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had given him no power to confer such a blessing upon them. What, then, was he to do? He had deliberated in his thoughts on the plan of removing them to some northern State, or to Africa, that there they might be free. But, while he felt that in that way he could soon rid himself of a painful care and burthen, and while he knew that the sale of his lands without the slaves would enable him to live in easy circumstances at the north; he was not convinced that the welfare of the slaves, or the welfare of the country, would be promoted on the whole, by such an arrangement. His conscientious conclusion was that the law of loveduty to those slaves-duty to his neighbors and their slaves-duty to his native State and to his country at large-required him to accept the trust which in the providence of God had been devolved upon him, and to fulfill that trust to the best of his ability. Accordingly he remains a slaveholder to this day.

I have been upon that man's plantation, and have had various means and opportunities of becoming acquainted with the system on which he is acting, and with his views in pursuing that system. It might not be right for me, without his consent, to attempt a description of the system in its details ; and indeed my memory, unaided by any written document, might not be sufficiently exact for that purpose. A mere outline of the principles by which he is guided in performing what he regards as his duty will be sufficient. The idea which lies at the basis of his conduct in respect to his slaves, is not the idea that they are his chattels, and that he may use them as a northern farmer uses his oxen, for his

own ends without any regard for their welfare ; it is the contrary idea that they are his fellow-men, dependent on him for all that protection and control which a good government ought to exert over subjects so weak and helpless as they are. If the State would have permitted him to pay them wages for their work, and then to require them to provide their own supplies, I have no doubt he would have done so long ago. But not being able to do what he would he did the best that he conld. Each family on his plantation has its house, with a certain amount of suitable furniture; its little plot of ground to be cultivated by the members of the family for their own pleasure or profit; its regular supplies of provisions, according to the number of the family; its new suits of clothing, at stated intervals, for man, woman and child ; and its medicines and medical aid in sickness. In lieu of all that the free operative would pay for these accommodations out of his wages; and in lieu of all militia service, and all town, county and State taxes, each slave--for to them the master stands in the place not only of landlord and employer, but of town, county and State government-performs a certain daily task amounting to something more than half a day's labor. The remainder of the day they employ at their own discretion in their gardens or their houses, or in a field which the men are permitted and encouraged to cultivate in common on the plan of a joint stock company. The products of all this portion of their labor are their own-their peculium ; and when they have anything to sell of their own raising, they have their choice to sell it to their master, if he wants it, or to send it to a neigh

boring market town. Their money, thus acquired, they expend for what they value as luxuries or comforts, or they hoard it for some future use they know not what. Their master told me that if in any emergency he should want to borrow a thousand dollars, and should be sure of being able to repay it speedily, he had no doubt he could raise that amount upon his personal credit among his slaves.

All the arrangements which I have mentioned were made, not in mere good nature towards the slaves, nor simply as the most economical system of management, but as part of a system of measures and influences for their improvement. There was much pains-taking by their master and by the ladies of the family, to inspire the people with the tastes and wants of civilization. There was a school for the children, where they had been taught to read, till some alarm in the country had compelled the teachers to confine themselves to other methods of instruction. Every evening, at a stated hour, the people of the little village were assembled in a room which served as chapel, where their master read the Scriptures to them and led them in worship. Once every week, besides the Sabbath services in which the whites and blacks of several plantations were united, the pastor of the church in the neighborhood preached to my friend's people in a style suited to their capacity ; and they were even then beginning to like his preaching better than the noisy rant they had been used to, because it was instructive, or because in their phrase, they could get hold of it better. Their labor was stimulated, as I have shown, not by the slavish incitement of fear, but by the manlike im

pulses of hope and gain. The obedience required of them was felt to be obedience to salutary laws rather than to despotic will. Punishment, of whatever kind or degree, was inflicted, not as the master's wrath because his interests were neglected, but as the execution of law against what the conscience recognized as crime. Nor were crimes punished without the formality of a trial. And to develop and strengthen the sentiment of justice among the slaves some rudiments of trial by jury had been introduced into the administration of government over them.

Enough has been said, perhaps, for my purpose, but I want the whole case fairly stated. It is to be acknowledged, then, that the people on my friend's plantation do not consider themselves free; they are not free, they are slaves. The discipline on his plantation is not lax, but strict; his people are in every respect orderly, and are obliged to be so. It is to be acknowledged, also, that he makes money out of the labor of his slaves—more than most masters make on the same soil, who treat their slaves like cattle—though much less, I doubt not, than the China merchants of New York make out of the labor of their seamen, and less than the manufacturers on the Naugatuc make out of the labor of their well-paid operatives, and less than he might make if he should sell them all, and invest the proceeds in stock of the proposed railway between New York and New Haven. If it be asked whether he communes with his servants at the Lord's table, I am compelled to confess that he does not, for the reason that he is a Presbyterian, and they being Baptists, will not admit him to communion.

Here, then, is a slaveholder-a voluntary slaveholder--one, who in the exercise of his free agency, accepts and sustains “the relation of master to those whom the law makes slaves;” and the question is, Shall he be cut off from the church simply because he stands in this relation ?

It may be argued that this man's policy is altogether mistaken—that by the kindness and justice of his administration, as a master, he is doing nothing for the anti-slavery cause, but is enabling such men as I am to 'apologize for slavery '—that if he would embrace the doctrine of immediate emancipation, and make his slaves free by a formal act at all hazards, or if he would remove them to the north or west, and make them free in a land of strangers, he would do much more good than he is now doingthat if he were to treat his slaves with the utmost cruelty, starving them into skeletons, scourging them to laceration, washing their stripes with aqua-fortis, hunting them out of their refuges with bloodhounds, he would be actually doing more than he is now doing to hasten the downfall of the system. I will not go into that argument, for it is not at all to the purpose. Admitting that the man errs in judgment, you cannot prove that he errs guiltily. Whether he is wise or unwise, he is, beyond dispute a believer in Christ; he takes the Holy Scriptures for his rule of faith and practice; the law of love is written on his heart by the spirit of God: whatsoever he would that men should do to him, he is doing even so to them. He has found these black neighbors who long ago, on the highways of this wicked and plundering world, had fallen among thieves, and had suf

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