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of your very u

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tions it acts rather the part of an acid it

prefers evidently an alkali, an earth, or a IN No. 183 of your very useful metal, to any acid whatever; and the most

I miscellany, there are some obser- complete combinations innature are those vations respecting the formation of flints, in which this element predominates. Thus. from which your Correspondent con- in precious stones, and in numberless elades, that these substances are merely mineral productions, as well as in glass, a modification of calcareous earth. This porcelain, and other such articles, the theory, however plausible it may appear, alkalies, earths, and inetals are efectuais not new; for, in my remarks on the ally neutralized.. the most icuustíc are Identity of Siles and Oxygen," published rendered tasteless, the most opaque bein the Philosophical Magazine for March, come transparent, and the most poisoApril, May, and July, 1808, I here al nous mineral way be subdued into per luded to it, and offered some reasons for feet inertness, by this singular and most opposing it, considering the doctrine as universal of all bodies in nature. se totally inadmissible. Ad present I do I am aware of the objection respectnot recollect precisely where I had read ing that solitary case of fluoric acid but it, there being more than one authority having seen no such sult as the fluate of in which similar observations are to be siler, or any combination of the kind that found, but the first who noticed this - did not contain other matters, or that supposed transmutation was, I think, had not some palpable defect, I shall, for M. Girod.Chantrans, whose ideas on the present at lenst, pass the question. this subject are detailed in one of the The circular or nodular figure of Aints numbers of the “ Journal des Mines." that are found in chalk, does not demon

The compound nature of every species strate a progressive accumulation, this of calcareous earth, particularly of com. circumstance is rather a decided mark of mon chalk, in which flints most abound, solution or abrasion. This may be is an insuperable objection to this opinion. readily illustrated by familiar examples. Siliceous earth is comparatively oue of such as pieces of wax or metals while the most simple of terrestrial substances; meking, the solution of earths, stones. and hence it seems absord to suppose or metals in acids, or eren that of a piece such a mixture as chalk, or carbonate of of crystallized sugar in water for, in all liine, should so readily lose all the che these instances, the projecting or apgutacten of ito: respective ingredients, and lar parts are the first that yield to the that the lune, carbonic acid, water, iroll, solvento

P ho and silen in the state of fine sand, should There is no necessity to pursue this all cancer o forin such a sinple, pri- subject farther, as, in the remaiks rhich mitive, and indecomposable matter as I have quoted, it may be seen that I fitnes

hare already espoused the converte of Not only lime, but the whole list of this question, being rathor inclined to die aarths, diften so, manifestly in their concłade, that lime derives its existence mature and properties from silex, that it from silex frir, besides the pieces of soms preposterous to gociate them as flint that are obvious, and often in strata, na The earths nassess the powthere is not an atont of the purest chalk

had thay honorlize that is free from sand, or most minutely agde me peculine salta with each per dividen silex, and this with other cor

a hathin any parted roborating circumstances, has contra aksion for add to the alla dess there buted to lead any topinion that one

Cantruscrsion of this kind entot bowe such chaturs bine in all and h e hately comhled through the

MOSTELY Mao. No. 185. 5 K w onderfui,



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wonderful and omnipotent efficacy of tions on the primitivc Inhabitants of Great voltaic electricity. The earths, alkalies, Britain and Irclund.-llaving sought and other bodies, have submitted and un- this book, in vain at all the booksellers' folded their most secret connections, and in London, I was induced to apply to a the door seems to be opening to the most friend in Dublin, to procure for me all the inward recesses of Nature. Lime, among Geveral's publications on the history and other substances, has yielded its consti: antiquities of Ireland. My friend could tuent principles, and proves to be a me- only obtain two), viz. the Essay beforetallic oxide; but the case is not so de- mentioned, and the “ Vindication of the cided in regard to silex. When this re- Ancient History of Ireland," translated fractory body shall have also parted with froin various Irish manuscripts, wiih its elementary character, and its com- notes and observations. ponents are fairly demonstrated, I shall, This Vindication was printed in 1786, with unteigned satisfaction, reject a doc- in which the author shews, that the Coti trine which originated with myself, viz. of Ireland were the Indo-Scythæ of he that pure silex is the base of orygen gas. ancients, the Coti of the Alps, and the Whatever shall be the face of this opi, Cuthi of Scripture (ibat is, the ancient nion, it will always give me pleasure to Persians), and that Persia was the centre reflect, that it was inibibed, encouraged, of population of the western world. In and even published, before the late very this he was followed by Sir William interesting discoveries respecting the al Jones in 1792 (sce Asiatic Researches, kalies and the earths, and, consequently, vol. I.), and afterwards by Pinkerton, I cannot be accused of an attempt to Goropus, a German or Dutchman, in subvert or anticipate the just claims of his Historia Muniii, written in the last others, whose meritorious labours are century, shews that the Indo-Scythae first stamped with so much gerius and success. peopled Germany; and the General Long- Acre,

Your's, &c. proves from langnage, that the Cori of April 17, 1809.

Jos. HUME. the Alps were the Coti of Ireland.

These Alpes Co'i have been taken for To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Celtæ hy some writers: but Procopius calls SIR,

them Execzı, Scythæ; and he must be alDERMIT me, through the channel of lowed, as the General observes, to have

I your very entertaining and instruc- been the best judge of the origin of these tive Magazine, to offer a few remarks to people, having been Secretary to - Belje your learned readers, on what appears sarius during his wars in Italy. They to me, a very extraordinary circumstance were known afterwards by the names of in the literary world.

Valdois, Waldevises, &c, and their coune There actually exist at this moment try was called the Pays de Vaud by the two learned Englishmen, who, by strict French. enquiry I tind, have no communication Alex, on the ancient Churches of Piedor correspondence with each other, One mont, p. 169. acquaints us, that in (Captain Wilford) situated at Calcutta, his time, in Cainbridge, were written in the East Indies, a perfect master of copies of divers pieces of the Wal. the Sunscrit tongue; the other (General denses, and amongst thein an old ruangVallaacy) situated in Ireland, who is also script of some books of the Old and New acquainted with the ancient language of Testament; these, it was said, were that country. The first, from exploring brought over by Morland, sent ámbassatthe Puranas of the East, asserts, that dor from England to Turin in behalf of the old Hindus had a knowledge of these these people. (Essay, p. 69.) western islands, Britain and Irclund. In 1700 Chainberlayne published his The second, from very ancient Irish ina- Oratio Dominica plus centum linguis. nuscripts, asserts, and with strong rea- Among these we find that of the Waleon, that the ancient Hindu mythology denses. The reader will be surprised prevailed in Ireland, introduced by a to find, that so little alteration bad been colony of Scythians from India, known made in the language of the Alpes Coti to the Greek writers by the name of and the Coti of Ireland of this day, in Indo-Scythæ, and that with these came that distance of time. a colony of Chaldaans.

The General then proceeds to the col I bave been led to these remarks by a lation, which appears to me to be as culetter in your Magazine of June last, rious a subject in literature, as is to be signed Agricola, who there gives a short met with, and well worth recording in Anulysis of the General's recent Observat- your learned Magazino.



Irish. 1. Our n'Arme ata air neambh,t

1. Air n'Airm ata air neamh. Our Father, &c. 2. Beanich a tanim,

2. Beanachar cainm. Hallowed betly name. 3 Go diga do riogada,

3. Go Itizea do rioghachda. Thy kingdomn come. 4. Gu denta do hoill air talmhuin, mar ta ar 4. Go deantar do thoill (pron. hoill) ajra neamh,

talmhan, mar ta air neamh. Thy will be done, &c. 5. Tabhar dhim an mugh ar naràn limbhail, t 5. Tabhar dhuin aniugh ar naràn laeanıhail,

Give us this day, &c. 6. Agus mai dhuine ar fiack, ambail mear 6. Agus maith (pron. mai) dhuine ar fiach, marhmhid ar fiecha, $

amhail mir maithmhiúne ar fiacha, And forgive us our trespasses, &c. 7. Na leig sin ambharibh;

7. Na leig sin am bhuaribh. Leave us not in temptation, 8. Ach soarsa shin on odc. 1

8. Acht saorsa sin on olc. . But deliver us from evil. 9. Or 'sicatsa rioglita, comhta, agus gloir on 9. Or is leatsa rioghacta, cumbacta, agus sibhri.

gloir gan siorraidbe. For thine is the kingdom, &c.

The General then observes, that the appears between them, (says he) so old British and Cornish are supposed to that if the learned will have them to be genuine reinains of the old Celtic, and be streams from one cominon fountain, he gives the Oralio Dominica, in each of it must he allowed, that one or both have those dialects, from the same author been greatly polluted." (Chamberlayne). They differ toto cælo This similarity, or rather identity, befroin the Irish, and he adds, « the inye. tween the Lord's prayer, in the language nious and accurate translator of Mallet of the above-mentioned Coti, adds the has collected specimens of the Pater- General, is not less strong, than the siNoster in all the Celtic and Gothic din milarity of the theology and mythology lects." After many observations on of certain sects of the Irish Coui, and of thern, he acknowledges, that he cannot the ancient Persians, and Brahmins of think the Irish and Welsh equally de. India. (Essay, p. 73.) rived from one Celtic stock, at least not From a very ancient vellum MSS, now in the same manner as any two branches in Trinity College, the General makes of the Gotlic. Scarce any resemblance the following extract:

" The colony of the Dedanites, named In modern Irish, it is n'Athair.

Tualha Dedan, or the Haruspices of De

Arme and atbair are synonimous, both signifying

dan, in Irish history, descended from origin, root, &c. See aibair in the Prospec.

Cush, the sou of Ham, and arrived in Iretus of an Irish Dictionary, co!lated with the land, A. M. 3303 or 705, before the oriental tongucs by the General. -Nichols, birth of Christ." According to Bochart, Pall-mall.

Dedap the son of Rhegma, the son of + Neambh. This word is corrected in Cush, settled in or about Oman, whence num-4

this colony in Irish history is sometimes I It is evident, dbim and mugb are errors of

named Fir l'Omuhun, or men of Oinan. the press, or copyist, as they are corrected in To this succeeds a list of the deities and the subsequent passage.

sub-deities introduced into Ireland by The crrors of the press, or copyist, in

these Dedanites. this paragraph are visible.

As iut so sios Muike Tuntha-Dedan; # Soarsa for Saorsa, an error of the press. Schin for sin. Sin in Irish is pronounced

i e, there follows a list of the Muih (or shin. S before E and I. pronounced as SH.

sob-deities) of the l'uatlia-Dedan. Comhta for cumhacta, sibhri for sior. 1. Mogh nua dhat, uirgid lumh; i. e. raidhe (siorrahi) nust be muistakes of the Co. the Magus of the new law, the slivere Pyist.

banded, that is, Surdust the first ( Soro


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aster) whose name in Persian implies, . Dile Ruaid, Noah's flood (Shaw's Gaelic gold or silver-handed.

Dict. &c.) Easar Rumid, the cataract 2. Lugh, Lu-lanh-fada ; i.e. Lu, the tall of Ruad, the name of the great water-tall Lama or priest. The office of Luma was at Ballyshannon-Ruadh boine, foodcommon to all the Southern Scythians : water (idem.)-boine in Irish, and bin it is now written luamh, and translated Posts in Arabic, signifies a tract of abbot, by the Irish lexiconists.—More country and in the Chaldæan xgn, Rudu,

Tibelanorum Lou est Lo, presbyter, nomen angeli pluviis et irrigativni tersacerdos, princeps, summus. Lamam ita qe prefecti (Buxtorf).-Essay, p. 25. habeas supremum Chatavæ. Lama Reim- To this I must add, that the General boiche, Tibetanorum pontifex maximus. in another place sbews that Budha, or (Georgius Alpab. Tibet. p. 689.) Butta, had his temple in Ireland, nam

3. Eo cad, ill dathuc, Din Teibith, Buttu-fun, the temple of Butta, now i. e. Penis sanctus variorum colorum, Butta-vant, in the county of Cork. Deus Naturæ. Pasupati vocant Nepal. These examples, and many others, lenses phallum seu Lingam, quadrifor- Mr. Editor, which would be too long for mem; favi, rubri, viridis, albique co- insertion in your valuable Magazine, apJoris. (Georgius Alp. Tib. p. 152.) pear to me to form such a mass of evi

4. Budh deurg; i. e. ruddy Budh- dence, in favour of the general's system, Many lamas or priests of Budh, says Sir of these western islands being peopled by William Jones, have been found settled Indo-Scythians, mixed with a body of in Siberia; but it can hardly be doubted, Chaldæans, which (to use the words of that lamas had travelled from Tibe:, Agricola) it will not be easy to overwhence it is more probable, that the throw. religion of Budha was imported into Why so learned a work, so new in its Southern Chinese Tartary ; since we principles and discoveries, should be know that rolls of Tibetian writing confined to Ireland, and esteemed conhave been brought even from the borders traband in England, I cannot imagine. of the Caspian. The complexion of Certain I am, that the more it is commuBudha himself, which, according to the nicated, the more it will be admired, and Hindus, was between white and ruddy, will make it appear more than probable, would perlaps have convinced Mons. that the Hindus had a knowledge of Bailly, had he known the Ivdian tradi- this part of the globe, of which Mr. Wiltion, that the last great legislator, and ford seems so positive. I beg leave to god of the East, was a Tartar.

conclude with an extract from that gen5. Searcha so, craobh dearg ; i. e. tleman's last publication, and hope I Seaccha tbe good, of the ruddy branch or shall not trespass on your patience. family. According to Georgius and La In the last volume of the Asiatic ReCroze, Seaccha was the same as Budha. searches, Mr. Wilford resumes the subXacam cundem esse ac Buddum, La ject of the sacred isles in the west. Croze aliique non dubitant. Xacæ 10- “I have (says he,) vnitted no endeaminis origo a Saca Babiloniorum, Persa- vour to render this work as free from rum numine repelenda. (Georg. p. 21.) imperfections as my abilities would al

6. Phearaman, mac Budh dearg ; i. e. low; but the subject is so novel, and the Pearaman, son of ruddy Budh. This source of information so reinote from the was Paraman, the founder of the Bra. learned in Europe, that I must confess I mins, " Jai remarqué que les Brąmes feel no small degree of uneasiness on aimaient à etre appelles Paramunes, par that account. respect pour la memoire de leur ancestres « The grand outline, and principal qui portoient ce noin (Bailly, Lettr, sur feature of this Essay, are also well known les Sciences," p. 202). “ Pausanias nous to pandits and learned men in India. A dit, que Mercure, le même que Butta few passages, anecdotes, and circumou Budha vn des foniateurs de la doc- stances inay be, perhaps, unknown to trine des Paramenes ou Brames, est many of them; but these are perfectly appelle Parammon." (Gebelin, llist. Cal. inmaterial; and whether allowed to rePref.)

main us 'not, neither my Toundation nor 7. Il brcac Easa Ruaid; i.e. the ever superstructore can lie affected. blessed Rund of torrents and cataracts. "The sacred isles in the west, of which It appears i hat Ruad was the presiding Switaduipa, or the white island, is the deity over waters. The great food of principal and the inost famous, are in fact Noah, they say was perfected by Rund. the Holy Land of the Hindus. There the

fundamental fuudamental and mysterious transactions lected book, “ The Elements of Speech of the history of their religion, in its rise London, printed for F. and C. Dilly, and progress, took place. The White 1773;" or, if 110 such memoir be exIsland, this holy island in the west, is so tant, who could furnish any particulars intimately connected with their religion relative to him, and to his public lec and mythology, that they cannot be se- tures in particular; and also to any Core parated: and of course, divines in India respondent who could supply any parare necessarily acquainted with it, as ticulars relative to Mr. Cockin, author of distant Mussulinans are with Arabia. the Art of delivering written Language.

* This I conceive to be a niost favoor Lond. Dodsley, 1775." A still greater able circunstance; as, in the present obligation would be conferred by any case, tbe learned have little more to do, authentic particulars relative to Mr, than to ascertain whether the White Joshua Steele, author of the invaluable. Island be England, and the sacred isles but, till of late years, unaccountably of the Hindus, the British Isles. After neglected, “ Prosodia Rationalis, or having maturely considered the subject, Essay on the Measure and Melody of I think they ure.

Speechi--Payne 1779." Such infor" It will appear in the course of this mation would, I believe (ultimately, at work, that ibe language of the followers least), be found to gratify a numerous of Brahma, their geographical knowledge, class of readers, as well as in particu. their history and mythology, have ex- lar.

Your's, &c. tended through a range, or belt, about Bedford-Place,

J. T. forty degrees broad, across the old Con- April 17, 1809. tinent in a south-east, and north-west direction, from the eastern shores of the Malayan Peninsula, to the westero ex For the Monthly Magazine. tremities of the British isles.

“ The principal object I have in view ACCOUNT of THOMAS MAJOR'S CONFINE, in this Essay, is to prove that the sacred


in the year 1746, interspersed with isles of the Hindus, if not the British isles, are at least soine remote country to

several AN ECDOTES OF POPISH BIGOT RY, the North-west of the old Continent; for

in a LETTER TO THOMAS HOLLIS, ESQ. I cannot conceive that they are alto

of' LIXCOLN'S INN, F.k.s. and s.a..

1772, REVISED and PUBLISHED by his gether utopian, or imaginary. But, a secondary one, is also to prove that the

GRANDSON, TUOMAS WILSON. greatest part of the legends, which for.

TO TUOMAS HOLLIS, ESQ. merly obtained all over the western parts

DEAR SIB, of the world from India, to the British

THE desire you expressed that I ixtes, were originally the same with those

I should commit to paper the circumfound in the mythology of the Hindus."

stances of my confinement in the BasThat these legends and inythologies of

tille, in the Hindus did extend to the western

the year 17:16, is a sufficient part of the world, General Vallancey's

motive for iny endeavouring to satisfy a writings fully prove-a circumstance very

curiosity arising from your enlarged

ideas, and love of humanity, An addi. ratioually accounted for by the General, who traces the emigrations of the Indo

tional reason for my coinplying with your Scythians, to the Caspian and Euxine,

request, is the apprehension that the fact from thence to Spain, and lastly to the

may hereafter be disputed, since though

I had mentioned it ja my work of the British isles. Cheupade,

Your's, &c.

Antiquities of Pæstum, I have oniitted it

in the French edition, being unwilling to April 16, 1809.


offend a vation, to which I had so many

obligations for iny improveinent in the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, arts. To thein, the name of the Bastille SIR,

is accompanied with very disagreeable | SHOULD be much obliged to any

ideas. The horror which every citizen

entertains of this state-prisun, (since T of your ingenious Correspondents, who could furnish, through the modium

Cardinal Richelieu, and Louis XIV. conof your valuable miscellany, any intima. tion relative to any exisung memoir of Of 14, Cumberland-street, PortmanMr. Johu Herries, A. M. author of a neg. square.

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