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highly cultivated than our own. Fashion has aided their endeavours; and all these circumstances have combined to favour the introduction and ascendancy of foreign music, so that it appeared necessary almost to the preservation of English music, as well as to the encouragement of native talent, that some measure should be taken in their behalf. The KING, we have reason to think, has listened to the reasonable representations, which have been made to him on this subject, by some of the most eminent professors, and hence, we believe, the late reception of Messrs. Vaughan, Knyvett, Sale, and other English vocalists, at Brighton. —Hence the introduction of glees, and the performance of Handel, on recent occasions. Consentaneously with this fact, so favourable to our own school, it has been stated, that a meeting of several noblemen and gentlemen has been held, for the purpose of originating an establishment for the instruction of young musicians. Little, however, is yet known beyond the mere circumstance that such an institution has been the subject of some consideration. It has long since been proposed, and its utility advocated in the established journal of musical science, the Quarterly Musical Review. In our last we announced the arrangements for the King's Theatre, which opened on Saturday the 12th of January. The Opera of Pacini, a composer who follows in the train of Rossini, which was understood to be in rehearsal, has given way to the everlasting Le Nozze di Figaro, an opera which certainly deserves, if any one can deserve, its etermity of representation. There was reason to suppose last season, that the exclusion of English talent made a part of the design of the noble board of management. The expulsion of Mr. Ayrton this year, and the substitution of Signor Petracchi, who has been sent for from Milan, corroborates the supposition, and also the probability, that the ballet will be more highly cultivated than the musical department. Il Teatro della Scala, from which the new director comes, is more celebrated for its dances than its singing; indeed the

whole of this last branch has been there notoriously secondary to that of the ballet. But the King's Theatre is now announced as being under the direction of a committee of the nobility, with the Count Saint Antonio, it is presumed, at the head, and the opera is likely to be again very fashionable. The only new singer of pretension, that has appeared at present, is Madame de Moncke, under her maiden appellation of Signora Rosalbina Caradori, who personated the page, Cherubino, in Mozart's opera. Her voice is a soprano, sweet and rich in its tone, but of apparently insufficient volume for so large a theatre. It is alike in quality for the compass of nearly two octaves. Her intonation is more correct than is generally observed amongst Italian stage singers. She took the exquisitely expressive air, Voi chesapete, which has usually been assigned to the Contessa. At present Signora Caradori is to be considered rather as advancing in her acquirements, than as having arrived at their maturity. It is, however, robable, that her success will be imited by want of power, rather than of polish, and that she will be better heard in an orchestra than on the stage. The rest of the dramatis personae were nearly as last year. Ambrogetti's acting and singing in the Count are completely at variance; the one is as excellent as the other is execrable. He is certainly the very worst singer that ever took the rank that he maintains with so much popularity. Madame Camporese is as elegant and scientific as ever, and deficient in nothing but the true compass of her voice, which is something brassy and restricted; but in knowledge, taste, and feeling, she is admirable. Angrisani was the Figaro; Placci Bartolo, and Righi, the perdurable Righi, the Vicar .# Bray under all changes and administrations, held two or three other inferior characters. A Signora Graziani, who has succeeded Madame Gattie as Marcellina, is vastly below criticism, and almost beyond endurance. Madame Mara has revisited her native place (Cassel), where she has met with a distinguished and flattering reception. A grand concert was given at court to welcome her, and

on her departure her horses were gratuitously provided. Mr. Moschelles is returned to London, where he purposes to remain during next season. The concerts of the Philharmonic society are to commence on Monday the 25th of February. The first article of our monthly catalogue of publications is the music new and selected, by Mr. Bishop, for the Two Gentlemen of Verona, lately revived at Covent Garden theatre. This sort of substitution for what the English public has been accustomed to consider as their regular opera, indicates a pause in composition, which may, perhaps, be followed by a nearer approach to what opera should be ; for it indicates the exhaustion of the taste for musical pantomime, or melodrames, half dialogue, half song. There is some very pretty music. The first air, When I have seen the hungry ocean 'gain, is obviously limited by being written for a voice of short compass, in point of fact, for a child. The duet which follows, Say though you strive, is confined by the same restriction, but both are simple and sweet melodies. The latter, indeed, is a second My pretty page, which has attained so much popularity in Henri Quatre. O never say that I was false of heart, is the aria d'abilità for Miss Hallande, and has the same recommendation of agreeable melody, with more pretension. Mr. Bishop has next harmonized Dr. Arne's fine song, If o'er the cruel tyrant, for four voices, but to other words. He has added a second movement of his own, which though very inferior to Arne's, yet satisfies the ear after it ; no slight commendation. When in disgrace with fortune, opens with a very expressive andante, and ceases with an allegro brillante that resembles a polacca, and yet is not a polacca, but a nameless something of superior interest. Who is Sylvia, a glee, is Bishop's own By the simplicity of Venus' doves, harmonized with Pray Goody, for a second movement. That time o year, a cavatina, and Should he upbraid, are both elegant songs. The first is more original than the latter, which might almost pass for a parody on the composer's Bid me dis3

course, one of the latest and best of his productions. The resemblance is indeed very curious, and not less ingeniously wrought. Mr. Bishop may also be accused of paraphrasing his own thoughts in the duet, On a day, which, in style, more than in passages, is analogous to As it fell upon a day, and Orpheus, two of his most successful efforts. All these things are, however, elegant, and at the same time popular. There is a round, a chorus, and a finale; the second has a singular and effective conclusion; the last is so good an imitation of Rossini's mannerism, that Mr. Bishop probably intended the likeness. As a whole, the music is of a class to take with a million of English auditors, players, and singers. Asioli has published eleven Italian ariettae, in which there is variety and beauty of style. Amongst the single songs are two pre-eminently beautiful ballads, by Mr. Latour, who has but of late struck into this species of writing. The parting, and, O wake no more that lay of love and gladness, are delicate and impassioned: not difficult to sing, and very effective when sung well. Mr. Sola has a very elegant Italian duettino, Mi guardi sospira. He has also arranged the French duet Reposons nous, to English words, Beneath this deep embourering shade, and this also makes a good addition to our stock of elegant trifles. Mr. Moschelles has published "La Tenerezza, a rondaletto, dedicated to Mrs. Kalkbrenner. The opening assages are airy, but very graceul; these with other occasional subjects are worked upon with the skill and contrivance throughout that mark the genius of that composer. The fourth, and we believe, the last book of Himmel's Fanchon, arranged as duets for the piano forte, by Novello, is not undeserving of the great commendation we bestowed on the former numbers. Compositions for the harp are become extremely numerous, and al

f most equal to those for the pianoLITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, &c.

forte. Amongst the duets for the two instruments are a fifth book of the airs from Il Barbiere di Siviglia, by Bochsa, with a divertimento from Rossini's airs, by the same master.

German Translations.—The Germans are not only great original writers, but great translators also. Among the works which have recently appeared in a German dress, are many of the latest and most popular of our books of travels; among these may be enumerated, Dodwell's Classical Tour in Greece, Hughes's interesting work on that country and Sicily, and Kinneir's Travels through Asia Minor. Anastasius has also been translated by Lindau, who has familiarized his countrymen with many of the celebrated S Novels. Translations of the following works have also appeared of late in Germany, viz. Luccock on Wool, Busby's History of Music, Greenough on Geology, and Malthus and Say's publications relative to the Depression of Commerce. Geology.—The labours of the Naturalist D. G. Brocchi promise to be of considerable importance to this science: his last work, entitled, Sulto Stato Fisico del Suolo Romano, is the fruit of a long residence at Rome. It consists of a large coloured chart, in royal folio, representing the various superficies of the soil, with two coloured tables, and descriptive letter-press. The author is now employed upon a similar work, which cannot fail to prove interesting to naturalists, as it will treat of the geology of Latium, and of the Ciminian (Viterbo) mountains, respecting which but little is yet known. Natural History.—A plant very celebrated at Chandernagore in the East Indies, under the name of Chirayita, has been imported into France, where a memoir has been published by M. Virey on the subject of its medicinal qualities, which he states to be very powerful. It is a strong bitter, and is celebrated in the East for its efficacy as a febrifuge. There is no doubt but that it might be advantageously employed in Europe for the gout, and for weaknesses of the digestive organs. At present we have no accurate and complete botanical description of this plant; but M. Virey conjectures, both from the flowers and from the traces of the fructification adhering to the specimens he has received, also from the details respecting it in the Asiatic Researches, that it is a species of gentian, and accordingly denominates it Gentiana Chirayita. Thorvaldsen is about to execute, at Cracow, a monument of the young Count Potocki, who fell in battle, at the age of 26. The youthful Hero affords a fine subject for sculpture; as he was a perfect model of manly beauty at the period of its complete developement. The artist finished the model for the statue in the short space of five days. He has now nearly completed

his exquisite statue of Jason, after an interval of ten years from its commencement; and also another of his masterpieces, the Mercury, intended for the Princess Esterhazy. One of his most recent productions is the bust of the Crown Prince of Bavaria, which, independently of its merits as a work of art, worthy the chisel of this admirable sculptor, is interesting for the extreme resemblance it possesses to the original. ** Russia.—Mittau, the capital of the province of Courland, is distinguishing itself by the progress it is making both in Literature and the Arts. There are there now several important private collections of paintings; and the Literary Society and Museum, established about four years ago, are at present in a very flourishing condition. The members of the former have produced several interesting scientific papers; while the latter now contains a valuable collection of curiosities in natural history, antiquities, paintings, &c. Much too has of late been done, and is now doing, for the general embellishment of the city: the Emperor Alexander has assigned the sum of 80,000 roubles to be expended on the market, where all the old and mean shops which choked up and disfigured the area are pulled down, and a large basin is constructed in the centre, into which a subterraneous canal discharges itself. In consequence of a regulation, which in England would be considered somewhat arbitrary, although it prudently restrains the bad taste of individuals, the façade of every new building throughout the province must be erected according to some design, which the proprietor is permitted to select from an extensive collection deposited for that purpose with the magistrates of each place. Owing to this, Mittau now exhibits a variety of elegant buildings which have been erected within the last three years : some of these have the appearance of palaces. Indeed, this city promises to become one of the finest in the north of Europe. In other parts of the province also, many very fine and seats belonging to the nobility ve been erected. The Dying Gladiator.—No doubts were entertained as to the character of the statue thus designated, until the time of Winckelmann, who rejected that appellation as erroneous, although without bestowing on it any other. Nibby, the Roman antiquary, and translator of Pausanias, has published an Essay, in which he attempts to prove, from a passage in the 10th book of Pausanias, that this celebrated figure, which corresponds neither with any other representations of gladiators, nor with the descriptions of Juvenal and Livy, originally belonged to the temple of Apollo at Delphos, where it formed a part of the sculpture decorating the tympanum of the pediment, being placed in one of the angles. And from the torques, or chain of gold, hitherto mistaken for a rope, the horn, the form of the shield, the fashion of the hair, &c. all which circumstances he elucidates by numerous passages from ancient authors, he conjectures that it represents one of the Gauls who were slain in their attack upon the temple. This statue is at present in the Capitol, where it was placed in 1815, on being restored from Paris; it is of a very fine grained marble, dissimilar from that of any other antique, yet most resembling that of the Laocoön. It belongs to the best era of Grecian sculpture, and expresses, with wonderful skill and beauty, the agonies of death suppressed by a determined effort not to manifest them. Swedish Literature.—Sweden has hitherto contributed but little towards the stock of European literature, but can boast at present of Ling, a poet, whose compositions are not only stamped with originality, and pregnant with fancy, but characterised by strong nationality and raciness. Among his productions, the subjects of which are generally borrowed from northern and Swedish history, the most prominent are his Agne, a tragedy of superior beauty; his Idyll, entitled Love; Eylif the Goth; and the Dict of 1527. Besides the above-mentioned tragedy, he has produced several others, and some dramatic compositions of a different species; but the latter are not so successful as his offerings to the tragic muse. Ling is at present occupied upon an epic poem, entitled Die Asen; a portion of this appeared in 1816, and its merit justifies the interest with which his countrymen look forward to the

appearance of the remainder. His allegorical epic production, Gylfe, although so patriotic in its subject, has been received more coldly than his other works, being more imperfect, and less polished. Several of his poems are in the Danish language, in which he composed a collection of poetical pieces during his stay at Copenhagen. Sweden possesses also at the present day a poetess of no small talent in Me. Asping, a lady as accomplished as she is amiable. Her Lapland Girl, which appeared in the Poetical Calendar edited at Upsal by the ingenious poet Atterbom, is a composition of peculiar merit. Afzelius and Professor Geijer have published some beautiful Swedish ballads; and the former, in contributing also to a new edition of the Edda, has rendered a most essential service to the literature of his country. Danish Literature.—Among the literary novelties of Denmark, one of the most important is a new Journal, entitled Hermoder, which contains both original Essays and Translations of the most classical and esteemed foreign productions. It is edited by Broch, a Captain of Engineers, and Lieutenant Halsith. Another periodical, entitled Blandsinger the Medley), has been lately established, and contains several valuable articles. In Norway, also, a new Journal has been started; it is published twice a week, and contains not only critiques of new works, but interesting intelligence respecting the literature of other countries, and biographical sketches of men of learning and eminent writers: this is so much the more valuable, as until its appearance there was no regular channel whatever for the communication of literary intelligence, nor any repository for detached

and fugitive papers.


OUR abstract this month must mecessarily be confined within narrow limits, as the public papers present an unusual dearth of intelligence; and, indeed, the little they give upon foreign events is of so contradictory a nature, that it is not easy to know to which side to incline. Letters have arrived from Constantinople by way of Odessa which state, that after a long conference between the Austrian plenipotentiary and the Divan, the Russian ultimatum, which had been previously presented to, and approved by, the leading powers of Europe, was finally accepted by the Turkish government. These letters

have come to Greek houses in the city, the heads of whom are, doubtless, much interested in the fate of thepending negociations, and so far may be considered as of some authority; however, nothing official has yet appeared upon the subject; and later rumours, but of no very definite character, state a sudden movement on the part of the Russian armies, indicative of renewed hostility. In the meantime the Greeks are indefatigable, and have dispatched a considerable force to co-operate with their countrymen in Candia, who are vigorously besieging the Turkish troops shut up in the fortresses of that country; another Greek force has proceeded from Tino and Psara against Scio: there has not lately been any remarkable capture or engagement since the taking of Tripolizza, but the state of the Russian mind, by the operation of which, perhaps, alone this contest can be decided, may be inferred from the fact of a munificent subscription having been set on foot in Moscow, with all the merchants and nobles of the land at its head, in favour of the insurgents. The Schah of Persia has, it seems, formally disavowed the war against Turkey, but his sincerity is rendered more than doubtful by the fact of his disavowal not having in the least impeded the progress of the Prince Royal. It is amongst the most striking incidents of the day, thus to see one body of Mussulmen arrayed against another, when the very existence of Islamism is menaced by the successful enemies of that faith. The King of Spain has been obliged at last, to yield to the repeated demands of the Cortes and the nation, with respect to his obnoxious ministers. Bardaxi, the minister for foreign affairs, Felice for the interior, Salvador for the war department, and Valleyo the finance director, have all retired from office, a step which the King notified by a message to the Cortes. Their places are not yet filled up, and the three remaining ministers are charged with their port-feuilles ad interim. It is supposed that the conduct of the ex-ministry will be made the subject of discussion in the Cortes, and their consequent impeachment is not improbable. Madrid is for the present tranquil, but the disturbed districts remain as discontented as ever. General Riego has made a fresh demand for an inquiry into his conduct, in which he disclaims the republican principles imputed to him by his enemies. It is very plain that the dismissal of his ministers was a comulsory measure upon the King, for in a second message to the Cortes he distinctly, and somewhat pettishly, tells that body, that he was quite satisfied, both with the services of his ministers, and their attachment to his person, and that he received their resignations only in consequence of their repeated applications. An

other, and a more cogent reason, however, may perhaps £, found in the general discontent which their remaining in office, notwithstandin repeated public remonstrances, ha excited. The news from Barcelona is, we fear, but a specimen of the spirit , which universally prevails throughout , the interior of Spain. On the 30th of December, say the accounts, this city proclaimed its independence. General Villa Campa endeavoured, but in vain, to oppose the change; he addressed every regiment separately, in order to bring them back to obedience, but all answered him by shouts of “Live the Constitution,”—“Down with the ministers.”—The General immediately quitted Barcelona; the movement was directed by Colonel Costa, commandant of the National Guard. The situation of a king, under such circumstances, requires no comment. Acounts from Italy announce the alarming illness, and expected death of his Holiness, the Pope. Few sovereigns, who have filled St. Peter’s Chair, experienced greater trials and vicissitudes than Pius the Seventh ; alternately a prisoner and a pontiff, it cannot be denied that by his pal tience, his fortitude, and his inflexibility of principle, he well sustained the dignity of his important office. It is said, that he will be succeeded by Prince, the Archduke Nodolph of Austria, who was about two years ago made a Cardinal, for the express purpose of this succession. This will be an important appointment for Austria, as she will thereby obtain a paramount control over Italy, which, particularly Romagna, was far from tranquil. In France, the new ultra-administration, have begun to develope the rinciples upon which they have come into office. M. de Chifflet has made the Report of the Committee a o for the regulation of the "rench Press. It is a modification, or rather a paraphrase, of the measure of M. de Serre, which excited the Chamber to the overthrow of the late Ministry, and is, if possible, still more objectionable. It goes, in fact, not merely to annihilate all freedom of discussion, but to subject even private property to the most unqualified despotism. By this notable scheme, juries, in cases of libel, are super

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