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— FEB. 18, 1867.
ORANGE JUDD & CO., Agricultural and Rural Book Publishers,
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HAVE JUST PUBLISHED PEAT AND ITS USES. By Prof. S. W. Johnson, of Yale College. Part I.
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MAR, 1, 1867.
OUR CONTINENTAL CORRESPONDENCE. | reputation wide as civilization. When he had im
Paris, January 18, 1867. parted to the boy all he knew, he advised him to M. VICTOR Cousin is dead. M. Ingres is dead. return to Paris. The curate knew the master of a M. de La Rochejaqueleir is dead. Mlle. Georges is boarding-school who would gladly admit him as a dead. So cruel has been the last fortnight! France free pupil, in consideration of the honor which has lost its ablest philosopher of this century, its would redound to his school by the rank so gifted best painter, one of its great orators, one of its gifted a lad could not fail to attain at the public exami. actresses. All those parts are but ashes now. Who nation of all the schools and colleges in Paris. can contemplate such and so many ruins and not There is not a boarding-school in Paris which has feel sad?
not one or more such talented youths, and so great The career of all the men mentioned is encour- has the competition for them become there are aging; even the life of the Marquis de La Rocheja- schools which give such lads a handsome premiuin queleir, though smiled on by Fortune from the in money annually. They are bait to attract schocradle, shows how a noble pame may be borne so lars to the school. Victor Cousin was delighted as to give it additional lustre-an example perhaps with this information. He was placed in a scbool more necessary than the successful struggle of merit connected with Charlemagne College (all our priwith poverty.
vate schools are as it were in ward to some college, Victor Cousin was the son of a petty watchmaker and are obliged to send the scholars to its lectores). in the Rue St. Antoine. He was born in its back Here he became at once the first boy among all the shop November 28, 1790. I obey custom in saying scholars, and this pre-eminence among his contemhe was the son of this man; in justice, I should poraries he retained as long as he lived. He took say he was the son of a petty watchmaker's wife, the first honors in the general examination in 1809, for he owed everything to his mother. God only honors which exempted him from the conscription knows at what expense of tears, taunts, lacerated and entitled him as of right to free admission in feelings, she succeeded in wresting her husband's the Normal School. At this period of his life, M. consent to her son's following the natural bent of Cousin's ambition was to strive as a lettered man. his genius. Her husband was a thorough denizen Philosophy had little charm for him. Accident one of the Rue St. Antoine. He had all those kinks day threw him into Laromiguière's lecture-room. which made the population of that street and its He became delighted with the subtle doctrines of continuation (Rue du Faubourg St. Antoine) so this science, and studied it with singular ardoripfamous during the Revolution. He was an atheist, with that ardor he brought to every subject which a king-hater, an adorer of the guillotine, a detester attracted his attention. He next heard Roger Colof the priesthood. Jean Jacques Rousseau was his lard's lectures on the same subject, and he threw idol. He insisted upon training his son according aside Laromiguière's doctrines of the eighteenth to this wild man's thecries (who had tossed his century and became a disciple of the Scotch school. own child to the Foundling Hospital), and declared In 1812 he graduated at the Normal School, and the boy should become an artisan, there being was at once appointed deputy professor of Greek in nothing pobler than a mechanic. He gave the boy | Charlemagne College, deputy professor of Greek in the choice of the trades of optician, engraver, or the Normal School, and deputy professor of history watchmaker. But the boy had acquired a taste in the Polytechnic School. His appointment in the for books; he said lie would follow no trade; he Normal School gave him house-rent and board free, would learn Latin and Greek, become a professor and the emoluments of all these places relieved - not an artisan. The father became exceedingly him at the outset of his career from those chafing angry. The mother interfered. Humble and un-cares which fever and injure the brain of so many educated as that woman was, ignorant as she must literary men at the outset of their career. They have been of the enchantments and the glory of a averted, too, from him that load of debt which comsuccessful literary career, her maternal acuteness monly oppresses half the life of most literary men saw this was the path her son ought to take. Don't -those debts which cannot be avoided during the say the age of miracles has passed! Maternal love
barren period of literary apprenticeship, and which doth work them daily--not in the abodes of wealth, with their accumulations of interest devour the but in the humble hut or shop of poverty. She earnings of life's meridian days. Three years after taught her husband a lesson above them both, and he graduated at the Normal School Roger Collard wrung so much consent from him as this: The boy (being elected a member of the Chamber of Depumight do as he pleased, provided the father's purse ties) made him his deputy at the Sorbonne. Roger was not levied on to aid the wild schemes. The Collard was Professor of Philosophy in the Sarbonde. mother remembered she had a cousin in the Church, He at once made a profound impression. His lecand made application to him to receive the boy in ture-room was constantly crowded. After lecturing his rustic parsonage (he was curate of a parish two years he became animated with a desire to go hard-by Mantes), and teach him the rudiments of to Germany, and study in their own home the great classical learning. Dull is the monotony of these
German philosophers. He was accused, upon his rural parsonages, where porerty interdicts the com- return to France, of being guilty of plagiarism. munion of the quick and the dead [whose spirits Impartial judges acquit him of the charge. Even yet live in books), where none of the parishioners Hegel said: “Cousin caught some small fishes in my are ransomed by wealth from the primeval curse, pond, but he drowned them in his own sauce." where the discipline of the Church forbids all fe- Soon after his return from Germany the influence male inmates in the parsonage other than those of the Jesuits succeeded in closing the Normal who have reached that stage of life where sex dis- School, and in superseding Messrs. Guizot, Cousin, appears under the accumulation of years. Add, and Villemain's lectures in the Sorbonne. At this for truth's sake, the benevolent sentiments nur- period M. Cousin's life seemed to be near its tured by ministration at the altar; and you may end. He had always looked consumptive; he conceive the gratification given the solitary curate now began to spit blood, lost his voice, and by the accession to his family of an intellectual boy coughed incessantly. Laennec restored him to panting after learning as other children thirst for health. As soon as he recovered health again, he play-time. The priest must have been repaid gen- / translated Proclus. The Duchess de Montebello erously his beneficence by hearing the prattling of (Lanpes's widow) offered him the place of tutor to those great talents which were one day to attain a her children. He accepted it, and continued to
- MAR. 1, 1867. fill it until, travelling in Germany with them, he tion to philosophy, to maintain commerce with his was arrested at Dresden as a member of the secret disciples, to overlook his school, and to publish with revolutionary society, the Carbonari, thrown into care his old works, he turned almost abruptly to gaol, and instantly transferred to Berlin, where he literature. He was a man of ardent mind, lively, remained for some months. Soon after he returned nay, uneasy imagination (I one day defined him "a to Paris he began to labor on the great work of his hare with eagle eye”); once upon a scent he threw life, the translation of Plato. M. Sainte-Beuve himself on it, and never quitted it until he had exsays: “ His motto and his aim were 'One monument hausted it. Some circumstance having led him to and many episodes.' He has certainly left many examine the text of " Pascal's Thoughts,” he perepisodes : he looked upon his translation of Plato ceived there were marked differences between the as his monument. Did he succeed in making it as printed text and the original manuscript. He mado complete and as perfect as possible? He never gave it the object of a memoir, which was really a the second edition, which would have been his last denunciation, addressed to the French Academy word.” He published the first volume of this work (1843); he set the substance on fire by the zeal and in 1825; the thirteenth and last was issued in 1840. animation he brought to it. This was a characterHe gave, in 1826, a complete edition of Descartes's istic of that active and rapid nature in everything. works. His next publications were “ Philosophical It could do nothing quietly, calmly, in the terms of Fragments;" “ Lectures on the History of Philos- a moderation appropriate and proportioned with the ophy," and "New Philosophical Fragments.” In subject. He did nothing like anybody else. There 1828 the wiser counsels of M. de Martignac reopened was a dash of the conquerer in him; he added the Sarbonne and the Normal School, and M. Cou- pomp and brilliancy to everything he did. He one sin-now wearing the martyr's palm-became one day said : “ 'Tis true, I do like to make a noise.” of the most popular men in France. Two years This discovery of the discrepancies which existed afterwards the Revolution of 1830 occurred, and for between the received printed text and the original eighteen years M. Cousin was a favorite of fortune. manuscript of “ Pascal's Thoughts," lead to a proHe was Director of the Normal School, Councillor oftestation from M. Leon Faugère, who claimed to be State, Peer of France, Officer, and afterwards Com- the discoverer of them, and insisted that M. Cousin mander of the Legion of Honor, Member of the Royal borrowed his discovery and appropriated it to himCouncil of Public Instruction, and (during M. self. The Revolution of 1848 surprised M. Cousin, Thiers's brief ministry in 1840) Minister of Public and for some time quite depressed him. At the Instruction. He visited Switzerland, Holland, Sax-request of Gen. Cavaignac he became one of the ony, Prussia, and Austria, at the expense of the Committee of the Academy of Moral and Political government, to investigate their systems of public Sciences, which undertook to combat, by popular instruction, and his reports on them are still re-tracts, the wild theories of the Red Republicans. printed. He was, during the same period of time, When society seemed saved from peril, he published elected a member of the French Academy, and a his work on the “Beautiful, True, and Good,” and member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sci-collected his more important speeches and pubences. I do not mention these rewards in a depre- lished them, with an able introduction, under the catory humor. They were deserved. He has given title of " A Defence of the Principles of the French additional lustre to the French name. He increased Revolution.” He then turned his attention to the French influence in his day. He contributed works reign of Louis XIV., and became fired with his usual to the literature of his country. Should not such heat for the distinguished ladies of that period of labors be rewarded as well as those of butchers in time. He literally revived them in his mind. He gaudy livery, whose chief merit often consists in collected their portraits and every relic of them, and hurling mercilessly their fellow creatures to de- lived in their society as completely as if they had struction ? An author's merits are not vicarious; been his contemporaries. This zeal for those dim a general's are rarely otherwise. It has been al- and half-forgotten personages of the past produced leged, and, I believe, with truth, M. Cousin milita- a good deal of merriment at first. You will even ted against the progress of philosophical inquiry in find a trace of the smiles it raised here in the cataFrance. He was intolerant of all opinion which logue of Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., where you may differed from his own. He treated men who differed read his “ Biography of the Duchess de Longueville," from him as inquisitors treated heretics; he denied styled “Cousin's Only Romance." If this qualifithem food and shelter, at least university food and cation was intended as a bit of quiet irony, it would university shelter. There was no such thing as the have been deemed here then a good hit. But as spirit of free inquiry allowed during his domina- M. Cousin prosecuted his researches into that intion. He drove M. Taine out of his chair, and other teresting epoch of French history, brought to light instances of his intolerance could be cited. Ty- unpublished documents, collated the manuscripts ranny is hateful in all men; in a philosopher it is of the authors of that reign with the current ediunpardonable as well as hateful. I ought to mentions of their works, improved his style with every tion, while glancing at the defects of this extraor- book he wrote and with every edition he issued, dinary man, that M. Pierre Leroux charged him, in until all judges confessed he had attained the style a pamphlet, with grave alterations of one of Jouf of the best authors of the 17th century, merriment froy's posthumous works, which the latter's family abated. Merriment was at first raised by M. Sainteintrusted to him to publish. During these halcyon Beuve. He looked upon the reign of Louis XIV. as days of his life he brought out the unpublished in some measure his domain. To write his “Hisworks of Abailard; “A Treatise on Aristotle's Meta- tory of Port Royal," he had, as he believed (not physics ;' “ Philosophical Fragments" (Scholastic without good ground of reason), explored it thoPhilosophy); “Lectures on Kant;" “ An Intro- roughly. When he saw M. Cousin discovering treaduction to the Philosophical Works of Father sure in what he believed exhausted fields, he felt a André;" “Literary Fragments ;' "Life of Jacqueline little annoyed. Those "d-d good natured friends" Pascal;" " Fragments of Cartesian Philosophy ;" a ('tis to be hoped their epithet in this, may secure translation of "Tenneman's Manual of Philosophy;" their doom in the next world) with whom everyand he edited the philosophical works of Maine body is plagued in this world bore to M. Cousin the de Biran. In 1840, nearly the middle of this pe- malicious speeches of M. Sainte-Beuve, and carried riod of eighteen years, he divided his affections. M. back to the latter the former's repartees. Coldness Sainte-Beuve says : “ While continuing to pay atten- I was produced between them, and M. Sainte-Beuve
MAR. 1, 1867.
threw a poisoned dart at M. Consin whenever he began to talk almost as we used to do, to discuss, could. In his preface to Garnier's edition of “ La- to appeal to each other for a witness on common rochefoucauld," he said: “There are critics of good grounds. He knew ny admiration at bottom for sense (not of good taste) who say and repeat M. the talented pature, and that with him, while someCousin's style is the style of the 17th century; times taking the liberty of contradicting him, I viewed from a distance it may be its sham, but not observed the difference in our ranks.” M. Sainteits true and ingenuous likeness, which cannot be Beuve has given in another place a sketch of M. separated from propriety. It is possible the words Cousin in the Academy : “I have never heard litare all of the 17th century, but the gait certainly is erature better treated in our private meetings of not of that age. In these amiable matters M. Cou- the Academy, no matter what might be the question sin is full of awkward gestures. * * When M. suddenly raised; but this was during the first half Cousin loves a woman the whole universe must be hour; the monologue was spoiled as it lengthened. informed of it. He loves the tumult of admiration. It was entirely too intemperate. This sweeping He loves Mme. de Longueville ex cathedra. A joker speech could prevent itself from going too far, has said, alluding to the superabundant description from exaggerating in one sense or another. M. of some of her charms, he loves Mme. de Longue- Guizot said: 'No mind more needs an embankville doubly en chaire (chair).* There are vestiges ment.' But when it consented to receive an emof the pedagogue in all this. The misunderstand- bankment the river flowed admirably." It is said ing did not last long between these eminent men. M. de Sacy gave M. Cousin a taste for book collectM. Sainte-Beuve has given, since M. Cousin's death, ing. M. Cousin's philosophical library was from an an interesting account of their relations. It is in a early period of his career celebrated as one of the letter to a critic who pointed out the former's change most complete libraries of the kind in France, if not of opinion on this subject: “I read your article on on the continent. I believe his taste for original Cousin. It is of worthy and lofty sentiment. You editions began about 1843, when he con menced his have met me in the course of it, and have treated researches about Pascal. It grew so great, he sucvery amicably my own variations on this grand ceeded in course of time in forming a library of theme, variations due much more to humor than to works of the classical French authors, and of works judgmeni. I thank you for it. But what a singu- of the French historians and memoir-writers, which lar organization was that individuality named ('ou- became even more celebrated than his philosophical sin ; what an original colleague! Did you ever see library. I have heard it valued at $40,000, and at and hear him! He remains for me, and, I am per- $200,000. I am inclined, after inquiry, to believe suaded, for a great many of them who knew him the first the accurate value. He gave all his books best, a problem and an enigma. But you will say to the Library of the Sorbonne, where they will to me, what man is not an enigma ? In him 'twas form a collection apart and bear his name. He lived with eclat everything was produced, and with a in the Sorbonne, where the government gave him temporary sincerity which looked like enthusiasın, gratuitous lodgings. M. Sainte-Beuve says: “It and which, when one was warned and accustomed was in that ancient house which he inhabited for to it, admitted something comic, but comic of the more than thirty years, in those vast rooms of severe highest character. In his youth he for a long time look, all filled with admirable books, he was interproduced a coinplete illusion upon his first friends esting to see, to hear in the morning as he walked and disciples. He reigned over them, he pushed to and fro, and talked with abundance and vivacity them towards grand things, grand works, noble upon every subject, mingling with them dramatic thoughts, day, even generous conspiracies. When forms which belonged peculiarly to himself. A I entered the literary world (1825) my masters stranger coming to Pairs, bearing a letter to M. were some of these first friends of Cousin. I in the Cousin, going to see him in the morning and beginning learnt from them to judge him, and I listening forthwith to him for hours, must quit must say they were even then half-undeceived, but such a conversation all intoxicated. What then only half, and they still bore him noble vestiges of was wanting to this brilliant spirit, to this mind admiration and respect. As you have indicated, of lofty flight, so full of ideas and even of ho Oscillated a little in philosophy in those days ; flashes of good sense upon every subject, in order to he embraced more clouds than he subsequently be a real genius and to be saluted with this name?” kept in possession ; he did not seem clear to every Seventy-five years had fallen on M. Cousin's shoulbody, and was not absolutely anxious to appear so. ders, and yet be felt not their weight. NevertheThe great literary man veiled himself a little, and less his lungs had always been weak, and his phy. -hid under the hierophant. It would be curious then sician had for several years past advised him to to see him judged by his peers. He was so judged spend the severer months of the year in the South in secret by Maine de Biran. The latter's Jour- of France. He tried Pan one winter; its climate valcontained at first a good many of his opinions disagreed with him, as it does with everybody. about Cousin, who belonged to the small circle Then he went to Cannes, where he has passed the formed by Ampère, Roger Collard, etc. But these winter for the last few years. He was nerer in passages were pruilently suppressed, when the Jour better health than up to the very day of his death. nal' was in press, by the editor (M. Naville), who He died of apoplexy. We are still without particthought it would be wrong on his part to publish ulars of his death. His departure froin life is felt them. If I except four or five survivors, we bave by all educated classes as a great public loss. only seen Cousin, the philosopher, of the second These are the later publications which have epoch; the Cousin who was more of an orator than caught my eye on the book shops' shelves: A. d' a philosopher, and who was at last an accomplished Alembert's “ Court of King Stanislas and Lorraine in writer. He was under these last forms sufficiently 1784;" J. d'Arsac's “La Papauté, its Enemies and prolific and inexhaustible. We had been so inti- its Judges ;" R. P. M. Chery's “ Appeal to the Rusmate from a time, even then very distant, that de- sian and English Church ;" Chas. Dollfus's " Marspite our rupture in consequence of incidents which doch,” “La Revanche du Hasard,"' « La Villa ;" E. it is best to bury, whenever we met-and the Acad- Domenech's " Mexico as it is;" Durand Brager and de emy made our meetings frequent-we irresistibly Champreux's "Two Months Campaigning in Italy;"
“L'Elite des Bons Noels nouveaux, ... Sur les airs * Chaire means cathedra; chair means Acsh. The quibble les plus connus en Béarn” (Toulouse, pub. by cannot be rendered in English,
| Privat); J. Flachat's “ Notes sur le fleuve du Darien,