builded an altar
unto the Lord, and took of every clean The fall of man, and the consequent beast, and of every clean fowl, and wickedness of the human race, are like offered burnt offerings on the altar." wise designated with great perspicuity Gen. vüi. 20. in the poet's iron age:
Flectunt vestigia sanctze - De duro est ultima ferro.
Ad delubra Deæ." Ov. Mer, 1, 372, et see Protinus irrupit venæ pejoris in ævum
- Procumbit uterque Omne nefas : fugere pudor, verumque fides- Pronus humi." Ovi Met, 1, 375, et sea.
qué." Ov. Mer. 1127, et seq. “Atque ita, si precibus, dixcrunt, numina a 'There were giants in the earth in Victa remollescunt, si flectitur ira deorum." those days." Gen. vi. 4.
Ov. Met. 1, 377, et seq. « And they said; go to, let us build a
Without adding any comments on the city and a tower, whose top may reach
above extracts, I shall, just request per unto heaven." Gen. xi. 4.
mission to close this coinmunication with « Affectâsse ferunt regnum cæleste gigantas, a sentence of Ovid, concerning the final Altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera mod.
destruction of the world, which is closely
connected with some already quoted, and Again; “And God saw that the wick which is in strict consonance with the edness of man was great in the earth, and belief of Christians, both as to the certain that every imagination of the thoughts of future occurrence of that event, and also bis heart was only evil continually." as to the element which is destined to aoGen, vi. 5.
complish it: Quà terra patet, fera regnat Erinnys : « Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, affose In facinus jurâsse putes." 00. Met. 1, 241, 242. Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque regio
tempus, Again;. «And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to Ardeat. * . Ou Mes. 1, 956, et segon destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath
Your's, &c. of life from under heaven; and every Hanslope. . W. SINGLETON thing that is in the earth shall die." Feb. 14, 1809. Gen. vi. 7. «Pena placet diversa, genus mortale: sub: To the Editor of the Monthly Magusing.. undis
SIR, Perdere, et ex omni nimbos dimittere cælo."
A Ov. Met. 1, 260, 261. Correspondent, who signs himself 1.. 1
A wa Native of Totnes," has lately Acain: -“And the Lord said unto amused us all here (Tornes), by his obe". Noah, come thou and all thy house into k
servations, in your valuable Magazine of ab, for thee have I seen righteous January last, on Mr. Windextus the ark; for thee bave is before me ig this generation." Gen. vii. 1. ous communication respecting the hike
Thus the poet, speaking of Deucalion, tory and present state of our place. Oar and his wife Pyrrha, says,
town, it is true, is but a little one, and «Non illo melior quisquam, nec amantior our numbers but few, and though we mayai
resemble the smallness, as well as (par Vir fuit, aut illa metuentior ulla deorum." don a little local vanity) the beauty of a
Ov. Me. 1, 382, 393. poor Anna Bullen's neck, yet we do not Again ; ( And Noah went in, and his possess a sufficient quantity of her philo sons, and his wife, and his son's wives suphy, calınly to submit to the unmerica with him, into the ark, because of the stroke of your anonymous Correspondant waters o: the food." Gen. vii. 7.
These papers have afforded us much wat " And the ark rested in the seventh ter for harmless discussion, and there month, on the seventeenth day of the some who have no doubt rotan at month, upon the wountains of Ararat," tlie writers, even were i ona y Gen, viu,
bave postponed the fate of man