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Theologians, and most, if not all their between the Black and the Caspian manuscripts, relate to ecclesiastical af- seas. The middle is interspersed with fairs. This circumstance is easily ac- glaciers, while all the sumınits are counted for, as on the fall of Constan- covered with snow, which the sun has tinople, and the dissolution of the Greek not power to dissolve. It extends about empire, great numbers of the clergy took four hundred and fifty miles in length, refuge in their country, whither they at while its breadth, in the widest part, is the same time carried whatsoever was two hundred miles. Elbutz is the accounted valuable. John Pertizi, about highest promontory, and its summit is the year 1100; during the reign of the estimated at four thousand five hundred Czar David, by whom he was patronized, feet above the level of the adjacent sea; translated many philosophical and theo. we apprehend, however, that the author logical works out of the Greek into his is here mistaken; for if this computatiou own vernacular language. Georgian be in the least accurate, it must neces. versions of Aristotle, Plato, and Por- sarily follow, that the Caucasus, in phyry, still exist; and Prince Orbelianow point of elevation, is a mouutain of the composed a dictionary, which is yet second or third order. preserved in Tefilis, but has never been T o the north, this immense range of printed. Persian manuscripts also hills bounds those extensive plains, oc. abound there; and they are in possession cupied, in the time of the Romans, ly of a History of Joseph and (Salicha, the the Sarmatians; it is now the residence wife of Poliphar; which in their language and hunting grounds of the Cossacks is denominated Usup Salichaniani. Or and Calmucks, who serve in the Russian their own original productions, the most armies, and are more celebrated as freecelebrated is the Tamariani, being an booters, than as warriors. To the south epic poem on the queen, or rather the it joins Mount Taurus; to the east it Czarina Tainar, to whom we have als gradually shelves, or declines towards the luded above. She is described as Juno, Caspian; while to the west, its abrupt rather dignified than beautiful, with a and rugged cliffs, extend towards the majestic aspect, and a “flowing gait,” Euxine sea. This impense mountainous... like to a river, “nobly rolling its waters tract is not so strong, in a military point along its bed." In respect to recent of view, as might have been expected; improvements, we are informed by the and indeed the armies of Persia, of Rusvery intelligent Russian Archimandrite, sia, and of Turkey, have all penetrated who composed this work, that the native into, and overrun it, with a facility that princes who lately ruled in Georgia, appears almost incredible. Notwithendeavoured to enlighten the people, by standing this, there are but two passages; the diffusion of knowledge. To achieve one that opens to Asia, and the other to this, they founded schools, and libraries; Europe; that situate near to where the they also established printing-presses, river Tereck takes its rise, has been deand appear to have been actuated by a nominated the gate of Caucasus; the noble spirit of emnulation. The Vice second is the defile of Derbend, or the Patriarch Anthony, who died in 1798, Caspian gate. compiled, or at least published, a gram. The isthmus of Caucasus has been mar, and a dictionary; circulated several long celebrated; and in its neighbourlop? elementary books relative to history are to be found, not only all the climates, aod geography; and caused many scien- but all the productions of Europe, and tific works to betranslated from the French Asia. The physiognomies and the di and German into the Georgian language. alects of the inhabitants, are all alike He also composed the funeral sermons of various; and the author, not unmindful a number of saints and martyrs, who died that he is a Russian by birth, after en fighting for their country.

merating the various nations, who either After having treated thus fully of the roam at large, or are settled here is history and literature, we shall now ex- eager to convince his readers, that, ham tract some information, relative to the ever barbarous, or however distant, the geography of a country, bounded by the all own the emperor for their ligge lords dominious of the Turks, the Persians,

BIOGRAPIY, and the Russians; and subject, in turn, "Eloge du Citoyen Riche, par leCH to them all. Mount Caucasus, which Cuvier: An Eulogium on the appears to have been to the full as well Riche, by the Citizen Cuvier · known to the ancients as the moderns, Claude Anthony Gmbard Richie

erlends its immense chain of hilly region M.D. of the faculty of Me


member of the Academy of Sciences, of corrected with his own hand, are still in that city, and also of the Natural Society existence. of Paris, &c, was born at Lyong, on the Vicq d'Azir, accordingly, on all oc28th of August, 1702. His father, N. casions, was ready to do him ample Riche, had been deputy to the attorney- justice; he praised hiin several times in general of the parliament of Dombes, his writings, and was accustomed to and he was also the younger brother of prophecy that he would be bis successor, Prony, a member of the first class of the Riche, however, survived him no more Institute. Destined originally for the than two years; these were chiefly oce law, he resided, during some years, with cupied by a long voyage, of which we an attorney, in his native city; but intend to give an account, as during that having obtained full liberty to follow his period, he acted a very conspicuous owii inclinations, in consequence of the part, in consequence of his zeal for the death of his father, he repaired to progress of science; to which, indeed, he Montpellier, with the view of resign- devoted the whole of his life. ing binself wholly to the study of It is with a certain degree of affection, nature,

that the name of the unfortunate La During a residence of three years, Pérouse is always mentioned. Sent to Riche applied himself to the sciences the South Sea, to reconnoitre those lands allied to medicine, more especially which the immortal Cook had not been natural history and physics. While in able to visit, be set out, in 1735, with that city, he sustained several theses, instructions to return in 1788. But and distinguished himself by one in par. these three years elapsed, and no intelticular, on the cheinistry of vegetables, ligence whatsvever was received conreplete with ingenious experiments : in cerning hini, posterior to his departure fine, his reputation was now so well esta- from Botany Bay. It becaine extremely blished, that the Academy of Sciences of probable, and indeed appeared evident, Montpellier, elected him an associated at length, that he had either perished on correspondent, in express contravention some rock, or by ineans of some temto its own regulations, probibiting the pest. However, in the month of Januadınission of any medical student. IA ary, 1791, the Society of Naturalists 1787, he obtained a doctor's degree. proposed to the Constitutent Assembly,

Finding himself attacked at this period, to fit out a new expedition, to ascertain with a phthisis, which increased in the the fate of the former; and to resume, in exact proportion of his application, he case of misadventure, that project; the was obliged to resign his Tabours, and completion of which had been prevented seek for solace in the bosom of his fa. by misfortune. This scheme, equally mily; which he quitted, bowever, soon honourable to the nation, and advanafter, in order to repair to Paris : there, tageous to the cause of science, was lisencouraged by assistance of every kind, tened to with enthusiasm. and also urged forward by a noble emu. Two vessels were accordingly desJation, he continued to prosecute bis tined for the expedition: these were studies with renewed ardour. His ges called, Lu Recherche, and L'Espérance; nius, accordingly developed itself, in a D'Entrecasteaux, repaired on board the Variety of different meinoirs, particularly former, as commander of the expedition; one relative to the classification of ani- with Hernimy d'Auribeau, as his captain, mals by their inierior parts; another, Crepin, his lieutenant, &c. Huon, who concerning larve; a third, which had for possessed the rank of captain, comits object an account of inicroscopic inanded the Recherche; while Frobriart animals; and a fourth, concerning the served under him, as an inferior other. petrified shells in the vicinity of Paris. Great discernment was displayeri in

The best eulogium that can be paid to the choice of the persons to be emRiche, is, that he possessed the esteem ployed for the purpose of making reand affection of those two justly cele- scarches in natural history; and at the brated men, Fabricius, and Vicqd'Azir, recommendation of the Society of NaThe latter made him the associate of his turalists, Thevenaril, minister of the malabours, and was indebted to his assi- rine, appointed Riche, togetber with duity for a large portion of what he pub. Labillardière, a batanist, already celeJisined in the Encyclopédie Methodique: brated on account of his journey to SyRicle is author of the Tables which ria, in the course of wbich be discovered, precede the Comparative Anatomy. The and lins since publisheri, several curious. original draughts of these, written and plants. Deschamps and Blaviere, were


the mineralogists; and to these were ad- pophagi, that they lead a wandering life, ded, Labaie, as gardener. Care also was that they subsist chiefly on fish, for the taken, that the chaplains and surgeons ca:ching of which they employ little boats should be men conversant in the pro- formed out of the bark of the Eucalyptus; ductions of nature. Ventenat fulfilled and in a word, that the islands does not the former of these functions on board possess any quadrupeds. the Recherche; and, during the course of “ This point of land, which greatly rethe voyage, displayed an uncommon por- sembles the terinination of Africa in its tion of zeal ; while the astronomer Pi- general form, and differs but little from it érson, acted in a similar capacity on in latitude, presented to Riche a striking board the Espérance. Bertrand was the analogy with the cape, in respect to the regular astronomer ; but, having taken article of lithology, for its rocks and soil his departure at the Cape of Good Hope, exhibited the same substances and also his place was supplied by an officer of similar dispositions; the sea too enabled the name of De Rossel.

hiin to make a multitude of discoveries.". This little expedition set sail at noon, That portion of his journal, in wluich he on the 28th of September, and anchored gives an account of his dissections, and at St. Croix, in the island of Teneriffe, at the same time described whatsoever October 13.

appeared new, in respect to fishes, molProper guides, and every thing else luscæ, or shells, contains a multitude of necessary for a journey to the Peak, curious and interesting facts. having been obtained, the naturalists, “ Having quitted this place on the &c. immediately set out on their way 28th of May 1791, the squadron crossed thither; but many of them were pre- the strait which had been discovered by vented from accomplishing their wishes, Saint Aignan, an officer, and Beaupré, a by physical difficulties : Riche, and Blas geographical engineer; this leads from viere were both unable to reach the the Bay of Tempests to Adventure Bar. summit, which enterprize was achieved It was on this occasion that Riche was by Labillardiere alone. He has since made acquainted with a new cause of published an abridged narrative of bis the luminous state of the ocean, in an proceedings.

. undescribed species of Daphnia, which The passage from Teneriffe to the proved to be uncommonly phosphores Cape furnished a variety of interesting cent. facts concerning fishes and their ana . “ They then steered to the north, to tomy. At length, on the 17th of Ja- reach New Caledonia, a long and narrow nuary, the squadron came to anchor in isle, situate fifteen degrees to the cast the road; and from this portion of Afrie of New Holland, and almost parallel to ca, Riche transmitted some fine spe- the coasts of that extensive region. On cimens. of plants, as well as several very this occasion they saw the western part instructive memoirs to the Philomathic of it, which had never been examined and Natural History Societies.

before, and which is uncommonly periHaving again proceeded to sea, on the lous to navigators, on account of the 16th of February, and left Blavier bchind multitude of reefs which prohibit all ap. them, who was obliged to remain on ac- proach. count of his health, they obtained sight “On the 2d of July, they lost sight of of the island of Amsterdam, on the 28th the land without having been able to go of March; this is situate, in the middle on-shore, and then shaped their course of the Indian sea, at almost an equal towards the Admiralty Isles, situate to distance from the continent of Africa the north of New Guinea : for they hod and New Holland. Thence the squadron learned from vague runiours that some shaped its course towards Van Diemen's European dresses, and utensils had been Land, which forms the most southern seen there, whence it was hoped, they portion of New Holland, and anchored might be able to learn something conin the bay of Tempests, on the 21st of cerning the navigators of whom they were April. Riche went repeatedly on shore, in search. As they passed along, they and proceeded frequently up the country. saw the islands of Solomon, or the ArsaHe examined the waters, the trees, the cides, and they recognized the western forests, and the land, as well as the ha- part of the Archipelago of Bougainville, bitations, for the natives har fled, and called also the Treasury Isles. There it was but rarely, and by nccident, that are situate to the west of New Guines; he could approach any of them. It is but they held no communication, recept well known that these people are anthro. with the inhabitants of Bouca, so called by Bougainville, on account of the cry as of a new species of tortoise, called uttered by them. They are a people of Testudo Amboiensis. a dark complexion, who cover their bo. They took their departure from Amdies with different colours, and spoil their boyua on the 13th of October, after a teeth by the use of betel and live. stay of twenty-eight days, with a view of

“The expedition arrived on the 17th surveying the continent of New Holland, of July, at Port Carteret, in New Ire and more especially of reconnoiuring land; and this place being much nearer the coasts which are supposed to have the line, than any other they had hitherto joined the land discovered by Nuyts in visited, they there discovered a great 1672, to the shores of Van Diemell. nuinber of new productions. Riche, as This geographical task was commenced at usual, has described many of the ani- Cape Lewin, or the Cape of Lyons, the mals and shells, objects which are so must westerly point of Nuyts's discove. much the more precious, as we have hi- ries, where ihey arrived on the 5th of therto had but a few of the testaceous December. They kept in with the land species of the torrid zone figured by as close as possible; and on the 9ih found Adanson, and some executed with litle themselves in the most critical position of fidelity by D'Argenville.

any that bad occurred during the whole Leaving Port Carteret on the 24th of voyage; for a violent gale of wind em. July, they passed along the coast of bayed them within a reet of rocks, where Now Ireland, and again arrived on the they, however, found a good anchorage, 28th at the Admiralty Isles. The re- and there they remained several days." searches made by them, to discover the lt was during the period they were wreck of La Pérouse's squadron, were anchored there, that Riche bad nearly in vain. They communicated freely with become the victim of his zeal for discothe inhabitants, who seemed good and very. He had gone ashore on the 141h peaceable: they even entered into an of December, at ten o'clock in the mornarnicable traffic, and for that puspose re- ing, with several otticers of the Espérance, paired on board the French vessels ; but as well as his colleagues Labillardiere, no instrument, and no article whatso- and Ventenat. They dispersed, as usual, ever, of European manufacture, was after having agreed to ineet about sundiscovered in their possession. The only set, at the boat. At the appointed pevestment worn by these islanders, con- riod, however, Riche did not make 'his sists of a species of shell, called bulla appearance, and they waited for him ovum, with which they covered or adorn- during the space of two hours with the ed a certain part, and it was considered most painful inquietude. But at lenyeli. as a great instance of immodesty to throw night having arrived, his companions it aside; in short, it produced the same were obliged to return to the vessel, sensation among them as a woman going leaving a good fire, provisions, clothes, naked in public would do among us. his fowling-piece, and a few words in

“ Having passed through several cluss writing, behind then, on the beach. ters of islands situate to the west, on the Laignet and Lagrandiere went on shore 21st of August they doubled the northe early next morning in quest of the natua western cape of New Guinea, with a ralist, but repaired on board again at view of reaching Amboyna, where, after two o'clock, without having proved suca variety of disagreeable incidents, our cessful. At four, twelve inen set out naturalist arrived on the oth of Novem- with a view of making a fresh effort to ber, 1792. This island, so celebrated by discover him; but they soon despaired of turalists, is considered as the chief esta- success, in consequence of finding his blishinent appertaining to the Dutch handkerchief and one of his pistols on the in the Moluccas.

beach, whence they supposed that he had " Here Riche and his companions, fallen a prey to the savages. As this at. without permitting themselves to be de- tempt was to be the last, provisions for terred, either by the burning heat of the two days had been stowed in the boat, and climate, or a thousand other difficulties, the commander of the expedition had ore made several successful excursions. His dered guns to be discharged, and fire. journal contains a variety of observations, works to be exbibited, during the whole relative to the marine animals of Am- of the night, with a view of preserving the boyna; he presents a complete anato. life of the unfortunate naturalist. mical description of the (cuiuo) buceros, But the water being by this time hitherto wanting to naturalists, as well nearly expended, and the people beyinning to murmur at the delay which oc- They also again traversed the adjoining curred, it was determined, it this inter- strait, entered Adventure Bay, and there esting young man did not return with the found some remains of the garden which boat, that the expedition should immedi- had been planted in February, 1792, by ately sail without him. However, at Captain Bligh. They themselves sowed three o'clock on the 16th, most unexpect- some seeds, and placed an inscription edly, was brought on board this martyr there. to natural history, balf dead with hunger On the 11th of March, they discovered and fatigue! We regret that we are here the North Cape of New Zealand; but unable to give a detail of what he expe- here again they were unable to land on rienced during three whole days; and we a coast which promised to be so fruitshall ovly observe, that hasing perceived ful in discoveries; their time did not clouds of smoke arising from different perinit; and in addition to this, they parts of tie land, and seemingly but a knew that La Pérouse, on leaving Botany short distance from the spot where he Bay, had steered towards the Friendly then was, he had directed bis course Islands, and it was there they expected thither, for the express purpose of ascer- to hear tidings of him. taining the cause.

On their arrival they accordingly made The smoke-seemed to bim to be very the necessary inquiries, on which the innear, but his sight must have deceived habitants enumerated all the vessels him greatly on this occasion; for, after which they had seen, since the arrival of having walked about three leagues, be Captain Cook, indicating the time by still found himself at a great distance from the number of their yam seasons: it. It was thus, that he insensibly lost among others, they recognized the passight of his compavions, and strayed so sage of La Peyrouse to the north of these as not to be discovered. During his islands, when he repaired from the Na- journey he beheld a number of curious vigator's Isles to Botany Bay. He was objects; and, among others, a valley co- then sufficiently near to purchase some ! vered with trunks of petrified trees, all fish from those who were on the banks of which appeared to have been broken to the north of Tongata boo; but they off at about a foot from the earth; every were assured, that he had not re-apthing which distinguished the character peared, on his return from Botany Bay; of trees, was however easily perceptible. hence it followed, either that the vessels As to the smoke alluded to above, it was in question must have perished during the pupposed to have been produced by the interval, or that he had changed his fire made by the inhabitants of the coun- course. It is extremely probable, actry, to clear the underwood, for many cording to the opinion of Beaupré, that, of them had been seen employed in this having been prevented by the feeble manner. In respect to quadrupeds, a state of his crew from reaching Tangatafew kanguroos only had been discover- boo, he had been anxious to anchor at ed; the traces of a different animal, were, New Caledonia, where, according to however, observed.

Cook's narrative, he would have found On the vessels quitting this port, De- plenty of provisions, and a haspitable cember 17th, they continued to coast reception from the inhabitants, but inalong the shore of New Holland, until stead of what he had thus promised himJanuary 2d, 1793, when a contrary wind, self to meet with, he experienced death the want of water, and an accident which on the frightful chain of rocks, where occurred to the helm of the Esperance, our voyagers were themselves in danger forced them to alter their course.

of perisbing more than once. Indeed, Their passage consisted of nine degrees if any of the crew had gained the main of longitude, and during the whole of that land, they would have become victims to im nense space they did not discover any the inhabitants, who, 50 far from paspince proper for anchorage; any port, or sessing the humane character nttributed any mouth of a river, either great or to them by the celebrated English cir small. Leaving, therefore, everything cumnavigator just alluded to, are supon this subject is obscure as before, posed to be the most ferocious antrpe they now shaped their voyage towards phegi in existence. Tau Diemen's Land; and on the 21st of But if the Friendly Isles did not atted January, once more anchored in the any satisfaction as to the principal ain of Bay of Tempests, where they had spent two months during the preceding year. ► The yam is a species of potatoe.

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