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may have occurred. But,” he proceeds, " is it reasonable, is it charitable, to allege such iniquities as a reproach against our national character ?Certainly, Mr. Senator, so long as your laws tolerate and uphold such villany, so long your proud escutcheon bears the stain in the face of all the world. When your legislatures shall doom to the gallows or to the penitentiary the man who sells his children, then will that stain be wiped away. Mr Leigh proceeds to say, that within a year he has seen several accounts of parents exposing their new-born infants in the streets of the city of New York; and he asks, “Is there any man in his sound senses, that would deduce from such facts matter of reproach against the people of that city ?! We answer, perhaps not. But why is it so? Why are not the people there responsible? Simply because such exposures there are held as crimes, not merely in the eye of conscience, but in the eye of law. The senator having thrown up this little cloud of dust, makes good his retreat from the point, by saying, “I believe that the judicial records of this country will show that the number of crimes, especially those of deepest atrocity, committed in the non-slaveholding States, is much greater than those committed in the slaveholding States.” Pray, Mr. Leigh, do the slaves in your part of the country ever steal ? do they commit adultery ? are they ever found guilty of assault and battery upon each other? and is there any “judicial record” showing how often slaves are convicted of such crimes? Nay, if a slave should perpetrate a rape upon the body of a slave, would there be any “ judicial record” of the crime? If two gentlemen

have a brawl at a tavern, or a rencontre in the streets, and fight it out fairly and handsomely, with fists, with dirks, or with pistols, is there always some “judicial record” of the transaction? In general, does not the very existence of slavery, by making the master, in numberless instances, judge, jury, and executioner, and by keeping up among the lords of the soil a very peculiar sort of public sentiment, tend to diminish the number of “judicial records," rather than the number of crimes actually committed ?

66 Can the slaveholder use the word amalgamation without a blush ?” To this question Mr. Leigh replies, “ It is absolutely wonderful how little amalgamation has taken place in the course of two centuries.” Wonderful it is to us, considering all the circumstances of the case ; and yet we think, that if any man shall venture upon reading Dr. Channing's pungent question in the senate, when Col. Johnson shall have attained to the presidency of that body, there will be some expectation of a blush in certain quarters. But what is the great shame charged upon Col. Johnson by his political opponents at the south? Is it simply that he has a family of colored children? Or is it rather, that instead of treating his daughters as if they were cattle, he treats them with something of a father's affection, and even attempts to force them upon society, by taking them with him to places of public resort, and by marrying them to white men ? We might name the governor of one of the proudest States of the Union, who permitted his daughter to be sold and transported from her native city to the painful and hope

106 PRESENT STATE OF THE SLAVERY QUESTION.

less servitude of a plantation in Louisiana, when he might easily have saved her, and it was proposed to him to save her. Yet so little ignominy attaches to him on that account, that we presume not one in ten thousand of those who admire his greatness, can guess the name of the statesman and patriot who permitted his daughter to be sold into exile and slavery, when one word of his lips would have saved her. The African prince who should do the selfsame thing on the banks of the Congo, would forfeit his character:

* But Brutus is an honorable man,
So are they all, all honorable men.'

SLAVERY IN MARYLAND.*

[QUARTERLY CHRISTIAN SPECTATOR, 1836.]

The author of this book was formerly, for several years, Professor of Languages in the University of North Carolina. Of course he has some qualifications for writing on slavery, which do not belong to every man who undertakes to treat on that subject. This book, however, contains the results, not so much of his former acquaintance with slavery, as of 'a tour performed by him last summer, with a view to inquiries, in Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia. It seems to have been written with unusual candor. The author does not appear to have commenced his inquiries with a predetermination as to the conclusions at which he should arrive. We do not remember to have read anything of the kind which seemed so entirely worthy of unqualified confidence.

The observations and inquiries which Mr. Andrews had the opportunity of making, in a tour of three weeks, were necessarily limited ; and any deductions from them are, of course, liable to be modi

* SLAVERY AND THE DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE IN THE UNITED STATES. In a series of letters addressed to the Executive Committee of the American Union for the relief and improvement of the colored race. By Prof. E. A. ANDREWS. Boston, 1836.

fied by the results of more extended investigation. Yet there are some things in slavery, and in the condition of the colored population, which appear to a discerning observer at the first sight; and from which conclusions may be drawn which no subsequent investigation can set aside.

What is southern slavery in theory ? This question can be answered, without going to the south at all. It can be accurately or fairly answered, only out of the statute-books of the States in which slavery exists. What is southern slavery in actual operation ?-is quite another question. Putting our knowledge of the theory of slavery side by side with our knowledge of human nature, we may infer what this system will be in its actual operation. But this is only inference; and though no man who knows anything of human nature, can fail to acquire in this way some correct knowledge of the working of the system-every rational inquirer must feel that there may be—in the state of society, in the vital energy of the Christianity diffused, more or less extensively, through the community, in the

the power of public opinion uttered from all parts of the world ; nay, even in the working of enlightened selfishness -counteracting and modifying influences not easily estimated. He must feel, too, that there may be, in the burning sun and enervating air of an almost Oriental climate, and in the excitement of commercial speculation, influences that even aggravate the natural operation of a system which, in theory, shocks all his sensibilities. The rational inquirer, then, cannot but presume, that the actual working of the system of slavery can only be completely and truly

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