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ASTRONOMICAL ANTICIPATIONS. The present month is remarkable for the occurrence of several very curious celestial phænos mena. The cbange, or new moon, will be on the 14th, at 564 minutes past sever, in the etening; and the opposition, or full moon, on the niorning of the 30th, at 19 minutes before one. On the morning of the 4th, there will be an occulration by the moon of the y, a star of the fourth magnitude in the constellation of the scorpion. The immersion will take place at the bright edge of the moon, at 34 minutes past two, apparent time ; and the cmersion will be at the dark edge of the moon 1h. 12m, afterwards. At the commencement of the phænoinenon, the star will be 3 minutes, and at the end 2 minutes, to the south of the moon's centre. At the time of the above occultation, a well-regulated clock will be 3m. 139. before a true sun dial. On the 14th, there will be a return of the visible solar eclipse of April 3, 1791; but hape pening, this month, in the night-time, it will, of course, be invisible to Great Britain. This eclipse will be central and annular, at noon day, corresponding to our 354 minutes past eight, evening, in that part of the globe having 74 degrees north latitude, and 198°52' west longi. tude from Greenwich. There will not be a return of the above eclipse visible in Britain, be'fore May 6, 1845. On the 291h will take place a notable eclipse of the moon, visible fron beginning to end co Great Britain. The circumstances of the eclipse will be as below: Meridian of ebe Royal Observatory at Greenwich.
Clock Time. Apparent Time."
11h. 2m. 57s. night | 11h. 5m. 28s. night
12 32 29 19 35 so Ecliptic Opposition
12 38 19 -12 41 31 End of the Eclipse, April 30,
2 2 41 morn. 2 5 32 morn. Digits eclipsed on moon's south limb, 10999'43". - This is the largest eclipse of the moon that will happen before the great total one of Febru. ary 15, 1812; for at the time of the greatest obscuration not less than seven-cights of the lunar disk will be immerged into the earth's shadow. Mercury will be in his aphelion, and at his greatest maritine elongation, on the 1st, when his angular distance from the sun will not be less than 27°45', a quantity very rarely exceeded by this planet. But the great rapidity with which 28 degrees of the sign Pisces, where the planet is, rises, will prevent his being seed at all with the naked eye in oor high northern latitude. Venus will appear remarkably bright and splendid this month. On the 1st, her angular distance from the sun will will be 44°39'; on the 15th, 40°35', and on the 30th, 31°7. The time of her greatest apparent illumination, as ic respecto the earth, will be on the 18th, when the planet's elongation from the sun is 39°18', according to the theorem of the great Dr. Halley. She may be seen this month with the naked eye in the middle of the afternoon, long before sun-sct. On the ed this beautiful planet will make a fine appearance among that remarkable group of faint stars in the neck of the bull, commonly known by the name of the seven stars, and by the ancients named Pléiades, from their supposed rainy influence on our globe. If it be a clear evening, she will be seen very nearly in conjunction with them, of the third magnitude, the brightest of the seven.
The conjunction taking place on the morning of the 3d, at about three quarters past our three o'clock, long after the planet is set, will consequently be invisible to Great Britain. Throughout the month Venus will not set till after eleven. Mars will be up the greater part of the night.. On the morning of the 9th, at our half past onc, he will be in opposition to the sun, at which time he is nearest to our carch, and consequently appears the brighest. On the morning of the lat he will come into conjunction with the Virgin's spike, a star of the 1st magnitude, when the planet will be 4° 38' co the north: and on the 17th he wide on junction with the $ in the Virgin, when their difference of latitude will be only 20 minutes of a degree, the star being to the south. Jupiter will be up in the mornings; but on account of the sun rising soon after him throughout the month, he will not be seen at all by then naked eye. Saturn will be still a morning-star. On the night of the ist, he Hiset at one minute past eleven; in the evening of the 15th, at six minutes past ten and in the evenia of the 30th, at six minutes past nine. In this month he will be found in that part of the zodiac, which lies betwecn 3 and 4 degrees of the siga Sagittarius. The Georgiu will be op almost the whole night. On the morning of the 28th, at aine, he will be the one position to the sun. On the 1st, the difference of longitude of this planet md the Ehr will be go 41'; on the 15th, 405; and on the 30th, 495% the planet in all the bcing about seven minutes to the north of the star.
Erretum In the Astronomical Anticipations to March
Line 14, for after sunset, Foad before sunset
TO CORRESPONDENTS If the gentleman, under the signature Salam in the Monthly Mail sanda note to Mr. Meyles, next to the pump room at Bach, addressed to T.e her every information concerning the subject of his enquiry.
TUIE MONTHLY MAGAZINE.
[4 of VOL. 27.
"As long as those who write are ambltious of making Converts, and of giving to their Opinions a Maximum of
& Influence and Celebrity, the most extenfively circulated Mifcellany will repay with the greatest Effee the # Curiofity of thure who read either for Amusement or Indrudion." - JOHNSON.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Monthly Magazine, tund, or roundish, concave : two exterior, less .. LETTER IV.-ON TEA.
unequal: four exterior, large, equal, before Nec vero terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt: - they fall off recurvate. Fluminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni The STAMINA.-The Filaments nume. Nascuntur, ntcriles saxosis montibus orni; rous, * filiform ; shorter than the corolla. Littora myrtetis lætissima: denique apertos The Ansberas cordate, bilocular. Bacchus amat colles; aquilonem et frigo- The PastIL.The Germen, three globular ... r taxi. Virg. G. ii. 109.
bodies joined. The Style simple, at the apex A FTER the subject of tea had been
trifid. After the petals and stamens are
fallea off, they part from each other, spread A introduced into your twenty-fifth
open, increase in length, and wither on the volume, page 305, by E. N. and page
germeo. 518, by Phytophilus, I presented three The Stigmas simple. letters on this exotic, pages 1, 97, and The PERICARPIUM.SA Capsule, in the 201 of your twenty-sixth volume. Feel form of three globular bodies united, trilo ing then, a reluctance in too often in- cular, gaping at the top in three directions. truding upon your readers, on a solitary, The SEEDS.-Simple, globose, angular though interesting vegetable, I courted on che inward side. the assumption of it by some more able The Trunk-Ramose, ligneous, round, pen; and which indeed was accepted in the branches alternate, vague, or placed in no page 414, of the same volume, though I regular order, stiffish, inclining to an ash cannot add that my expectations were
colour, towards the top reddish. . .
The PADUNCLES.Axillary, alternate lave troubled you with any further rea peduncles encreating in chickness, stipulate,
one or single, curved, uniforous, in crassate, the anarks, bad it not been for the botanical che stipula single, subulate, crest alternate, pouces of Capel Lofft, esq. wluch also elliptical, obtusely serrate, edges between hare not afforded me that clear infor-, che teeth recurvate...! mation, which might have been antici. The LEAV». Apex emarginate, at the pated from this, able writer. Hence I am am encouraged to offer a more copious ternally three lesser ones of the same form; history of it, for the amusement, if not however, thu number in the lowers vary information, of your readers. ... considerably, which may account for the
Some account of coffee has been in- mistake of Dr. Hill and Linnæus, (who troduced into your miscellany, vol. xxvii.
. described this plant on Dr. Hill's authority,) page 23; and by Capel Lofit, esq. p. 28.
de who make the green and bohea tea two disla a subsequent number I may presume mer, and six to the latter. See Amen. Acada
De tinct species, giving nine petals to the fora to trouble you frith a few additional re-tv. vii, p. 248. Hi, Exot. i, 99. Kempfer... marks upon it, which will probably be Amenitat. Exot. p. 607. Breyn. Exet. Plant. the last letter on these beautiful ever + Cext. i. p. 3. Hist. de l'Acad. des Scien. 1776., greens, from
TUAA-PRILUS. Tp. 52.
+ Authors differ guch as to the size of the BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. W tea-tree. See Le Compe, Lond. 1697, 8vo. Ast illa ORDER 1. POLYANDRIA P. 228, Du Hulde, Descr. Générale de le Chine ** N ONOGINIA.
Paris, 1755, fel. A sem. Lond. 1736, Bro.in the Caza. Pariantbincan quinque-par- vol. 4, p. 48. Guil. Piro; in Itin, Bras, Aman, eremull, dass the aegments round, Ewa. Lengoia, 1718, 8vo, p.605. Asbecks. manent
China, vol. 1. p. 247. Eckel org's Accoughof OROLLA. -The Paal dx, dubro- the Chinese Husbandry, vol. 2, p. 333. ***
No author hitherto has remarked this se kuadred spectangna of ten obvious circumstances aven Kempfer himself Mave whinined, the greatesc says, that the leaves terminate in a point.
laty pele, nati n Exof, PET 811122
base very entire, smooth, glossy, bullate,* intrinsic merit, derived their principal venose on the under side, of a firm texture, recommendation from having formed a on footstalks ; the footstalks very short, part of the good work which they patrofound on the under side, gibbous or bunching nized? The patriotic intentions, therefore, out on the upper side, fiactish, and slightly of the original institutors are beyond all channelled.
question: they cannot be doubted for an The common names Bohea and Green Tea.
instant. There is but one species of this plant. The
With regard to the plans of the institudifference of bohea and green tea, depending upon the nature of the soil, the culture and tion, somewhat more of uncertainty an
It was not, for a manner of drying the leaves, and the time of pears on the surface. gathering them.
time, so clearly ascertained, whether these were laid with a view to excite the
enthusiasm of genius, and elevate the For the Monthly Magazine.
pretensions of a great nation in the arts, · THE ENQUIRER.- No. XXVII. or whether they took for their object the WHAT is the PRESENT STATE of PUBLIC more numerous and ordinary branches of
KNOWLEDGE, and PUBLIC DISPOSITION, art, and were designed principally to adin regard to the FINE ARTS?
vance the useful improvement of our fur.
niture and pottery. Tu quid ego, et mecum populus quid senciat, audi.
This ambiguity arose chiefly from the
prospectuses of the institution, which, at 11 this question, the benevolent atten- different times, publickly announced both tion of the British Insticution to the state the designs above-mentioned; but as, in of the public mind with regard to painters, the progress of the scheme the former has it was next proposed to enquire into the been regularly professed to be predomi. methods and merits of that institution, nant, it is with reference to that point of with respect to the essential advancement view only, that it can be proper to proof the fine aris in England.
ceed in an enquiry into the effects likely For this purpuse it will, first, be neces- to result from the undertaking: nor would sary to distinguish the beneficent and lie it be fit even for this to take place without beral zeal of the promoters and directors premising a wish on the part of the enqui. of that establishment, from the plans rer, to be fully understood as not in the which bave been formed for the purposes slightest degree undervaluing the laudable they desired to accomplish; and, again, to efforts of the British Institution, but as distinguish those plans, originally formed cordially and earnestly desiring its ascent in consequence of their wishes and de- to the highest accomplishment of its pursigns, from the subsequent execution of poses. them, as far, at least, as it has hitherto ta- The mode, or rather, to speak with ken place.
more fairness, the degree in which the Concerning the original design of the extensive desires of the directors and subinstitution, it will be at once sufficient to scribers have been actually carried into ask, for what but noble purposes could a execution, with the advantages hitherto combination be formed of the most opu- offered to the exhibitors and students, leit, elevated, and illustrious characters have been already shewn, in the former in the kingdom? with what but the most li- part of this enquiry, to consist of the sale beral view's could they direct their attenle of pictures, rewards for imitation of the tion to arts, with which they had scarcely works of great masters, and opportunities any other acquaintance, than from the of copying those works. cries and complainings of their professors? Of these three points, the last-inenwhat but the most genuine benevolence tioned is, in its general design, truly laudcould incline them to assume the trouble- able: a collection of pictures by the greatsoide ofiice of agents, for the artists, with est masters of the art being a necessary the public, and to become the almost gra- part of the foundation of a school of paints tuitous publishers of their workstand,what iny. But the late restrictions laid on the but the most highly disinterested motives students, whereby they are forbidden to could draw from their superfluous wealth, copy more than parts of the pictures pla(so long assigned to different channels) the ced before them for their study, are, 16 prices of pictures, which, exclusively of must be confessed, nearly incomprehen
sible. Do not the worthy patrons of the • When the upper surface of the leaf rises institution know that composition is an in several places in roundish swellings, hol. elementary part of painting, and that it low underneath.
includes the whole arrangement of a pice
ture? tare? If it he not worth the student's pains they exist in the elevated patrons of the to study this whole, how is it more worth British Institution, lo any improper conthem to copy the parts of a picture? It sciousness of superior station, and they must, no doubt, be allowed, that, as some will be inore fuirly construed to indicate pictures possess great happiness of com- the voice of Ilope. But, will the benevoposition, but have little to recommend lent hopes of the patrons be in this inthein in any single incident, there are also stance realized? It is undeniable, that paothers, which, although brilliant and even tronage will produce painters; but the enviable in particulars, do not exhibit the question is, will the present patronage comprehensive intellect of a master in the produce painters of the bighest classi Will composition. But are all the pictures it not be discovered, in process of time, which the patrons send to their gallery, perhaps unfortunately at too late a mo- . unfortunately of this latter description? ment, that the groundwork of science, so The patrons, not being professors, may essentially requisite to excellence in the very reasonably doubt, whether they are arduous pursuit, is wanting, and that it is or not; but why should not the student, in vain to solicit the dexterity of the haud, whose business it is to acquire knowledge where there has been no previous ade. in this respect, be left to his own choice, qoate information of the mind? to copy that which he judges to be most But if there be any error in the stateuseful
ment just made, of the probable effects of The imitation of the works of other the British Institution on painting or sculpmasters, by making companions, as they ture; if the hopes of a productive sale will are termed, to certain specified pictures really clicit genius, 'or what is the same of the collection, may be dismissed aš nu- thing, induce such a cultivation of intelgatory:
lect as to bring forth the fruits of genius, The sale of pictures is an act of charity, we have only to wish, that, taking into to be extolled as such.
consideration the degraded state into But, taking the whole of these advan- which critics declare our poetry to be tages into view, and, for a moment, lay- sunk, another British Institution may be ing aside the higlily honourable gratifica. opened for the promotion of that art also, tion derived from the sight of multitudes and a sale offered for the productions of almost miraculously fed, let us enquire, numerous bards, who are now filled with
Can the production of works in the poetic fire, and whose conceptions are nefine arts be forwarded by the same me- vertheless in danger of being extinguished thods of encouragement as other manu- by neglect? ** factures? And, will the mere use of the "As a lover of every species of moral ad. palet, &c. and pencils make a painter " If vancement, I would in particular plead not, may it not be feared that the ready for the active prosecution of such a prosale, so freely set on foot at the British ject in respect to a class of poetry, in Gallery, may be more likely to promote which there are so many perversely pleapictures than painting And conceiving, sant sufferers-I mean the drama; of as has been stated, that the real object in which (as before observed) all sound and view is to promote the progress of paint- scaunch critics every day protest that our ing towards the most elevated state of stage never bore so disgraceful records as which it is capable, if the institution were in modern days. Will not some charitá. to be regarded as having reached the ex- ble association call forth the sleeping cetent of its plan proposed for that purpose, nius of the drama, by conditions of sale, might one not, without hesitation, assert equally advantageous with those offered that it had proceeded on erroneous to the muse of painting. Then, if there grounds, and may it not in our vulgar be power in patronage, will tbe lost ho
plirase, be said to have begun at the nours of our lyre and mask be restored, . wrong end? For, does it not appear and England once more boast a Dryden
20 presume the scientific foundations of and a Shakespeare. painting nud sculpture to be already "Absurd ! cries Draco_"Is it not adequately laid in the country, and that sufficiently notorious that the emoluments nothing wanting but to excite dili- to be gained by successful dramatists are geoce and dexterity by the offer of re actually large enough to satiate the most
uriconscionable of the irritable race? And Let rewards it is said: be suffi- yet, where are our Congreves, our W. , del und the point is carried : patrons cherleys, our Massingers, our Snuthernes, dith nake. Painter. It would be truly our Vanbrughs, and our Rowes " This .
to cribe these sentiments, if reflection is so obvious and glaring, that
it never fails to excite indignation in the Is it absurd to say that, within the mastiff critics of our theatrical prizes, walls of the great city of London, there who, unlike to the benevolent genius of will scarcely be found irore than one the British Institution, employ their ut- individual of a thousand, perhaps of ten most endeavours to avert the public from thousand, who has the least solicitude the au:bors and the works of their own concerning painting, sculpture, or feels day; pitiable in their mischief, because the least concern whether they exist, or unconscious, that while they strive, as are annihilated in the country? vainly as basely, to rob the labourer of It is not designed to infer that, in this his hire, the malice they diffuse may respect, the citizens of London are ney. prove a poison to ingenuous effort, and lectful of a known duty, but that they prevent the maturity of that talent, whose are unapprized of the existence of any absence they affect to deplore. But some duty, with regard to the cultivation of oiber opportunity will serve for noticing the arts. Did they feel their cultivation the errors of critics : patrons are at pre. to be incumbent on them, the Enquirer sent on the canvass.
is proud to think (as one advantaged by It has been sarcastically remarked that, the friendship of many among them), as the painters can now gain ainple remu- there is not a city in the world that neration for their labour at the British would more strenuously concur in proGallery, nothing remains for them but to moting their advancement. But what shew that the want of patronage was their reason can they have for supposing the only deficiency, and to prove, by the im- fine arts to form a necessary object of mediate production of the most elevated public attention? The government of works, that their abilities were at all times England scarcely takes notice of their more ready than the uccasion for exerling existence, sets no example of their prothem,
motion; and the citizens of London, as Such a remark might naturally enough they emulate, so they follow in this point have been made by a journalist, whose the steps of government without a queswinged destiny permits him to assign tion. The citizens of London are too only so many minutes to each successive industriously provident for the welfare subject, before the printer enters the of future generations, too busily planning room to convey his thoughts to the press: the increase and perpetuity of England's but to a less busy, or less rapid enquirer wealth, too hospitably attentive to the it is obvious, that many painters in Engwarmth and plenty of their generous land, before the establishment of the boards, and too socially communicatiro British Gallery, did indeed want victuals, of the joyous moments of relaxation, to who could not paint without them; and seek any further refinement of delight, that, now that they can get fuod, they or to feel any great earnestuess to enwill paint. But, was food all that was quire whether any such exist. This wanting in thein? Will the amplest sequacious disposition of the city of Lone maintenance at once inspire rehned don, is discernible in the only instance, knowledge? And is eating the only in which the state has a Torded assistance thing requisite to rouse and elevate di. to one of the arts of design, by the moligence to professional eininence? numents which have been raised to the
So far then, the designs of the British heroes fallen in the defence, or to the Institution miay be considered as imper. statesmen renowned in the service, of fect, or, to speak more candidly, as im. their country. The city conseguently mature; for, as experience is the great raises statues and monuments to hernes instructor, why should not a hope sub- and statesmen; ask her why? She points sist, that the admirable perseverance, to Westroinster Abbey and St. Paul's. evinced in the prosecution of its plan, The judgment of the vulgar without will finally lead to the best and greatest the walls of the city is next to be noeffects?
ticed. There the arts, painting, sculpBut it is time to proceed. If such an tare, are in the mouths of every one. incoinpetent knowledge and estination of. The two first mentioned, indeed, have painting subsists in the minds of the en- engrossed to themselves the very name lightened and soperior classes of society, of the arts; and if you mean that those let us turn our attention for a moment words should be understood in their to the vulgar judgment on the arts, and more general sense, you find it necessary observe what a confused chaos is there to explain yourself accordingly. the consequence of those higher erro- But, observe the difference of the Teous sources
judyibent, that has arisen from the da